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Three Major Approaches to International Relations

Discuss about the Revisiting the Clash of Civilizations.

Three major approaches to international relation are namely Realism, Idealism/Liberalism and Radicalism.

Realism assumes that States perform the role of the ultimate actor as States are the key component of the analysis[1]. According to them, a non-state actor is of the secondary importance likely the multinational corporation. The second assumption relies on the behavior that the state is viewed as a unitary actor. Another assumption is that state is considered as an integrated actor. A state also performs as a rational actor; that means that their objectives are goal-centric and is consistent over the time[2]. Anarchy or the context of action is another assumption that realists believe which refers the ability of the state to survive on its own in the absence of a centralized authority[3]. The main actor of this perspective is the Niccolo Machiavelli.

Concerning the idealism the key assumptions are the kind and generous nature of human that they are capable of through ethically inspired education. The immoral behavior of individual does not because of their flaws but due to the evil institutions[4]. The unavoidable adverse circumstances like the Wars can be resolved by strengthening the institutional arrangements[5]. Hans Morgenthau plays the role of the international actor for international The principal actor in the international system for radicalism is Karl Mark hence this theory also known as Marxism. The radicalism that assumes that labor control and the market exchanges can be controlled by the private interest of the individuals[6].

Dependency theory states that developed countries penetrate developing states to distinguish their power through multinational corporations, political advisors and others. World-system perspective enlightens that the nation states are the only entity of analysis[7]. It also assumes that for the development of all countries only a single path of evolutionary is considered. Another assumption is they disregard the concept of local and national development.

The cold war was an ideological and an economic struggle among the two superpower countries that are the United Stets of America (USA) and the USSR that survives till the Second World War[8]. In the post-cold war, the Realism approach plays a major role in the international relation. As according to the realism, the state performs to be the ultimate actor and is responsible for its betterment and furtherance, the rivalry States must have the capability to resolve their conflicts as well as attain their economic growth. The individual states are responsible for overcoming their state of adversity and formulating their centralized authority[9]. Realists also emphasize on the balance of power in support of the post-cold war by proposing international politics that reflects on the ability to distribute national capability. The realistic theory also supports that the disputes that are created by the adverse circumstance like wars will be resolved in the future. It predicts the outcome of an event; however lack to determine the time of occurrence.

Outline of Assumptions for the International Order and Chief Actors

Long-term stability of the realism defined as in any adverse situation occurred in the state can be resolved unitedly with the help of the government thus satisfy the sayings state is viewed as a unitary actor[10]. Whenever there are circumstances that non-state actors like foreign minister regulated some policies different from the state decision, the state actors try to define those regulations based on their undertaken legislation hence perform as an integrated actor[11]. Considering the fact for the idealism their long-term stability relies on the cooperation between the two countries those who value the trading system by lowering their tariffs.  Selective rules and norms also help to attain the stability by the uncertainty that undermines cooperation. The radicalism supports their long-term stability by the cooperation of the state’s legislation to enhance their power.

Among the European, ASEAN, NAFTA and other approach, experts believe European Model to be the best for the theory of politics in term of the regional integration. Since the historical periods from the year 1950, European model has been the pioneer of the approach for the regional integration[12]. The strong principles of the concerned model are the process of political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration aspect so that the other nations or States also agrees to cooperate to work with European countries to achieve success, peace, wealth and stability[13]. The two examples for supporting this aspect are as follows:

European Union members shared single currencies and abolished the approach of the trading barriers regarding the business for the member territories. This method comprises of the free passage across the country border for the member and applies the identical labor law within the boundary of these member countries. European model always works to resolve the mutual disputes and hence accomplish regional integration by contributing more peaceful interaction with its member[14]. The European model is also proving to be beneficial for its development and for resolving the conflicts during the Cold War. In this situation, even the United States warranties the nurturing role and the industrialized nature of the European economies[15]. Moreover, European model aspires to be an important civilian power and aims to promote their experience of regional integration in other states as well as that they can also support them to together works for the enhancement of the international relation[16].

Another aspect regarding the efficiency of the European model is their nature of peace, prosperity and security. As a consequence, they are capable of attracting the member states towards their practical approaches and promoting regional integration that will help the European territories to achieve immense prosperity in the international relation[17]. Proceeding in this way, they can be also able to foresee the future and hence works for the betterment of the undertaken countries. European model possess an excellent record of recovery from crisis and have capability strengthen their political will for attaining a secured position and an effective leadership in regional integration procedure[18]. They also genuinely invest in achieving their goal of the integration of their member countries and have the aim of overcoming conflict as a vital national interest. European also acts as an exporter of their values and observes in the World Trade Organization[19]. It indicates that European Model is capable of gaining an advantage in bilateral agreements for the developing economies as well as a model to resolve the worldwide negotiations.

Perspective of Long-Term Stability

As per as the balance of power theory their main approach is to predict the rapid changes in their international power and status. It emphasizes on the attempt that is taken by any of the one state to get the better of a particular region to intensify the balancing action[20]. As a consequence, this approach of balancing helps to maintain the stability of states or regions. The significance of this theory is the ability of the state's national security to dominate weaker neighbourhood regions or countries[21]. Exampling the scenario of the United Nation, most of the individual in the nineteenth century considered themselves as Republic or monarchies rather than democracies.

The term for the Balance of Power came into consideration with the power relationship in the European state after the end of the Word War-I. However, the World War-I and its attendant political alignments enhance a procedure that results in the integration of most of the nations and the formation of the balance of power system[22]. This integration occurred in the Britain, Russia, United Nation and France against Austria-Hungary and Germany. Later in the World War-II, the war ended with the formulation of the balance of power in the Western and Central Europe and the United Nations and the Soviet Union. Over the year in 1873, they took initiative for attacking Spain for the Virginius affair and Chile over the matter of Baltimore issue in the year 1892[23]. However, The United Nations argued for the peace as at that time both the Spain and the Chile considered themselves as a republic. The similarity in their perception makes The United Nation to fit in with these states and thus satisfying the insight of interdependencies among the integration of these countries.

United Nation also performs like Actor as global manager and global counsel. The United Nation behaves like the Worlds Government, World Military Force and a Global Economic Manger. On the other hand United Nation acts as a transactional body and resembles to evaluate the global states issues and intends to advise the national government organizations[24]. Experts believe that these two different perspectives help the United Nations enrich their ability to act as a Global Counsel Model over the next century. United Nations Special Commission has played the role of Global Counsel on Iraq by destroying Baghdad’s arms that are intended for the mass destruction. Proceeding in this way the integrated other nation towards them and acts as a leader to protect other states. Enlighten a scenario from historical events in Cambodia, The United Nation serves as a transitional authority accomplished peacekeeping mission by surviving numerous elections, repatriated refugees and by constructing infrastructures for the country's betterment[25]. All these actions of the United Nations from the Ancient era to the present time prove to be beneficial for their acceptance of the global leader and also help them to integrate other states.

Effective Model for the Theory of International Politics regarding Regional Integration

The researcher emphasizes on the two factors that are raised regarding the promotion of the international conflict against the whole nation of globalization.-

One of these phenomenons is the globalization process agrees with the concerned procedures. It is evident that if globalization process can never be reversed or intended to rely on a steady position, the importance of the globalization started losing their values and slowed down[26]. Exampling the scenario, where in the past era, Germans prefers Deutsche Mark to Euro in support of the globalized future. The benefits of globalization in its political terms regarding the struggling circumstances for authorization and liability enhance the worldwide technology to improve the trading procedure regarding the effective communication and consumption[27]. National governments also affirm the economic relations by associating with the significant role player organization like World Bank, World Trade Organization and others. Globalization also plays an important part in identifying the goals and an efficient way of approach for the same that is to understand the diverse culture. It is beneficial not only for the future of the government bodies; however, it is also advantageous to the community, business and human race. In terms of the modern era, the globalization process for accomplishing interaction and integration among community people, companies and diverse nation by the International Trade and ventures in the technological revolution like Information Technology.

Another phenomenon regarding is The Naysayers who perceives or always expresses pessimistic views even though they felt the importance of the globalization procedures. They just deny the positive traits if the globalization and resembles that nothing had altered. The primary reason for this perception is that all the states still exist irrespective of the changes that occur during all these years. Agreeing on the impression of the globalization as all the headquarters of some enterprises still remain in the same territory of the states and their companies belongs to the same state[28]. They hence conflict the globalization process by denying their importance in the present era. However, the globalization process by indicating that this approach lacks sufficient power, authority, and scope to regulate the beneficial ends[29]. As a consequence, this procedure can be considered as disruptive and inequitable. Critics also depict that existing form of globalization is compelled by economic power that promotes the hegemony of the western culture in the livelihood of the individual that puts the employment and the society at risk in the developed countries and it results in the exploitation of the weak individual of underdeveloped territories[30]. The process of globalization also creates a threat to the environment and demoralizes the theories of the communal stability by exposing national political institutions to support the economic change beyond their capability.

International Balance of Power and their Independencies to Shape the Interaction between States

Ayoob, Mohammed. 2012. “Was Huntington Right? Revisiting the Clash of Civilizations.” Insight Turkey 14.4: 1- 11.

Burchill, S, A Linklater, R.J Devetak, J Donnelly, T Nardin, M Paterson, C Reus-Smit, and J True. Theories Of International Relations. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Chatterji, R. "Developments In International Relations: Issues And Controversies". Jadavpur Journal of International Relations 17, no. 1 (2013): 1-39.

Curley, T. M. "Methodological Process Ethics In International Theory". International Relations 28, no. 2 (2014): 228-238.

Daddow, Oliver J. International Relations Theory. London: SAGE, 2013.

Devetak, R., S. Kaempf, and M. Weber. "Conversations In International Relations: Interview With Andrew Linklater". International Relations 27, no. 4 (2013): 481-505.

Dunne, T, M Kurki, and S Smith. International Relations Theories. Oxford University Press, 2013.

Dunne, T., L. Hansen, and C. Wight. "The End Of International Relations Theory?". European Journal of International Relations 19, no. 3 (2013): 405-425.

Farrands, Chris, Imad El-Anis, Roy H Smith, and Lloyd Pettiford. A New A-Z Of International Relations Theory. London: I.B. Tauris, 2015.

Hegghammer, Thomas. 2010/2011. “The Rise of Muslim Foreign Fighters: Islam and the Globalization of Jihad.” International Security 35.3: 53-94.

Ikenberry, G. John. 2011. “The Future of the Liberal World Order: Internationalism After America.” Foreign Affairs Vol 90, May/June: 56-68. 

Jackson, R, and G Sorensen. Jackson, R. And Sørensen, G Introduction To International Relations: Theories And Approaches. Oxford University Press., 2015.

Jones, David Martin and Michael L.R. Smith. 2007. “Making Process, Not progress: ASEAN and the Evolving East Asian Regional Order.” International Security 32.1:148-184.

Kazmi, Zaheer. Polite Anarchy In International Relations Theory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Lebow, R. N. "Karl Deutsch And International Relations". International Relations 28, no. 3 (2014): 288-295.

Lieber, Keir A., and Gerard Alexander. 2005. “Waiting for Balancing: Why the World is Not Pushing Back.” International Security 30.1: 109-139 

Mueller, John. 2009. “War has Almost Ceased to Exist: an Assessment.” Political Science Quarterly 124.2: 297-321

Paul, T. V. International Relations Theory And Regional Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Rengger, N. "On Theology And International Relations: World Politics Beyond The Empty Sky". International Relations 27, no. 2 (2013): 141-157.

Ruzicka, J. "A Transformative Social Scientist: Karl Deutsch And The Discipline Of International Relations". International Relations 28, no. 3 (2014): 277-287.

Steans, Jill. Gender And International Relations. Cambridge: Polity, 2013.

Stullerova, K. "In The Footsteps Of Karl Deutsch: On Nationalism, Self-Determination And International Relations". International Relations 28, no. 3 (2014): 313-332.

Sylvester, C. "Experiencing The End And Afterlives Of International Relations/Theory". European Journal of International Relations 19, no. 3 (2013): 609-626.

Viotti, Paul R, and Mark V Kauppi. International Relations Theory. Boston: Longman, 2012.

Wigen, E. "Two-Level Language Games: International Relations As Inter-Lingual Relations". European Journal of International Relations 21, no. 2 (2014): 427-450.

[1] T Dunne, M Kurki and S Smith, International Relations Theories. Oxford University Press, 2013.

[2] R Jackson and G Sorensen, Jackson, R. And Sørensen, G Introduction To International Relations: Theories And Approaches. Oxford University Press., 2015.

[3] S Burchill et al., Theories Of International Relations. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

[4] R. Chatterji, "Developments In International Relations: Issues And Controversies", Jadavpur Journal of International Relations 17, no. 1 (2013): 1-39

[5] Mueller, John. 2009. “War has Almost Ceased to Exist: an Assessment.” Political Science Quarterly 124.2: 297-321

[6] T. M. Curley, "Methodological Process Ethics In International Theory", International Relations 28, no. 2 (2014): 228-238

[7] Oliver J Daddow, International Relations Theory (London: SAGE, 2013).

[8] R. Devetak, S. Kaempf and M. Weber, "Conversations In International Relations: Interview With Andrew Linklater", International Relations 27, no. 4 (2013): 481-505

[9] T. Dunne, L. Hansen and C. Wight, "The End Of International Relations Theory?", European Journal of International Relations 19, no. 3 (2013): 405-425.

[10] Chris Farrands et al., A New A-Z Of International Relations Theory (London: I.B. Tauris, 2015).

[11] Zaheer Kazmi, Polite Anarchy In International Relations Theory (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

[12] R. N. Lebow, "Karl Deutsch And International Relations", International Relations 28, no. 3 (2014): 288-295

[13] Rosato, Sebastian. 2011. “Europe’s Troubles: Power Politics and the State of the EUROPEAN Project,” International Security 35.4: 45-86.

[14] T. V Paul, International Relations Theory And Regional Transformation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

[15] Hegghammer, Thomas. 2010/2011. “The Rise of Muslim Foreign Fighters: Islam and the Globalization of Jihad.” International Security 35.3: 53-94.

[16] N. Rengger, "On Theology And International Relations: World Politics Beyond The Empty Sky",International Relations 27, no. 2 (2013): 141-157.

[17] J. Ruzicka, "A Transformative Social Scientist: Karl Deutsch And The Discipline Of International Relations", International Relations 28, no. 3 (2014): 277-287.

[18] Jill Steans, Gender And International Relations (Cambridge: Polity, 2013).

[19] Jones, David Martin and Michael L.R. Smith. 2007. “Making Process, Not progress: ASEAN and the Evolving East Asian Regional Order.” International Security 32.1:148-184.

[20] K. Stullerova, "In The Footsteps Of Karl Deutsch: On Nationalism, Self-Determination And International Relations", International Relations 28, no. 3 (2014): 313-332.

[21] C. Sylvester, "Experiencing The End And Afterlives Of International Relations/Theory", European Journal of International Relations 19, no. 3 (2013): 609-626.

[22] Ikenberry, G. John. 2011. “The Future of the Liberal World Order: Internationalism After America.” Foreign Affairs Vol 90, May/June: 56-68. 

[23] T Dunne, M Kurki and S Smith, International Relations Theories. Oxford University Press, 2013.

[24] Paul R Viotti and Mark V Kauppi, International Relations Theory (Boston: Longman, 2012).

[25] Ayoob, Mohammed. 2012. “Was Huntington Right? Revisiting the Clash of Civilizations.” Insight Turkey 14.4: 1- 11.

[26] Oliver J Daddow, International Relations Theory (London: SAGE, 2013).

[27] N. Rengger, "On Theology And International Relations: World Politics Beyond The Empty Sky",International Relations 27, no. 2 (2013): 141-157.

[28] E. Wigen, "Two-Level Language Games: International Relations As Inter-Lingual Relations",European Journal of International Relations 21, no. 2 (2014): 427-450.

[29] Lieber, Keir A., and Gerard Alexander. 2005. “Waiting for Balancing: Why the World is Not Pushing Back.” International Security 30.1: 109-139. 

[30] K. Stullerova, "In The Footsteps Of Karl Deutsch: On Nationalism, Self-Determination And International Relations", International Relations 28, no. 3 (2014): 313-332.

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