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1. Identify the issues managers face in the selection, use, management and deployment of Information Systems (IS) to create new efficiencies for the major functional areas of the businesses.
2. Demonstrate an understanding of various job types that are available in the IS industry, what they entail and what abilities they require.
3. Assess the relationship between organizations, IS and business processes for Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM).
4. Appraise the salient characteristics of CRM, SCM and IS assets management.
5. Compare and contrast the specific development and management issues related to IS, Web Commerce and e-Business during many organizational transformations. 6. Develop an appreciation of the impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems on businesses.
7. Understand the issues involved in the design, implementation and maintenance of ERP Systems.
8. Evaluate the benefits and limitations of use of SAP R/3 as an example of an ERP System. 9. Analyse the relationship among ethical, social, and political issues raised by management IS

Database Administrator (DBA)

A database admin utilizes highly customized software applications to store, manage and control data in a database. The database admin might have roles that stretch from capacity planning, database configuration, installation of the database and its supporting software, designing the database, performing database migration, ensuring the security of all users of the database and their data, troubleshooting in addition to creating backups and making restorations of data.

When you get a job as a database admin, your primary role will be ensuring the integrity, performance, and security of the data and the database. In addition to these functions, and depending on the organization one is working for and the level of your employment, these duties can vary from simple data entry into the database through performing data control to the highest standards.

It should be noted that different firms will always have varying database needs and specifications. If you take a case example of a school, the database will be used to record student’s fees details, student exams results, employee’s details and their payment status. On the contrary, a hospital facility will have a database to store patient’s histories, medical records among other needs of a hospital.

Regarding the level of clearance that a database admin holds in an organization, their primary duties may include:

  • DBAs are responsible for making evaluations during purchase of database management and support software.
  • In case there exist a database software and the company acquires a new database system, the DBA is mandated to oversee the migration to the new regime.
  • Seeing to it that the data and the database are secure and is optimally performing is another pivotal role of a database admin. They should see to it that a database integrity is highly safeguarded.
  • Controlling who accesses the data and the database is a prime role of a database admin as this ensures the security of the organizations' data. In the recent past, the role of database administrators has been desired and well rewarded as organizations recognize their importance. In high and data intensive organizations like banks, schools, hospitals, etc., the role of a DBA is very prominent.

Progressively, the major role of a database admin is characterized by the specific procedures and abilities of the database management framework that is put in place.

In any case, the work done significantly helps different individuals from the association, including system analysts, developers and IT administrators who all oblige reports to group data for planning, studying trends and decision making. 

Personal characteristics make every individual unique in what they do. Consequently, one can relate well with colleagues at work due to having admirable and desired personal traits, without which it would be very hard to work with such a person.

The following are among the personal characteristics identified as key in a database administrator:

  • A DBA must have smart problem-solving skills which will ensure that daily issues that arise in a database are well evaluated, analyzed to details and a working solution formulated.
  • New problems and imminent threats face a database each and every day. It is therefore very essential that a database admin possess skills such as thirst for knowledge
  • A database admin job is such a demanding task and can take you by surprise. In light of a crisis, a DBA needs to remain very calm and focused. They need to come up with a quick solution that will bring back database services online as quickly as possible. A positive attitude is required so that as a DBA you can be able to prioritize tasks to maximize productivity.

Education and training for a Database Administrator

Desired skills of a Database Administrator

Individuals or groups from inside and outside the organization with whom a database admin interact with.

As mentioned before, a database admin does not operate in isolation in any organization. A data bank is the center of any organization's operations which places the DBA as the epicenter of all human resource in an organization. A database admin will generate useful reports that can help human resource managers and information managers in making decisions. Further, these reports can be used to predict future trends of an organization. When you take the case of a financial manager, they will, in turn, be able to advise a DBA on crucial matters regarding the outsourcing, acquisition, and purchase of software and hardware products.

The roles played by key stakeholders in a firm e.g. the HR manager, the IT manager, network admin and suppliers and customers as persons outside of the enterprise cannot be ignored. Clients and vendors, for instance, will give feedback to the DBA on various services offered by the database.

Formal requirements of a database Admin

Just as discussed above, any role in a particular organization cannot exist on its own. You are the HR manager, but you will require the assist of a DBA in generating employee's data. A financial manager will also need data from the DBA. On the other hand, a DBA will require the input of all other employees they work with in addition to outsiders like the customers.

For people to co-exist and work harmoniously, then traits such as honesty, problem-solving skills, analytical skills, integrity and being able to make informed decisions are critical in survival of a firm.

Interdependency that exists between a database Admin and these key groups or individuals

Customers and suppliers as outsiders will give feedback to the DBA on the experience they have while using the database services. They can also provide suggestions and recommendations on improvements they deem necessary.

HR manager, the CEO of the organization and even the finance director, will give paramount input on matters concerning purchase, migration, and backups, etc. of the database which are the leading roles of the DBA.

The DBA, on the other hand, generates reports for the HR personnel's, for the CEO and even for the IT managers. These reports help them in making decisions. Also, the DBA ensures integrity and security of company information.


Communication strategies and channels need to be highly utilized to achieve a teamwork results. There need to be seen people consulting each other on what should be done. It is also imperative that every role however minute, be recognized because it is equally important.


De Mauro, A., Greco, M., Grimaldi, M., & Ritala, P. (2017). Human Resources for Big Data

Professions: A systematic Classification of Job Roles and Required Skill Sets.

Information Processing And Management, doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2017.05.004

He, Z., & Darmont, J. (2017). Evaluating the Dynamic Behavior of Database Applications.


Varnovsky, N. P., Zakharov, V. A., & Shokurov, A. V. (2017). On the deductive security of

queries to confidential databases in cloud computing systems. Moscow University

Computational Mathematics And Cybernetics, (1), 38. doi:10.3103/S0278641917010095

Naghdi, S., & Amini, M. (2016). Preventing database schema extraction by error message

handling. Information Systems, 56135-156. doi:10.1016/

Mariu?a, ?. (2014). Principles of Security and Integrity of Databases. Procedia Economics And

Finance, 15(Emerging Markets Queries in Finance and Business (EMQ 2013), 401-405.


Roratto, R., & Dias, E. D. (2014). Security information in production and operations: a study on

audit trails in database systems. Journal Of Information Systems & Technology

Management, (3), 717. doi:10.4301/S1807-17752014000300010

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enforcement for networked smart objects. Computer Networks The International Journal

Of Computer And Telecommunications Networking, 133.


Saad M., D. (2016). Machine learning approach to detect intruders in database based on hexplet

data structure. Journal Of Electrical Systems And Information Technology, Vol 3, Iss 2,

Pp 261-269 (2016), (2), 261. doi:10.1016/j.jesit.2015.12.001

Han, Y., & Sun, R. (2016). Research on public management efficiency improvement method

based on parallel database oriented optimization management information system. RISTI

(Revista Iberica De Sistemas E Tecnologias De Informacao), (E5), 425.

Vágner, A. (2015). Software Application for Supporting the Education of Database Systems.

Acta Didactica Napocensia, 8(3), 23-28.

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