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  1. What are the differences between traditional (ERD and DFD) data modelling techniques and object oriented data modelling techniques (UML)?
  2. Is vendor-supplied documentation on software and hardware products important to retain as EA artifacts? Why?
  3. Find a public or private sector enterprise and identify the following current EA components/artifacts at each level of the EA3 Cube framework:
  4. Identify current strategic goals, initiatives, and outcome measures.
  5. Identify current LOBs, business services, and associated activity/flow diagrams.
  6. Identify the current IT infrastructure and networks that host IT systems and applications.
  1. Every EA framework needs a proper documentation does not matter whether it is to be used in future or present framework. The importance behind maintain a proper framework documentarian is that it helps in designing and analysis purpose. The scope behind using this framework is that it needs to develop a proper establishment of relationship between both the architectural areas.
  2.  
  3. The framework used helps to create an abstracted view of the enterprise that is being implemented with the information architecture. This is the reason behind the need of proper present documentation as it is the foundation for future framework (Zarvi?n & Wieringa, 2014). With the help of future architecture framework the strategic goals related to current architecture can be identified properly. Proper documentation helps in preparing exact list for the needed requirements and also helps in meeting the future need of the architecture.
  4. The business process improvement s referred to a process that aims at improving the services provided to the customer by enhancing the quality of the product, by decreasing the costs and with this the customer value can be increased. This helps in increasing the productivity of the business process as happy customer will add value towards the business. With the help of business process reengineering the organization has the capability to restructure their organization. Business process reengineering mainly focuses on the ground up design and completely reengineers the whole existing business into a new form (Zarvi?n & Wieringa, 2014). The business process reengineering will help the future architecture to build a better business with the help of modification added towards the already existing specifications. The business strategy behind this concept is that it gets improved with each level of enterprise architecture. With the implementation of business process reengineering working will get improved.
  5. In order to improve the effectiveness of implementing enterprise architecture different communication process can be used. This will help in improving the enterprise architecture modelling. In order to improve enterprise architecture, there are 10 levels that facilitates better communication. This includes conversation over phone, video chat, social media and many more. Enterprise architecture communication main aim is to deliver the exact meaning of enterprise architecture artefacts to every users (Zarvi?n & Wieringa, 2014). Each enterprise architecture user should be able to use this artefacts properly in order to manage proper integration within the project work. The technique used for proper communication includes step by step working so that the goal can be meet. The change in communication process will help in enhancing the future architecture and the infrastructure at each level will also get improved with proper implementation.
  6. In order to understand the planning assumptions that stimulates the changes let us assume an enterprise named HighLand pvt. Ltd.. In this enterprise everything changes with time and with the implementation of better enterprise architecture. The changes taking place over the business can be analysed from the changes observed within the technology, human factors and processes. In order to get a proper feedback and knowledge of the implemented plan, strategic assumption can be done on organization’s plan. The strategic plan needs to be discussed before implementation process so that the working can be understood properly. There are some specific area where these plans are needed to be incorporated properly for better results (Vargas et al., 2016). This places includes market position, managing the assets of the enterprise, managing financial stability, organizing stakeholders and the macro environmental forces.
  7. There are two types of data modelling that market possess a great value in the market. This are object oriented data modelling (UML) and traditional data modelling (ER). The ER modelling is known as traditional data modelling as it uses conceptual data modelling technique for viewing the real world entities in a form of relationships. The main behind using this data modelling technique is to facilitate easy communication with end to end users and also helps in better understanding the transformed relational tables. With the enhancement in technology ER model get developed and modified. On the other hand object oriented data modelling uses models object classes rather than entities. The relationship between the models of this modelling technique is known as associations (Nikpay et al., 2016. UML diagram uses numbers and characters in order to express the cardinality and optionality respectively. This expressions are delivered in a form of more complex that offers a fixed upper and lower limit. Flags are described in the object oriented modelling for describing the proper business rules.
  8. While working in a business it becomes important to have a proper knowledge about the hardware and software that are supplied by the vendors. With the help of proper documentation the working within the business can be easily tracked. The details related to each document is further incorporated within the enterprise architecture artefacts so the enterprise architecture can be maintained efficiently for better results (Niemi, & Pekkola, 2017). Hardware and software related to enterprise are important and needs to be maintained properly. This will define a proper way of implementing a strategic plan that will further help the enterprise architecture.
  9. let us assume that the chosen medium size private sector enterprise is Zara. After this it becomes important to understand and develop a system that will help in providing better supplies within a stipulated time to their customers. Customers are important part of each organization. Each organization needs to fulfil their strategic goals for better future of the organization. The goal is to develop a product that will satisfy the needs of the targeted customer (Närman, Buschle & Ekstedt, 2014). The outcomes are analysed once the customer provides their feedback.
  10. Current line for the Zara is to understand the corporate division related to this enterprise. This includes binding up all the capabilities that are integrated along with the management of database systems. The line of business of Zara includes proper sales person, effective and efficient way of communication and controlling the online sites related to each transaction taking place within the business (Mayer et al., 2018). The services provided by the business developer needs to include a proper updated system with the recent features so that each customer can enjoy the services offered to them.
  11. the enterprise has used a great IT infrastructure that helps in managing the documents properly. The infrastructure is cloud server. This helps in storing all data and manages each application properly (He & Da Xu, 2014). With the use of cloud server one can eradicate the need of expensive hardware’s. Thus the company can save money with the use of Cloud server.
  12. Enterprise architecture artefacts are divided into two parts that focuses on IT and business. There are six artefacts that are further classified into this two categories. The artefact includes outlines, standards, vision, designs, consideration and landscape. Each artefacts are used to describe the components of enterprise architecture and explains what the function of enterprise architecture artefacts are. The business focused artefacts includes vision, consideration and outlines. The IT focused artefacts includes standards, landscape and design (Baldwin, 2015). Enterprise architecture components are a combined form of hardware’s, software and the activities used for the purpose of inputs and outputs. Enterprise architecture components are used with the aim of developing proper enterprise architecture artefacts. The main benefits of using this enterprise architecture artefacts are reduces complexity, cost gets reduced, risks can be minimized, improves flexibility and the project quality gets improved.
  13. Enterprise architecture components are used to review the organizations strategic plan that has the capability of organize each part of an enterprise. The main aim of using enterprise architecture is to design the virtual things used within the architecture. This becomes essential to develop a wider architecture for enterprise with the use of enterprise architecture components. Thus, it can be said that in development of an enterprise architecture the components of EA plays a vital role (Azevedo et al.,2015). The strategic level of EA needs to have a proper SWOT analysis, balance score cards and six sigma functions. Best management technology are used for organizing the Meta context within enterprise architecture. The main elements related to enterprise architecture are artefacts, methodology, standards and best practices.
  14. for this part the preferred enterprise is an automobile industry. The major components of an automobile enterprise includes the frame, the transmission unit and the power supplies.
  15. The preferred automobile enterprise is Toyota. The main object of the organization is to contribute towards the sustainable development. The main working of this enterprise includes:
  • Implementing CSR with the use of proper information available related to the planning
  • Providing proper governance towards infrastructure and network
  • The product and services offered by tis enterprise includes automobiles and related services
  1. Enterprise architecture is referred to a framework that focuses on developing IT within an organization and defines proper measures to maintain this features so that every organization can achieve their goals. Multi-dimensional quality is offered by the enterprise architecture that is tough to measure and distinguish (Antunes et al. 2015). The main three features of enterprise architecture are deep perspective of the enterprise form technical point and implementing new innovations, providing excellent delivery. This features helps in withstanding the market pressure. The architecture needs to be aware of the complexity present within each business and should have the knowledge about the usage of this technology. EA needs a proper system that will help in enhancing the features of business o that they can provide a better support towards the business.
  2. Enterprise architecture analysis and design has a basic business line that includes some specific goals that helps in proper development of the current architecture (Aier, 2014). This are initiatives, proper knowledge of the products and services provided towards the customer, the systems and applications, data and information stored within the architecture and importance of proper infrastructure and network. The future architecture helps in improving the services offered whereas the current architecture includes the components that are already existing within the architecture (Antunes et al., 2015). Modified version of EA components are used in future architecture and this helps in developing a strong architecture.
  3. Zachman Framework includes a planned structure that helps in defining the information technology used within an enterprise. Whereas Spewak architecture includes a process planning that helps in providing a better support towards the business plan while implementing the enterprise architecture. John Zachman implemented the architecture with the use of object oriented approach so that the planning of enterprise architecture can be improved. The feature includes access to information, proper data sharing, interoperability and changing with the requirements.
  4. Five functional level associated with enterprise architecture includes business value, proper governance, scope, talent and executive sponsors. Zara is having a high business value with proper governance policies. The scope of the enterprise is to sell maximum products and satisfy their customers. Many executive sponsors are associated with this enterprise and several talented employees help the organization to expand the business.
  5. Three planning thread associated with the chosen enterprise are information, applications and technology. Each planning thread helps the enterprise Zara in improving their services. Thus this are an important aspects.
  6. the LOB for Zara contains documents related to sales department details of customers and financial records.
  7. Enterprise architecture components related to Zara includes the component described under IT.

References

Aier, S. (2014). The role of organizational culture for grounding, management, guidance and effectiveness of enterprise architecture principles. Information Systems and E-Business Management, 12(1), 43-70.

Antunes, G., Barateiro, J., Caetano, A., & Borbinha, J. L. (2015, May). Analysis of Federated Enterprise Architecture Models. In ECIS.

Azevedo, C. L., Iacob, M. E., Almeida, J. P. A., van Sinderen, M., Pires, L. F., & Guizzardi, G. (2015). Modeling resources and capabilities in enterprise architecture: A well-founded ontology-based proposal for ArchiMate. Information Systems, 54, 235-262.

Baldwin, D. (2015). A Domain Neutral Enterprise Architecture Framework for Enterprise Application Integration and Pervasive Platform Services Master of Science Thesis.

He, W., & Da Xu, L. (2014). Integration of distributed enterprise applications: A survey. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(1), 35-42.

Mayer, N., Aubert, J., Grandry, E., Feltus, C., Goettelmann, E., & Wieringa, R. (2018). An integrated conceptual model for information system security risk management supported by enterprise architecture management. Software & Systems Modeling, 1-28.

Närman, P., Buschle, M., & Ekstedt, M. (2014). An enterprise architecture framework for multi-attribute information systems analysis. Software & Systems Modeling, 13(3), 1085-1116.

Niemi, E., & Pekkola, S. (2017). Using enterprise architecture artefacts in an organisation. Enterprise Information Systems, 11(3), 313-338.

Nikpay, F., Ahmad, R., Rouhani, B. D., & Shamshirband, S. (2016). A systematic review on post-implementation evaluation models of enterprise architecture artefacts. Information Systems Frontiers, 1-20.

Panetto, H., & Whitman, L. (2016). Knowledge engineering for enterprise integration, interoperability and networking: Theory and applications. Data and Knowledge Engineering, 105, 1-4.

Vargas, A., Cuenca, L., Boza, A., Sacala, I., & Moisescu, M. (2016). Towards the development of the framework for inter sensing enterprise architecture. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 27(1), 55-72.

Zarvi?, N., & Wieringa, R. (2014). An integrated enterprise architecture framework for business-IT alignment. Designing Enterprise Architecture Frameworks: Integrating Business Processes with IT Infrastructure, 63, 9.

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