1. Can attacks on cultural diversity be understood as a necessity of living in an increasingly unequal world?
2. Colonialism is essential to understanding contemporary human rights. Discuss with reference to specific issues in one or more countries, areas of the world or ecological zones.
3. How effective are anti-colonial writers such as Cesaire and Fanon in understanding the interface between colonialism and human rights.
4. How is a genuine decolonisation possible? Is violence necessary?
5. Can human rights abuses be effectively understood through creative forms of cultural production such as journalistic writing, literature, photography and film?
6. ‘The institutions of the nation state and capitalism are in very fundamental ways in opposition to human rights.’ Discuss
7. Discuss the proposition that the law itself is the single most important cause of human rights violations.
8. What, if any are the differences between the torture that was a technique of European colonial domination, such as the French in Algeria, and the US and Britain in the global war on terror?
9. How did settlers in places as disparate as Canada, Australia and Israel/Palestine violate the human rights of those who already lived in these places? Is it accurate to refer to such places as settler colonial states?
10. To what extent is it accurate to describe the past and ongoing colonial processes that are applied to indigenous peoples as genocide?
11. To what extent is the upsurge in terrorism since 9/11 and the advent of the war on terror related to colonialism?
What is cultural diversity?
Cultural diversity refers to the existence of an array of ethnic and cultural groups within any society. The term, ‘cultural diversity’ is also used in terms of showing respect towards different cultures of each other (Banks 2015). The term, ‘cultural diversities’ also refers to the various human cultures and societies within a particular territory, or within the whole universe. In order to understand the attacks on cultural diversity, it is important to analyze the influence of factors like globalization. Distinctive societies emerged all around the world that was markedly opposed from one another, and many of these varieties persist even today. The cultural differences, which are obvious to stay between people, are language, behavior, traditions and attire. The other differences lies in the manner societies arrange themselves, in their reciprocal conception of morality, and in the manner, they communicate with their environment. Cultural diversity can be considered as similar to biodiversity. As biodiversity is essential for the long term sustainability of life in the earth, cultural diversity is important in terms of long-term sustainability of humanity in the earth. The other important logic behind is that preservation of species and ecosystems is essential for the all forms of life in the earth. Therefore, there is importance to conserve indigenous cultures. In 2011, UNESCO asserted in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, “...cultural diversity is as necessary for human as biodiversity is for nature (Rico 2015).”
Culture and heritage are not about stone and buildings. These are important to take into consideration relating to identities and belongings. Culture and heritage are the carriers of values from the past which are important to understand the fundamental principles of today's’ society. Moreover, culture and heritage are also important in order to get the vision about tomorrow’s society. It is essential to save the culture and heritage as it is the basis to bind human beings together in a society and community (McIntyre-Mills 2017). This assignment aims to analyze why it is important to protect cultural diversity and how it is related to build peace and communal harmony in the current world. On the other hand, this assignment focuses on the elements, which bring attack on cultural diversity. Attacks against heritage and cultural diversity are considered a recurrent phenomenon in a number of recent armed conflicts. Such attacks, attach with the torture of minorities, as seen in both Iraq and Syria, represent a form of cultural cleansing that seeks to destroy the legitimacy of the “other” to exist as such (Crabtree, Husain and Spalek 2016). Due to accomplishment of deliberate attack on minorities, cultural heritage sites, schools and property, the establishment of society is on the face of terrorism (Pennycook 2017). It causes social fragmentation, which is considered as the greatest destroyer of peace in the society of today. Social unjust on minorities are often related to the looting and illicit trafficking of cultural objects which lead to global organized crime and, in turn, to provoking armed conflict (Cvetkovich 2018). In this reference, it is important to protect cultural heritage and integrate cultural dimension for curing social conflicts, cultural emergency. It is also important to constitute resolution in promoting cultural pluralism.
Why is protecting cultural diversity important?
On the other hand, rapid globalization is one of the important factors in order to take into consideration in terms of diminishing a number of colonial cultures (Weinert 2017). According to the World Culture Report 2000, the dimension of globalization is not limited within the context of economy and technology (Loisen and Pauwels 2015). Globalization brings a lot of changes in society and ethics which draws a bunch of inevitable questions on culture. These questions of cultural identity and expression, cultural variety and pluralism, cultural upliftment and heritage go to the heart of UNESCO’s direction in the ground of culture (Throsby and Petetskaya 2016). In order to look into the relevance of such kind of issues, it is essential to consider World Culture Report in search of the recent trends, statistical data, policies, research and debate related to culture. The people who are actively engaged in the exchange of global culture, express from their experience that today culture is not considered as a process, but a product. In order to sustain in the industrial and competitive environment their personal sensibility of cultural identity turns into an approach of receptivity towards the culture of others (Loisen and Pauwels 2015). However, the people who are not able to be expressive in cross-cultural communication have to retreat. It proves that the people rejects diversity are considered to have a narrow sense if cultural identity in the age of globalization. When politics takes advantage of this negative reaction and other factors exacerbate it, culture is bound to be engaged with conflict (Pohle 2015). It is also asserted hereby that in order to mitigate the risk of cultural tension and conflict, cultural inequality as central solution culture itself is regarded. It is firstly an aspect in terms of seeking ways for establishing respect for all kind of cultural identities and revitalizing cultural interchange (Gfeller 2015).
John Mackey said, “The world is getting more connected through technology and travel. Cuisines are evolving. Some people are scared of globalization, but I think people will always take pride in cultural heritage (Rico 2015).” Therefore, UNESCO and its partners have undertaken an urgent task in terms of searching ways of conserving the languages, arts, crafts and customs of the people most vulnerable for sweeping change (Loisen and Pauwels 2015). Changing the course of global conversion is certainly a far from easy task. UNESCO said in the world culture report 2000, “The speed of social and economic change often goes counter to rhythms of culture, which more often measure time in phases of experience, stages of life and even in generations than in the nano seconds of the digital networks (Pohle 2015).” Today, we are living in a age when almost many of us are able to experience multiple number of cultural goods. However, if we do not renew the goods constantly from the sources of tangible and intangible cultural diversity, the production of such goods will represent cultural impoverishment. The loss of cultural diversity, regional communities does not only leave a negative impact on culture but also on human development (Throsby and Petetskaya 2016). Like the other global issues, today this problem is continuously increasing and developing a gap between the haves and have-nots in the world. In the world culture report 2000, Koichiro Matsuura of Director-General of UNESCO informed, “Unequal access to both new and traditional means of cultural expression implies not only a denial of cultural recognition, and it can also seriously affect an individual’s or a community’s membership of, or exclusion from, the knowledge society. Culture has multiple and complex links with knowledge. The processing of information into knowledge is a creative and culturally informed act, as is the use to which that knowledge is put. A truly knowledge-rich world has to be a culturally diverse world (Gfeller 2015).”
The impacts of globalization on culture
Director-General of Unesco, Koichiro Matsuura opined, “It also has to be a world of cultural pluralism if we are to learn to live together (Loisen and Pauwels 2015).” The world culture report 2000 has had the vision of successful transition within the societies based on the fact of cultural diversity in terms of promoting cultural pluralism (Pohle 2015). In order to pave the way of developing cultural pluralism, it is important to have respect for all forms of cultures and acknowledgement for their interdependence. In order to preserve cultural diversities and identities, UNESCO has initiated a framework (Rico 2015). Koichiro Matsuura exclaimed that in following the framework, they would able to promote cultural diversity and pluralism again. He also added that the framework would be capable in bringing a measure of harmony into the lives of human beings in the twenty-first century (Gfeller 2015).
It is important to comprehend the reasons for these attacks on cultural properties thus damaging the diversity and integrity of different cultures. Unequal distribution of wealth, power and other resources have mainly contributed to the uprising of rebellion in many nations. On many occasions, some biased political and economic policies taken by state leaders lead to hurting sentiments of a certain cultural group. One instance of it could the policies introduced by the United States President, Donald Trump where he envisioned a country free from immigrants, Muslims and Mexicans in particular. One of his policies included banning the entry of citizens from Iran and six other Muslim nations into America (Reuters.com 2018). Many non-American residents expressed fear of being attacked and tormented (Usatoday.com, 2018). Immigrants mostly stay in other countries for better opportunities since they do not get those opportunities in their own country. This lack of opportunity largely arises out of inequality. As argued by Enamorado et al. (2016), income disparities in developing nations give rise to limited opportunities and this result in higher rate of migrating to developed nations.
Many scholars and experts claim that the world has managed to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor, the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’ and most importantly between distinct cultures. However, a deeper scrutiny reveals the reality of these claims. The gap between rich and the poor has widened in the last few decades. According to a report published in Oxfam, the international confederation helping the poor, 82% of wealth generated in 2016 went to a handful of rich whereas those who are in need of this wealth received nothing (Oxfam.org 2018). Inglehart and Norris (2016) believe that inequality in the present world is likely to witness further increase owing to the economic disparity prevalent in most countries. The economically powerful nations have acquired the authority to prescribe other less powerful states of the ways and means to achieve equality.
Attacks against cultural diversity
Reardon (2013) views inequality from the perspective of education and comments that schools might not be the “great equalizer” between the rich and the concerning people do not find “ways to reduce the growing inequality in education outcomes”. It is true that educational institutions provide the base from where individuals could uphold cultural values and rights and promote actual equality. It is thus imperative to ensure that class, ethnical, and race differences do not affect educational institutions because it would create a permanent ideology of hate and superiority.
During the early 19th and 20th century, dominance over a territory was acclaimed by the ones who were militarily powerful. The Europeans and the Western countries dominated the scene during that era. Hardly any nation was barred from colonialism. Countries like France, Germany, the United States and the United Kingdom, all possessed the intention to colonize other weaker nations either militarily or strategically. It needs mentioning that the U.S. itself was a victim of colonialism but achieved independence only to practice colonialism within its own territory. The African-American race has had to suffer years of torture and brutality at the hands of their people who were whites. Césaire (2000), while commenting on colonialism stated, “That a civilization which justifies colonization- and therefore force- is already a sick civilization, a civilization which is morally diseased...” What the author meant by this statement is that no one can justify colonization. It is a breach of humanity but the sad truth is that the Europeans have always tried to justify it.
Giorgio Agemben spoke about the “state of exception” and defined it as the increase in the powers of the governments that they use in times of crisis (Attell 2004). The author shed light on the use of this state of exception by powerful rulers and governments to eliminate “not only political adversaries but entire categories of citizens who for some reason cannot be integrated into the political system”. This so-called “legal civil war” has resulted in the creation of a world that upholds discriminatory practices either directly or indirectly. It is scary to think that powerful nations – European and Western – justify the brutality of colonialism by stating that it was necessary in order to get rid of savages and established a refined civilization.
Fanon (1994), in his seminal work, A Dying Colonialism, talked about the Algerian society and its traditions and particularly highlighted the unduly interference of the European world. The author symbolized the sovereignty and liberty of the Eastern nation with the veil of an Algerian woman. The veil, states the author, is the symbol of the Algerian woman’s affinity with her culture and her traditions. The author furthers the importance of the veil and states, “the veil worn by the women generally suffices to characterize the Arab society”. However, this element of the Arab tradition soon became the “bone of contention in a grandiose battle, in the course of which the colonized were to display a surprising force of inertia”. The French occupation of Algeria during the mid and late 20th century witnessed unfathomable destruction of Algerian lives and culture. Decades later, when Algeria finally had its deserved freedom, Nikolas Sarkozy, the former President of France, claimed that colonialism was in fact good for the African nations, as it resulted in the creation of bridges, buildings, schools and other institutions – all that are signs of development. In his 2007 speech at the University of Dakar in Senegal, Sarkozy commented, “Colonization is not responsible for all the current difficulties of Africa”. He further added that the colonizers must not be blamed for all the atrocities carried out on the Algerians, and other Africans. The genocides, dictatorships, fanaticism, “the waste and the pollution” are all results of the inner war between African nations, Sarkozy further stated. This unchanged mentality of the European leaders, even after decades, brings forth the scary picture of the world; a world where inequality is still considered by many as justified and necessary. The modern warfare is visible not on the battlefield but on the technological and economic front.
The connection between social inequalities and cultural tensions
Cultural Imperialism is the term that defines this modern day colonialism. It explains the attempt of powerful nations, the Western World in particular, to penetrate into every state and replace the native culture with their own. It can be regarded as an attack on cultural diversity.
The work of noted English author Joseph Conrad must also be mentioned, as it would enable readers to understand the mindset of the Europeans.
It is however, important to note that not all Europeans were supporting colonialism or the idea of a world where one section had all the powers and the other section was subjugated. George Orwell’s essay Shooting an Elephant reflects this different notion of some Europeans. Born in India, Orwell always felt a conflict within himself – of being burdened by the imperial responsibility in an Orient world. In the essay, Orwell narrates the story of an elephant that he had to shoot because “a sahib has got to act like a sahib” (white men were referred to as sahib in the East). The entire essay had elements of conflict between the “yellow-faced” anti-Europeans and the imperial soldiers and a conflict within the imperial soldier about his own identity and ideology. The hatred pitted against the white police officer in the essay by the Burmese was justified as a reaction of injustice done by the British Raj to them. One can draw an idea that every attack on cultural diversity might be the reaction of years of injustice done to a particular group or race.
Arendt (1968) strongly argued against the atrocities of the Europeans during the First and the Second World War. The German Holocaust and the Eichmann case were central to her argument. In addition, she vehemently criticized the treaties that were passed after both World Wars. Arendt believed, “that the recognition of millions of people lived outside normal legal protection and needed an additional guarantee of their elementary rights from an outside body was something new”. By analyzing Arendt’s statement, it can be deduced that the formation of international organizations post both World Wars also indicated the dominance of the powerful over the weak. It is quite evident even today, from the functioning of the United Nations, that the developed nations have most of the powers and the authority to dictate terms. As stated by Gordon (2014), after years of ineffectiveness, the UN Security Council became active but its enforcements collided with international law. The author further states that the Security Council had many times, misused its powers to “serve the narrow political interests of its members rather than the mandate of ensuring peace and security within the international community”.
Dotti Sani and Magistro (2016) illustrate the possibilities that give rise to inequality and that necessitates attacks on cultural diversity. According to them, “worsening economic conditions, combined with declining levels of trust” create problems for democracies to function. They further argue, “They are also problematic at the individual level as they are likely to perpetuate the divide among subjects at different ends of the social ladder”. A good example of this could be the racial attacks and abuses on non-UK people post Brexit. Most people in the United Kingdom considered Brexit – Britain’s exit from the European Union – as a responsibility to ensure complete dominance of one culture in the country. A section of the British population thought of Brexit as a license to oust other culturally diverse people and cleanse their nation. My?li?ska (2016) points out that the repercussion of Brexit was felt by not only the non-white non-Europeans but white Europeans as well. It was due to the question of supremacy over the white dominated land.
Cultural cleansing in another term that has seen increasing use in the modern day to describe the genocides and atrocities carried out by people of one cultural group against other. Cultural cleansing refers not only to the killing of innocents belonging to different cultural groups, but also the demolition of cultural heritage that signifies that particular culture. Bokova (2015) carried out an in-depth study in Iraq and Syria and analyzed the situation there. The author stated that the extremists made sure that they do not leave behind any monument or building that relates to the minorities. The extremists had destroyed World Heritage Sites like Palmyra in Syria, Baalbek in Lebanon and Petra in Jordan amongst others that symbolized rich culture. Destroying these meant a direct attack on the cultural diversity that is upheld by the people of this world.
In order to understand the reason for these brutal attacks, one must comprehend the psychology that works behind it. Those who claim to be the torchbearers of a particular culture would not tolerate the dominance or even the presence of another culture. Now, the question arises as to where does inequality come here. The statement that cultural diversity is attacked to necessitate living in an unequal world is itself questionable from the above-mentioned perspective. Attacks on the cultural properties that were great legacies for the world cannot be justified as an attempt to claim an equal place.
Numerous scholars and intellectuals have argued that inequality gives rise to terrorism and such other anomalies. Youngsters coming from impoverished families are the ones who mostly involve in anti-cultural and anti-social activities. Krieger and Meierrieks (2016) argue that inequality fuels frustration that in turn leads to increased anti-social activities. They state, “A higher level of income inequality is associated with more terrorist activity”. It is important to understand this linkage because either terrorism or any other form of direct or indirect violence, often stem from inequality. Attempts have been made by world leaders and organizations like the UN to ensure equality for all in aspects of cultural, social, educational and economic. However, those nations who possess undisputed powers have the right to decide on the ways of providing equality. Williams (2015) comments that the dream on an equal world cannot be achieved unless those at the bottom are not allowed to participate. Cultural diversity will be attacked repeatedly, by state and non-state actors unless true equality is achieved.
Cultural diversity as already stated, refers to the peaceful existence of various ethnic and racial groups within a particular society. It however, must be asserted that the growing mentality of superiority and domination, has affected this ‘peaceful existence’. In fact, many contemporary leaders have made statements that reflect this mentality. Instances can be found from the statement of the British High Commissioner who warned Nigeria to stop blaming the colonial powers for their current predicament (Nigeriatoday.ng 2018). Some other instances further provide a clear picture of the atrocities carried out by the Europeans in the name of development and false agenda. The ill treatment of the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya by the British troops and the enforced relocation of the Maasai people stand testament to the increasing inequality in the world. These instances provide a solid ground for researchers and other scholars to comprehend the attacks on cultural diversity.
Looking back in history, one can find that the then political thinkers of the European and Western countries too held the notion that colonialism was a good thing. It was required to civilize the savaged people. It is but important to note that the perception of civilized and savaged was formed by the colonizers only. Mill (1975) was of the view that despotism was the legitimate form of government that could transform the barbarians into civilized citizens. In his words, “barbarians have no rights as a nation except a right to such treatments as may, at the earliest period, fit them for becoming one”. His statement clearly reflected the mentality of dominance and thus, encouraging an unequal world. Humber (1987), while commenting on the work of the noted biologist and geologist, Charles Darwin, shed light on his thoughts about colonialism. Darwin too was a supporter of colonialism and he went to the extent of justifying it through scientific arguments. According to him, the “gorilla” and the “negro” occupy evolutionary position between the “baboon” and the “Caucasian” or the civilized race. Thus, it can be clearly demarcated that the Europeans thought of themselves as the civilized society who had the responsibility to transform the barbaric societies into civilized society. Michael Taussig’s Shamanism, Colonialism and the Wild Man: A Study in Terror and Healing provides further insights into the atrocities of the colonials against other cultures. The author projected the colonials and the colonized in two contrasting pictures. First is the colonizer’s torture of the Putumayo Indians in Colombia for acquiring rubber. Second is the white person’s belief in indigenous cure for which he goes to the shaman although he demonstrates no respect for their culture (Taussig 1984). These two contrasting pictures reveal the hypocrisy of the colonizers and their sick mentality to attain profits and then torture the colonized people.
The current states of affairs do not present a good picture either. Many contemporary leaders have, at many times given speeches on the role of the former colonials and the colonies that show that they still have not gotten over the urge to dominate. In the earlier section, Nikolas Sarkozy’s remarks on the African colony, Algeria in particular, show this outlook. Tony Blair, the former Prime Minister of England, in his message to the world before forming the African Governance Initiative (AGI), displayed subtle hints of this unchanged mindset. In his message, he spoke about the development of Africa. He stated, “Africa can be for the first of the century what Asia was for the second half of the last”. He further commented, “Which is why, as Prime Minister, I set up a Commission for Africa, to look into how to strengthen African governments…” Now, looking at the history of Britain, it is largely responsible for stripping Africa of its wealth and prosperity. To assert that it would help the nation develop is a sign of extreme hypocrisy.
These instances from the past and the present provide the ground from which readers can understand the above-mentioned contention. It thus would not be wrong to state that the recent attacks on cultural diversity are a result of the necessity of living in this growing unequal world.
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