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Evaluate arguments and theses by Clemente (2013) Bellovin, Bradner, Diffie, Landau & Rexford (2011) Saadawi & Jordan (2011) and FEMA (2013). Specifically, respond to the following questions: What do they in common?

What are the differences is their assessment of cybersecurity and critical infrastructure protection?

How does FEMA's Critical Infrastructure Protection Plan address key requirements set for by Clemente (2011)?

Evaluate Findings and Lessons Learned in Xia, Becerra-Fernandez, Gudi, & Rocha-Mier (2011)
Information Fusion in Hennessy, Patterson & Lin (Eds.) (2003).

Can these findings be utilized in your city, county, state EOC. Why? Why not?

Cyber Security and Global Interdependence

According to Clemente, (2013), the cyber security is a term that helps is coined several times in today’s scenario and it is connected with the daily activities. The term critical related with cyber security in today’s society varies and its definition has expanded through the years. The definition of critical is redefined by global interdependencies as different regions and countries are adopting their own definition of critical for cyber security. Hence, risk management is important to manage the cyber security up to an extent which is critical. The case studies are provided to understand the critical infrastructure of cyber security and it shows that there are potential vulnerabilities arising globally that needs to be operated. The recommendations provided for the cyber security infrastructure are adaptation, prioritization, incentivize and invest in resilience.

According to Bellovin et al., (2011), the EINSTEIN 3 is a program for detection and prevention of cyber intrusions which is not effective for practical consideration in cyber security. The EINSTEIN was introduced by Federal Government of United States for protection of cyber security that has now become ineffective in managing the infrastructure networks. Hence, there is a need for extending and improving EINSTEIN 3 to effectively manage the infrastructure networks. The article provides that there are three major methods that needs to be improved in EINSTEIN 3 to better the performance of infrastructure network. They are physical security, separation of content and control and transmission security. Hence the improvement will help to maintain the threats that are unknown and undefined till now.

According to Saadawi & Jordan, (2011), the protection of cyber infrastructure is important and the article briefly describes the cyber security and its components. The cyber infrastructure protection is discussed in the article that shows three main parts in the article. They are address policy, cybercrime and cyber security strategies, smart cities and their cyber securities, cyber security for infrastructure, technical faults and issues. The Cyber Infrastructure Protection (CIP) is described to strengthen the policies and strategies related to cyber space. Hence, the article shows that Cyber Infrastructure Protection is important to maintain the cyber security at a global level.

According to Homeland Security, (2016), the National Protection Framework is the ultimate guide for safeguarding from terrorism and threats. The framework is important to maintain the safety, security and integrity of the community from known and unknown hazards. This helps at global level to manage and maintain the risks related to natural disasters, terrorism and hazards. Thus this will help to manage the various activities and will have major impact on the community on a large scale. The major factors of National Protection Framework are prevention, protection, mitigation, response and recovery. Thus, the article shows that these factors should be worked upon to maintain the safety of the community.

EINSTEIN 3 Extension: Improving Infrastructure Networks

They all have one thing common and that is they all are discussing about safety and protection. The term protection is the main concept in the above four articles. All the articles discusses cyber security and their protection with emphasis on how to better the performance of cyber space. The differences in the assessment of critical infrastructure protection and cyber security are that the first article is talking about global interdependence of cyber security (Clemente, 2013). The second article is discussing about EINSTEIN 3 extension to improve the critical infrastructure in cyber space (Bellovin et al., 2011). This article is discussing about the particular program that needs to be improved as per the changing scenario of cyber security. The third article discusses about Cyber Infrastructure Protection that shows its impact on a bigger platform. The Cyber Infrastructure Protection is discussed briefly to understand the major aspects of cyber space (Saadawi & Jordan, 2011). The fourth article shows the National Protection Framework authorized by Government to enhance and improve the cyber space however, within the rules and regulations (Homeland Security, 2016). Hence, it shows that cyber security is important to manage and maintain the critical infrastructure protection however, with different approaches in all the articles.

The Critical Infrastructure Protection Plan of FEMA addresses key requirements for article Clemente, (2011), through the factors that are considered and discussed in the Critical Infrastructure Protection Plan. The factors are prevention of terrorism and threats, protection of homelands from terrorism and natural or manmade disasters, mitigation of disasters and threats to reduce losses, response to protection, environment and basic human needs, and recovery of affected communities.

Therefore, the policy question which arises is that up to what extent cyber security is acceptable if abiding by the policy.

According to Xia, (2011), it was learned that the task of EOC are highly complex and has the risk to fail as there are inherent dilemmas which adds the complexity of the task that conflict the dimensions. A set of assessment tools and framework was develop. It was found in one of the section that emergency managers face significant challenges that can manage the conflict that are imposed by task complexity. The personnel of EOC are pressured that respond to disaster event. Thus, the article discuss the frameworks that can manage the complexity of the tasks and enhance the performance of knowledge-sharing strategies. The article has discussed the dimensions of different complexity for emergency management task.

Cyber Infrastructure Protection: Impact and Importance

According to National Research Council, (2003), there are various types of threats related with IT infrastructure, some of them are known and some are unknown. The physical attack is the primary attack that often occurs such as false information to people, interference with communication systems, heightening the terror among the people and distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDOS). There are other possibilities also such as attacks on public networks, internet, financial system, control systems, computing facilities and real/embedded-time computing. These attacks should be taken into account to maintain and manage the threats through strategy such as emergency response of systems. They are Intra-operability and Interoperability, communications capacity should be deployed on an emergency basis and security for Ad Hoc rapid networks. The other are tools for decision support and information management, communicating with people, deployment of emergency sensor, identification for precise location, mapping of physical aspects of the Information Infrastructure and characterization of functions in case of emergency. Hence, these strategies are developed and deployed through the recommendations as per the emergencies that occur before and after as discussed in the different sections of the book.

According to Laufs, (2011), it has found in the article that emergency management system has a design that is based on the multi-touch platform-independent technology. It aims at supporting the process of emergency management were all phases are analyse and the decision are made. A wide range of data sources are taped and offer a digestible view that has comprehensive offers. The legacy of the data sources are kept open for integrating the data sources for the future. Thus, the article has contributed a ubiquitous design for the emergency management system which is based on the mobile integration and components that are multi-touch with data mining capabilities and sensor fusion.

According to Amin & Goldstein, (2008), Information Management System has an effective response that has respond to a major disaster which involves numerous challenges that can be track and display vulnerable population. There have been new system developed by civil society, agencies of international humanitarian or government. It facilitate the needs of collecting information, manage the humanitarian supplies, and assist the population that is displaced. Thus, it affect the developing countries that has disaster propensity and there is an occurrence of global disaster that point the urgent need of institutional framework. However, the system application is limited to Sri Lanka and other Asian countries which demonstrate the system robustness.

According to Becerra-Fernandez et al., (2008), Emergency management tasks are complex and dynamic. The events are diverse and rare with diverse characteristics. Prior decisions were documented thoroughly however it does not cover every issue. There were events that are unanticipated and unique which arise during the emergency. The factors for the success of critical emergency management are dynamic, complex and nature of inter-organizational. The article thus given the information that vEOC enable to overcome the challenges which are related to studies of disaster management and their survey. The article provides an environment that are ideal where experimental studies can be conducted and the test-bed of vEOC has enable them to manipulate and conduct the mediating and independent variable.

References

Amin, S., & Goldstein, M. P. (Eds.). (2008). Data against natural disasters: establishing effective systems for relief, recovery, and reconstruction. World Bank Publications.

Becerra-Fernandez, I., Xia, W., Gudi, A., & Rocha, J. (2008, May). Task characteristics, knowledge sharing and integration, and emergency management performance: research agenda and challenges. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2008) (pp. 88-92).

Bellovin, S. M., Bradner, S. O., Diffie, W., & Landau, S. (2011). Can it really work-problems with extending EINSTEIN 3 to critical infrastructure. Harv. Nat'l Sec. J., 3, 1.

Clemente, D. (2013). Cyber security and global interdependence: what is critical?. Chatham House, Royal Institute of International Affairs.

Homeland Security. (2016). National Protection Framework [Ebook] (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1466017309052-85051ed62fe595d4ad026edf4d85541e/National_Protection_Framework2nd.pdf

Laufs, U. (2011). Towards ubiquitous emergency management systems.

National Research Council. (2003). Information technology for counterterrorism: Immediate actions and future possibilities. National Academies Press.

Saadawi, T. N., & Jordan, L. (Eds.). (2011). Cyber Infrastructure Protection (Vol. 1). Strategic Studies Institute.

Xia, W., Becerra-Fernandez, I., Gudi, A., & Rocha, J. (2011). Emergency management task complexity and knowledge-sharing strategies. Cutter IT Journal, 24(1), 20.

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