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Methodologies Used in the Study

Discuss about the Report on Psychology for Social Dominance Orientation Scale.

Scholars and philosophers analyzing the abilities of individuals in interpreting emotional content, engaging in rational reflections and measuring societal individual differences in the hierarchy have stood the test of time. Barchard developed the metaphors test which uses the five point Likert scale to help in the measuring of the ability of an individual to interpret sensitive contents (Hintikka, 2013). However, this idea was not understood by the public until Frederick proposed the cognitive reflection test that assesses the various degrees of engagement of individuals in the completion of skills. Furthermore, the social dominance orientation scale as explained by Henkel and Stewart allows for the measuring of differences in the hierarchy of people in the society. Currently, these abilities prove essential in job situations because of the weight positioned on an individual’s sentimental and cognitive possession (Frederick, 2005).

The people who participated in this learning research were 268 first year students pursuing psychology, and the numerical values were 182 and 86 females and males respectively.

Emotional intelligence influences how people reach to the conclusion of judgments on an individual level to realize outcomes that are constructive through utilizing distinct human behaviors (Curtis, Ochoa, Ladrazo & Barchard) .Therefore, the cognitive reflection test concept assesses reasoning abilities which are specific in nature, and require an individual to choose a deliberate and reflective answer over a wrong one. Additionally, it involves three items on brainteasers and the use of a format of the free response, with measures in time and risk preferences domain and has been used in the below example.

For example, in the CRT test carried out on the first year psychology class, the following was determinable.

Question;

If the total cost of a ball and a bat is 1.10 dollars, and the ball is 1 dollar more than the ball, what is the price of the ball?

Solution;

Assuming that the price of the ball is X, and it costs one dollar more, its new value will be presented with the equation (X + 1)

Therefore, the price of the bat and ball is expressed in the following equation; bat + ball = X + (X + 1) = 1.1.This is because the bat and ball are both pricing 1.10 dollars which mean that (2X + 1 = 1.1).

Equivalently, 2X = 0.1 and therefore X = 0.05, meaning that ball costs 5 cents and the bat prices at 1.05 dollars each.

Participants

Inherently, the study was based on the approach that if a participant answered a question correctly, the score they are awarded is three and zero for wrong answers. This is to say that two right answers attract a score of two and one right one is awarded a score of one.

Barchard and Hensley put forward the metaphors test which is used in the measurement of an individual's ability to relate emotional content from communication that is written. It consists of ten metaphors and applies the five-point Likert scale that assisted the participants to indicate the degree to which every metaphor raised each emotion (Li, 2013).

The Likert scale refers to a one-dimensional and orderly scheme where respondents have the option of choosing the best answer that is in line with their view. All the choices have labels and in scoring and award of marks, the numbers are assigned to every option from 1 to 5 which are usually the most common ones.

An example of a Likert scale on the response of participants on how the metaphor stated evoked memories through refreshing, guilt and upset.

Agree strongly

Relatively agree

Neutral

Disagree relatively

Disagree strongly

Does the metaphor morning be a sheet of clean paper evoke memories of upset, refresh or guilt?

(      )

(     )

(     )

(      )

(       )

The selection of questions is based on mathematical processes which include summing the scores for all items and calculating the connections between the items mentioned. For each item, the t-value is calculated for both the bottom and top quarters of the judges, leading to the rejection of those with lower values. This is because the higher the value of the question, the greater the extent of discrimination of the question and the lower the values, the minimal discrimination practices on the question.

Social dominance orientation is used in the prediction of group vs. group behaviors and conflicts and it consists of two groups SDO dominance and SDO egalitarianism (Hindriks, Verkuyten & Coenders, 2014). The structure of social dominance orientation scale used in the study of the participants is presented in the table below; 

SDO-Dominance (SDO-D)                                                                                  SDO-Egalitarianism(SDO-E)

Portrait SDO-D:                                                                             Portrait SDO-E:

 1. Everybody benefits if their group is at the top                    1. Group equality should not be pushed for

2. The idea that some groups are sharing quality top and        2. It is not proper guaranteeing equality in all aspects to  groups

Bottom is a good one.                                                 

3. For an ideal society, some groups have to be at the bottom 3. There is injustice in ensuring equity in all groups

And others at the top (Todosijevi?,2016).   

4. Some groups are always superior to others.                           4.  Equality of groups should not be a priority.

5. Groups are always deserving regardless of their hierarchy    5. There is need for giving all groups a chance to succeed

6. There should be no domination by anyone in the society.      6. There is need for equalization of conditions for various groups

7. There should be an improvement for groups at the bottom.    7. All groups need to have the same life chances                                                      8.  The principle of dominance in groups is a poor one.             8. Equality in groups is the ideal situation                                                                         

The questionnaires were completed by the participants through the SurveyMonley on a PC in the tutorial classroom of students.

The results of the study are summarized in the table below;

       1

2

3

1.      SDO

       _

2.      Metaphors Test

     -.22*

   _

3.      CRT

      -.18*

  .06

   _

* Significant at p < .05, ** significant at p < .01  

This means that for metaphors test, answers aligned according to opinions and are assigned to options 1 to 5 and for CRT, two right answers attract a score of two and one right one is awarded a score of one.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the metaphors, social dominance orientation scale and the cognitive reflection tests are indispensable in carrying out the studies on the ability of persons to handle and apply real life situations.

References

Barchard, K. A., Hensley, S., Anderson, E. D., & Walker, H. E. (2013). Measuring the ability to perceive the emotional connotations of written language. Journal of personality assessment, 95(4), 332-342.

Frederick, S. (2005). Cognitive reflection and decision making. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(4), 25-42.

Herreid, C. F., Schiller, N. A., Herreid, K. F., & Wright, C. B. (2014). A chat with the survey monkey: case studies and the flipped classroom. Journal of College Science Teaching, 44(1), 75-80.

Hindriks, P., Verkuyten, M., & Coenders, M. (2014). Dimensions of social dominance orientation: The roles of legitimizing myths and national identification. European Journal of Personality, 28(6), 538-549.

Hintikka, J. (Ed.). (2013). Aspects of metaphor (Vol. 238). Springer Science & Business Media.

Ho, A. K., Sidanius, J., Kteily, N., Sheehy-Skeffington, J., Pratto, F., Henkel, K. ... & Stewart, A. (2015). The nature of social dominance orientation: Introducing the Social Dominance Orientation-7 Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.   

Holmes, T. (2016). The motivation for political attitudes: The relationship between behavioral approach and inhibition systems and political orientation.

Li, Q. (2013). A novel Likert scale based on fuzzy sets theory. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(5), 1609-1618.

Roe, M., Curtis, M. G., Ochoa, E., Ladrazo, L. M., & Barchard, K. A. Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Examining the Discriminant Validity of the Metaphors Test.

Todosijevi?, B. (2016). Tolerance of Diversity and Diversity of Intolerance: Evidence from Serbia. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 1-13.

Cite This Work

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My Assignment Help. (2018). Report On Psychology For Social Dominance Orientation Scale. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/report-on-psychology-social-dominance-orientation-scale.

"Report On Psychology For Social Dominance Orientation Scale." My Assignment Help, 2018, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/report-on-psychology-social-dominance-orientation-scale.

My Assignment Help (2018) Report On Psychology For Social Dominance Orientation Scale [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/report-on-psychology-social-dominance-orientation-scale
[Accessed 22 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Report On Psychology For Social Dominance Orientation Scale' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/report-on-psychology-social-dominance-orientation-scale> accessed 22 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Report On Psychology For Social Dominance Orientation Scale [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 22 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/report-on-psychology-social-dominance-orientation-scale.

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