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Academic writing can be defined as the form of writing that is mainly used by the researchers or the students to talk about their area of specialization (Hyland & Jiang, 2017). Some of the important characteristics of academic writing are that it is always written in a formal tone and in the third person. The style of writing in academic field varies from the style that is written in the field of journalism (Gardner & Davies, 2016). The sentences and the ideas should be linked with each other so that the readers can follow the argument that is presented in the paper. The most striking feature of the academic writing can be seen in the introduction as the introduction bears a description of the topics that will be covered in the rest of the assignment (Bailey, 2014).
The present write-up will talk about the genre of academic writing. It will them discuss the characteristics of academic writing. Critical thinking and analysis is one of the most important parts of academic writing. The write-up will have a discussion of critical writing. Finally, the role of critical thinking will be discussed. critical thinking has a huge role in the development of the academic writing.
Genre can be defined as the action of grouping the texts together and explain the way the writer will use the language to reply to certain situations (Peters, 2008). Some other authors have used the term genre as a method of communicative event. The communicative events have different forms of text types that could be used as the preferred form of vehicle for communication for various writers (Cameron, Nairn & Higgins, 2009).
Before starting the work in academic writing, the writers need to understand the genre in which they want to write (Collin, 2013). Understanding the genre is important as the format of writing will change based on the genre (Lloyd, 2007). To understand the type of academic writing, the genre of writing can be divided as follows:
Based on the genre of the academic writing should choose the format of the writing and the things that they should incorporate in the write-ups (Du Preez & Fossey, 2012).
The genre of academic writing has change due to the advent of the internet. The journals, indexes, guides and databases have changed in style and shape (Raz?, 2016). The authors further states that there should be a string reading list and other knowledge summaries that will help in the developing a strong base before starting the writing (Shihab, 2011). The strong knowledge is important for any kinds of genre of academics writing.
Even if the genre of the academic writing will be different, yet there are some of the common things that should be incorporated in every form of writing (Viebahn & Hilton, 2006). The factors are:
Academic writing has certain characteristics. Some of the characteristics are:
Colloquial language is strictly prohibited in academic writing (Razi, 2016). The normal terms and dialogues that are carried out between the colleagues and friends are nit sued while writing the academic writing (Bailey, 2014). The degree of formality of the use of formal terms is high in the case of academic writing.
Academic writing starts by keeping in mind certain objective (Gardner & Davies, 2016). The use of personal experiences is less in academic writing neither the write-ups are written for fulfilling any personal pleasure. The writer has certain points to prove with the help of experiments or with the help of the past works done in the same field (Hyland & Jiang, 2017). The main emphasis should be given on the information that is given in the write-ups and the arguments that should be given in those write-ups.
The way the people speak is completely different from the way the words are written. The vocabularies used in the written language are more complex and varied than that are used while speaking. The grammar also changes in the case of academic writing (Canagarajah, 2013). The usage of subordinate clauses and passive voices increases when it comes to academic writing. The phrases that are used in written languages are more noun-based while the phrases that are being uses while speaking are more verb-based (Dean, 2015).
Precision is one of the most important characteristics of academic writing (Peters, 2008). People refer to academic writing to get the facts. The facts and figures and the information should be the main concerned should be given in such manner so that the readers do not face any issue in finding those facts (Cameron, Nairn & Higgins, 2009).
As the academic writings are written to give certain information and to investigate on certain facts, accuracy should be maximum for every write-up (Collin, 2013). The data should not be false as many writers can refer to the data in future. Grammar should also be given the priority when it comes to academic writing. The author should have a good idea about the differentiation between phonetics and phonemics while using any word (Lloyd, 2007).
Critical thinking is an important part of academic writing (Du Preez & Fossey, 2012). Whenever a writer is indulging in academic write-up then it should start with critical thinking. A person will be able to carry out academic write-up well only when the person will have the ability to think critically about a subjects (Raz?, 2016). It is hard to teach critical thinking to any person and an individual will find it difficult to learn the idea of critical thinking. However, a person can gain the ability to analyze critically with experience. If any person has any issues with grammar then the person can overcome it by practicing (Shihab, 2011). Developing an idea of one’s own and then supporting the idea with the facts is something that the people find to be difficult. Many writers have failed when it has come to critical thinking (Viebahn & Hilton, 2006). Analysis is something that is not understood by all when they are in the field of academic writing.
An individual can improve critical thinking skills by reading more (Canagarajah, 2013). Once a person will read more, he or she will be able to develop an idea about the things that other authors have said about a certain subjects. While analyzing any issue the idea of those writers can be used to prove an idea of his or her own (Dean, 2015). Just reading the articles and the results would not help in nurturing the skill of critical thinking. The person should read the articles and the past works by keeping a certain goal (Razi, 2016). The person who wants to develop the critical thinking skills should follow the way the authors are arguing on any topic or giving suggestion (Bailey, 2014). The individual can ask some of the small questions to understand the steps that other authors have followed while carrying out the work. The questions can be like:
Effect of critical thinking to develop formal structure
When one individual critically analyses the work of other authors and the way they have presented the articles (Gardner & Davies, 2016). An individual can learn the formal language that previous authors have used in the articles and use the style in their academic writing. the readings will help the writer to use the formal language in a precise manner.
Effect of critical thinking to develop objective perspective
The more critically a person will think while writing academically, the more narrowed down will be the topic (Hyland & Jiang, 2017). Thus, critical thinking will help the writer to form an objective perspective of a work. Academic writing is mainly based on the objectives and the critical thinking will help in drawing the conclusion based on the objectives taken into consideration earlier (Peters, 2008).
After evaluating various elements of academic writing, it can be concluded that a writer needs to follow a certain set of rules for writing academically, which may be different from all other types of writing. It is necessary to keep a check on the genre of writing before indulging in any types of academic writing. The format of writing a report, research, essay and reflective journals are completely different from each other. some of the characteristics of academic writing are Complexity, Formality, Objectivity, Precision and Accuracy. Critical thinking is one of the most important aspects of academic writing. It is hard to teach and learn critical thinking. However, proper readings will help in overcoming the issues. Critical thinking will help in the development of the academic writing by Evaluating and using various sources, Application of concepts and Understanding the arguments.
Bailey, S. (2014). Academic writing: A handbook for international students. Routledge.
Cameron, J., Nairn, K., & Higgins, J. (2009). Demystifying academic writing: Reflections on emotions, know-how and academic identity. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 33(2), 269-284.
Canagarajah, A. S. (2013). Critical academic writing and multilingual students. University of Michigan Press.
Collin, R. (2013). How rhetorical theories of genre address Common Core writing standards. Journal of adolescent & adult literacy, 57(3), 215-222.
Dean, M. J. (2015). Collaborative preparation and critical thinking in academic writing.
Du Preez, I., & Fossey, A. (2012). Developing academic writing skills as part of graduate attributes in undergraduate curricula. South African Journal of Higher Education, 26(2), 346-357.
Gardner, D., & Davies, M. (2016). A response to “To what extent is the Academic Vocabulary List relevant to university student writing?”. English for Specific Purposes, 43, 62-68.
Hyland, K., & Jiang, F. K. (2017). Is academic writing becoming more informal?. English for Specific Purposes, 45, 40-51.
Lloyd, M. (2007). Developing academic writing skills: the PROCESS framework. Nursing Standard, 21(40), 50-56.
Peters, M. A. (2008). Academic writing, genres and philosophy. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 40(7), 819-831.
Raz?, S. (2016). Are Review Skills and Academic Writing Skills Related? An Exploratory Analysis via Multi Source Feedback Tools. International Journal of Progressive Education, 12(1), 117-127.
Razi, S. (2016). Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context. Research-publishing. net.
Shihab, I. A. (2011). Reading as critical thinking. Asian Social Science, 7(8), 209.
Viebahn, P., & Hilton, G. (2006). Education the way ahead? An evaluation of a pilot course on scenario writing. European journal of teacher education, 29(2), 127-144.
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