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Discussion

Describe about the Essay for Public Administration in Global Literacy.

The following essay evaluates the role of public administration towards global literacy. Public administration serves as the essential link that connects both the government and its citizens, thereby, affecting literacy levels across the globe. In the last decade, its scope and practices can be classified into four categories namely- traditional public administration, public management and governance. According to Henry (2015), public administration is a democratic institution that must be developed based on principles like honesty, transparency that operates under the jurisdiction of the parliament. Public administration aims at improved governance and positive changes in the region. However, such policies differ from places to places. It has a much wider scope that encompasses the concepts of public policy, and civil services are covered sequentially.  Hence, public administration covers a wide range of topics. Global literacy can be defined as the mastery of a specific skill, or having certain technical and professional sector that is useful to the community, society and the global world at large. Thus, it can be said that public administration facilitates global literacy levels in across the world. A public administrator serves the interest of the society, by proving necessary support to the local governing body, to overcome daily operational issues.

Public Administration and global literacy levels

With the society, becoming increasingly complex, urban and globalized greater emphasis must be placed on development of democratic values and principles. Holzer & Schwester (2015) stated that these attributes are necessary for the development of democracy and global literacy. As such, according to the emerging trends in the global literacy strategies, a responsible citizen holding the designation of a public servant could be known as a public administrator.  As such, this philosophical and ethical view is relevant in the current context of public policy and administration that encourages the common public to actively participate in decision-making and collaboration functions (Mutisya & Rotich, 2014). A public administrator facilitates consolidation of democratic principles and human values amidst the rapid changes in the societal attributes. It is expected that these would assist, to bring about a global changes in terms of economic, social, political and technological advancements. Thus, efficient public administration would transform global literacy levels in the youth from having mere technical expertise, to having leadership qualities and management competencies (Witesman & Walters, 2014). To retain global literacy levels in the world, public administration policies needs to be continuously deliver and meet expectations set at the outset.  Issues relating to public administration local governance   and active public participation in political and social events are tackled with the help of well-defined public administration policies. For development of the global literacy levels, the functioning of the local government body and public administers remain important .Lohmann (2015) mentioned that engineering education undertook a gradual transformation in the year 2000. ABET- organization responsible for proving accreditation to the disciplines of applied science, engineering, computing and technology revised its accreditation criteria. This related to evaluating engineering and technology solutions currently offered to the global market. In this manner, public administration lead to greater awareness and enhanced the growth of science education in the US. 

Public Administration and global literacy levels

Kettl (2015) stated that public administration enables to bring about systematic changes at all levels in a society. As such below mentioned are the general functions of public administration towards global literacy. 

Evaluate global issues in the context of political, economic, socio- cultural, historical, education and environment. Public administrators can do a detailed analysis of global systems- characteristics, components, social dynamics, evaluations and its necessary implications. This would enable public administrators to adapt to the necessary course of action.

Understanding traditional technological and business establishments that still occupy a relevant position in the global business world, thereby, learning improved ways if technological innovations. The United States has been a major innovator of advanced technology mechanisms

Public administrators analyze diverse cultural perspectives before implementing necessary public administration measures. The U S consists of a culturally diverse population and thus adopting public administration policies would improve the quality of life in every aspect.

Public administrators bring in newer viewpoints in place of traditional methods of working especially in the economic and technological sectors, to enhance growth and progress of the society.

Public administrators study existing global events and their implications across different countries. Frederickson and Rohr (2015) stated that it is essential that public administrators stay up-dated with the latest trends in the public administration and global literacy sectors to bring in innovative policies.

In the existing age, administrative operations have undertaken a drastic change across the world. This has altered public administration focus from the art of governance to the art of management.  Due to this, the role of citizens in decisions- making functions and accountability have transformed into mere customers. Efficiency, market competitiveness and profitability have become the sole objectives of private and government institutions (Denhardt et al. 2013). Thus, these attributes have replaced the ethical and moral values of democracy, which have led to societal degradation. 

Box (2015) stated that democratic nations face a challenge between maintaining a steady balanced between economic progress and preserving of moral and ethical values.   Public administrations have a huge part in assisting governments and society to tackle issues that hampers the growth of individual, communities and citizens.  Thus, the authorities concerned in implementing public administration policies domestically as well globally must consider characteristic like empathy, compassion, benevolence, selflessness and justice.

Different Non- government organizations (NGOs) spread in various organizations strives hard to bring maintain the ethics and values in different sections of the society.  Bryson et al. (2014) mentioned that in a such a society  where  business  sustainability  and profitability  is the main objective, Grassroots organization  (GRO )  and grassroots support organization (GSRO )  implements required public administration policies to assist the government  in  its policies. These organizations help to form linkages with different Global social change organizations (GSCO), to adopt public administration policies (Henry, 2015). This is a relatively new concept, and is followed in the developing nations of the world. These organizations form the Organizational dimensions of global change. 

Public Administration functions that improve global literacy levels

Rapid changes in very part of the society, is an alarming trend in the current times.  As such, it becomes necessary to overcome daily complexities that might arise in such a situation. Thus, a situation can be controlled by rational, disciplined, objectivity defined   measures. In such a situation, public administration plays a part, where the top officials in the organization operating in the global level, develop the purposeful mission and objectives. Carpenter & Krause (2012) mentioned that such measures remain essential to the core principles of virtues and morality followed in the society.  

Responsibility- Public administrator shall be responsible and accountable to provide proper data and information to the management. In addition, a public administrator must support the process of governance in overcoming local and general domestic issues of the city council. As such, organizing events like public hearings, deliberation, discussion, training to foster a culture of unity and growth among the common public (Aucoin, 2012).

Roles -    In the case of city governments, who are making governance policies to become more accessible to  the  common public , public  administration policies assist to make it successful  Thus, public officials role  of a  facilitator   and an alliance builder  build flexible relationship  and coordination among different working bodies. As such, public administrator plays a part in developing national and international literacy

These responsibilities of a public officer are subjected to certain determinants in the work place. These include- efficiency, representation, social equality and individual rights (Witesman, & Walters, 2014). An efficiency consists of efficient use of resources, and taking professionalism and rational steps in the use of resources.  This includes the usage of customer plans, consulting reports that help in building public policy. The concept of representation states that elected officials represent the citizen in the absence of a direct democracy. In public administration, social equality relates to the theory that every citizen is treated equally and there are no second-class citizens. As such, every citizen shall be treated provided the same services, irrespective of the background. Milward (2014) mentioned that effective public administration relates to cooperation and coordination at every level of society. This includes coordination between lower levels of public administration, private bodies, domestic and international organization of civil society through a democratic, participative and transparent process.

Conclusion  

It can be stated that quality of global literacy levels is interconnected with delivery of public administration policies in the US. As such, it is essential to work within the framework of   morality and values to maintain a balance between progress and preservation of human values to enhance growth of culture, economic and technological aspects. A public administrator has a variety of role and functions to perform to ensure the uplifment of global literacy levels in the society.   These include providing support and information to the local governing body, and organizing meetings and discussions to raise awareness about various sections in the society.  As such, it can be said that the success of a public administrator is inherently related with the development of literacy levels both nationally and globally.

References

Henry, N. (2015). Public administration and public affairs. Routledge.

Holzer, M., & Schwester, R. W. (2015). Public administration: An introduction. Routledge.

Mutisya, P. M., & Rotich, J. P. (2014). Global Literacy Skills and Collaborative Strategies for Enhancing Professional Development for Teachers and Educators. Promoting Global Literacy Skills through Technology-Infused Teaching and Learning, 205.

Lohmann, S. (2015). Threshold Concepts, Information Literacy, and Public Services Practice. Public Services Quarterly, 11(3), 201-207.

Kettl, D.F., 2015. The transformation of governance: Public administration for the twenty-first century. JHU Press.

Frederickson, H.G. and Rohr, J.A., 2015. Ethics and public administration. Routledge.

Denhardt, R., Denhardt, J. and Blanc, T., 2013. Public administration: An action orientation. Cengage Learning.

Box, R. C. (2015). Democracy and public administration. Routledge.

Bryson, J. M., Crosby, B. C., & Bloomberg, L. (2014). Public value governance: Moving beyond traditional public administration and the new public management. Public Administration Review, 74(4), 445-456.

Carpenter, D. P., & Krause, G. A. (2012). Reputation and public administration. Public Administration Review, 72(1), 26-32.

Milward, H. B. (2014). The increasingly hollow state: challenges and dilemmas for public administration. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration, 36(1), 70-79.

Aucoin, P. (2012). New political governance in Westminster systems: Impartial public administration and management performance at risk.Governance, 25(2), 177-199.

Witesman, E., & Walters, L. (2014). Public service values: A new approach to the study of motivation in the public sphere. Public administration, 92(2), 375-405.

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