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Qualitative Inquiry And Research Design Add in library

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Discuss ethnography analysis, ethnography and sociology, big and little ethnography and critiques of ethnography?




Qualitative research is the technique of searching procedure that implements disciplines in different academy mostly in the social science but it also implements in the non-profit business sector for the market research includes research and various services (Bailey, 2014). Qualitative research is use to research and develop the products and services of the organisation and helps to achieve the organisation goals. Qualitative research as many approaches to implements in the organisation to make profit (Boblin, Ireland, Kirkpatrick & Robertson, 2013). Ethnography is one of the qualitative approaches that implement in the organisation. Ethnography is the technique of the qualitative research that uses various methods to collect the data. Ethnography is also a study of the people and their culture. Ethnography is designed to explore the society culture where the researcher observes. The methods are use to research the people’s social understanding and the activity and involvement in the social culture and the social familiar setting (Longhofer, Floersch & Hoy, 2013).

Ethnography Analysis:

Ethnography is the understanding of the interaction with society, their behaviour, and understanding perception that happen in the research group, in the organisation, and the communities (Lenette & Boddy, 2013). The aim of the ethnography technique is to deliver high quality, and holistic view inside the people minds as well as the view or the location of the researcher inhabits through the various collection of the data like interview or the observations (Jackson & Sherriff, 2013). The task of the ethnography is to review the culture with their perspective and practices into the document. Ethnography research includes the various services of the organisation that concludes the various studies and maintains the track of the order in between the managers, workers, staff etc (Hammersley, 2013). The development of the ethnography helps to increase the efficiency of the organisation. Newly development of various strategy or methods includes automatic ethnography helps the researcher to implements their own thoughts and include various perspectives from the interaction with the society people (Fortune, Reid & Miller, 2013). Another strategy of the new development strategy is meta ethnography that helps the researcher to do qualitative research as well as analysed and synthesised the topic to create a new knowledge. The new meta ethnography includes the interaction with face to face process or the technical mediated interaction etc (De Melo Resende, 2012). Ethnography gathers all the observation that is made by the researcher with engagement as well as the involvement with the environment where the researchers are studying (Creswell & Creswell, 2013). In the complexity of the social life, the analyzer needs to analyze the variety of elements in their respective field. At the time of the research, the ethnographers use to setup conversational or the informal interview sections that allow the researcher to discuss the various emerging topic and issues in naturalistic manner (Conte & Padgett, 2004). The interview technique or the method is very useful for the researcher to get comments from the individuals. Ethnography also uses to include formal interview and data documentation. The situation and the participation of the participants are observed on the purposive basis (Boblin, Ireland, Kirkpatrick & Robertson, 2013). The analysis of the ethnographer researcher data are taken as the thematic manner. All the data are properly examine and categorise to identify the various key issues that expressed from the data (Conte & Padgett, 2004). The data are analysed carefully and analytically  sing inductive process. Reflexivity is the main technique or the main method of the ethnography process. Reflexivity gives the relationship with the researcher to share the various ethical issues with the participants that shows the close relationship with the various issues (Fortune, Reid & Miller, 2013). In this assignment, the analyzer analyzes that the reflexivity give the researcher a description and experience of the ethnographic ideas. The analyzer can judge the various impacts from the reflexivity. Ethnographers always provide a deep description of the research that the researcher observed which is typically based on the key information of strict observation and the interviews (Foster, 2012). The direct interaction with the different ethnographers provides detachment rather than involvement of the observed topic. The multifaceted observation of the social activity is difficult task. The temporal, behavioural and special task system element should document in the researcher paper (Gornall, 2013).


Ethnography and Sociology:

The social science or the sociology identified as unique in the various academy as per their disciplines (Hammersley, 2013). The sociology includes various social sciences, which has the basic interest in the matter of subject in most of the general people. The various social academies has their different interest in the different social aspects like education system, family, the state, the organization, the community, the religion, from the law and order, the form of fabric life style of the general social people and society member who are lay of society (Jackson & Sherriff, 2013). The tremendous advantage of the ethnography over sociology begins with the various matter of subject, which is very interesting to the social people. The negative impact of the sociology over the ethnography is sometimes the social person competes with the various ordinary view of common sense (Lenette & Boddy, 2013). People of the society develop their knowledge by which the people understand the whole world, make different judgement and decisions and provide guidance and proper behaviour. Lay or the common sense endures two different qualities (Beck, 2013). Common people always use to share their knowledge over the social communities. Because institutes of the social science always form a fabric life style for the general people of the society.  The social science is not properly able to demark the whole matter of the subject to feel the people uninformed and ignorant (Boblin, Ireland, Kirkpatrick & Robertson, 2013). Sociology and the ethnography is very much inter related with the society people objective. Ethnography is the research method that observed the society people and to research the qualitative system of life style.

Big and Little Ethnography:

Ethnography is use to qualitative research of the ethnographic approaches, which avoids the survey process to collect the data (Conte & Padgett, 2004). Big ethnography is representing the proper view the research that is perspectives as per ethnography. Little ethnography determines the fieldwork or the field research (De Melo Resende, 2012). In the field research or the field work, the ethnography would follow one of the particular way for the qualitative research on the society. Field research always identifies the real life research that helps the researcher to observe the society people in which these people lives or participate their day to day activity.

Critiques of Ethnography:

As per the various ethnographical approaches over the social science, the critiques of the ethnography are characterised in two types: The natural critique science determines from the social research of the natural science that measure the proper social sciences (Fortune, Reid & Miller, 2013). The modern post critique comes from the various portion of the humanistic model of the social research. The ethnographers use to reflect their motivation or the objectives over the post modernist theories. The less or the low version of extreme critiques of the post modern approach  is derived in the form of realism (Foster, 2012) The critical issues use to prevent the ethnographical process or the methods to implement on the society people.


Ethnography is the very important approaches for the qualitative research. The researcher has analyzes the various aspects and impact of the ethnographical method. The researcher has followed various journals and books to identify the proper relation and the ethnographic approach from the observed society people. The various ethnographical issues are critically identified and the various ways is detected. Ethnography never left in the post modern state of the complete scepticism with relativism. The researcher analyzes the whole process of ethnography and prevents to access the post modern critiques worth portion to accept valid critiques and realistic approach. The quality research is possible in the qualitative research format. The researcher has given a brief idea about ethnography and it is strongly defence the various critiques over the society people. The realistic ethnographers survived among the various researchers who does observed the post modern part of the critique and hold the value of the human and interpretative approach to study and observe the natural people. The researcher also analyzes the methodological base of the critics realism that assert the reality and the social objectivity of the structure material. The material objectives could be possible to hide accurately to discover the ethnography. The good ethnography is work on the reproduction of the class, which address the objective of ethnographical class system and impose the ethnography. The researcher has rescue the ethnography as per the excess of post modernisation to incorporate of its criticise realism. The robust portion of the ethnographic representation is native realism, which is relevant to use the alternative function to access the ethnographic data under the validity attack and reliability attack. The researcher has analyzes the defender of the ethnography that is critics.


Reference List:

Bailey, L. (2014). The origin and success of qualitative research. International Journal Of Market Research, 56(2), 167.

Beck, C. (2013). Routledge international handbook of qualitative nursing research. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bhatti, G. (2013). Book Review: Sam Hillyard (ed.), New Frontiers in Ethnography. Qualitative Research, 13(1), 120-123.

Boblin, S., Ireland, S., Kirkpatrick, H., & Robertson, K. (2013). Using Stake's Qualitative Case Study Approach to Explore Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice. Qualitative Health Research, 23(9), 1267-1275.

Conte, S., & Padgett, D. (2004). Speaking for themselves: A qualitative study of young women who self-injure.

Creswell, J., & Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

De Melo Resende, V. (2012). Critical discourse analysis and ethnography: the crisis in the national street children's movement in Brazil. Qualitative Research, 13(5), 511-527.

Fortune, A., Reid, W., & Miller, R. (2013). Qualitative research in social work. New York: Columbia University Press.

Foster, V. (2012). Pantomime and politics: the story of a performance ethnography. Qualitative Research, 13(1), 36-52.

Gornall, L. (2013). Joseph A Maxwell, A Realist Approach for Qualitative Research. Qualitative Research, 13(4), 453-454.

Hammersley, M. (2013). What is qualitative research?. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Jackson, C., & Sherriff, N. (2013). A Qualitative Approach to Intergroup Relations: Exploring the Applicability of the Social Identity Approach to “Messyâ€Â School Contexts. Qualitative Research In Psychology, 10(3), 259-273.

Jones, C., Cohn, S., & Ogilvie, D. (2013). Making Sense of a New Transport System: An Ethnographic Study of the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway. Plos ONE, 8(7), e69254.

Lenette, C., & Boddy, J. (2013). Visual ethnography and refugee women: nuanced understandings of lived experiences. Qualitative Research Journal, 13(1), 72-89.

Longhofer, J., Floersch, J., & Hoy, J. (2013). Qualitative methods for practice research. New York: Oxford University Press.

Masny, D. (2013). Rhizoanalytic Pathways in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 19(5), 339-348.

Ryan, J. (2013). Book Review: Karin Olson, Essentials of Qualitative Interviewing. Qualitative Research, 13(2), 254-255.

Vannini, P. (2013). Popularizing ethnography: reflections on writing for popular audiences in magazines and blogs. Qualitative Research, 13(4), 442-451.


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