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Proper Cleaning and Maintenance of Baking Equipment

List all essential equipment and utensils required for the preparation of the listed pastes and pastry products, and explain the general hygiene and safety requirements for preparing and using these:

Short or sweet paste – Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Tarts - Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Shortbread biscuits- Cutters, Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Profiteroles- Decorative tips, Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Bouchées- Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Apple Strudel - Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Danish pastries – Kitchen Towel, Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Sponge - Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Fruit Cake- Moulds, Decorative Tips, Food processor, pastry brush, baking pans, rolling pin, mixing bowl, plastic wrap, dough hook and measuring cups.

Proper Cleaning Maintenance And Disinfection Of Equipment Throughout Use Or When Replacing a Food Item Is Vital For Any Job It Is Critical To Consider Whs When Operating equipment to avoid harm or even death. You should guarantee that you are fully instructed about how to use it. Mistakes and failures in equipment must be reported to the supervisor, and any defective equipment must be marked and withdrawn from service (Passini, Chagas and Demarco 2019). To inhibit the spread of mould and germs, correct storage arrangements must be designed to guarantee that equipment could be dried properly. Bacterial development can be exacerbated by improper handling of milk products and custards at the time of cooking.

2. What are the nutritional aspects which apply for pastries, cakes and yeast goods? Which factors need to be considered to lower carbohydrates and fat, substitute sugar, increase fibre and make adjustments for general dietary requirements and allergies?

Cakes, in particular, are not typically thought of as good sources of nutrition because they often include cream, fat, and sugar. However, you must look at the overall nourishment allowance inside a meal to evaluate if the different menu items might contribute to the healthy value. Eating is also about adjusting, and a little sugar or chocolate never hurts (Siminiuc 2020). Buttermilk, skim milk yogurt, and goat's milk are all low-fat alternatives that you can use. Polyunsaturated fats could be used instead of butter, even though they would alter the final taste.

We do not provide information about the use of simulated sweetener. They have an impact on the item's type and include a wide range of fixes that leave a metallic finish on the palate. As a sweetener, it is preferable to use a new natural ingredient. The use of various types of flour in cooked products increases dietary fibre intake, particularly with wholegrain and other flours including wheat or oat husks. Pumpernickel, sourdough bread, and other made - to - order and artisan bread selections give the menu a wide range of options. The addition of grain or other dietary fibre to white flour aids digestion and promotes a healthier eating regimen (Do Nascimento, Paes and Augusta 2018). You should be extremely cautious while arranging and using things that include wheat, grain, or rye-based ingredients. Crisp natural product also provides fibre as well as a wide range of minerals and vitamins. To make a wholemeal sweet glue with rhubarb filling, adjust the recipes by leaving the skins on apples and bananas to add fibre or making a wholemeal sweet glue with rhubarb stuffing.

Using Low-Fat and Whole-Grain Ingredients for Healthier Meals

3. Yeast and its relevance for producing yeast goods. Provide an overview of:

4. How does yeast work in principle? What is its role in the bread-making process?

Fermentation, the mysterious process that transforms a dense ball of dough into a well-risen loaf of bread, is powered by yeast. Yeast is a fungus, which reproduces and generates ferments by turning starches and sugars into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol. It gives flavour to long-fermented bakery items by producing lactic acids.

1. What are the requirements for yeast to be active?

Sugar and oxygen are required for yeast to develop. The appropriate temperature is also required for yeast to develop. For activating yeast, it must be exposed to room temperature air. A slight warm water will also work.

2. What is the yeast activity at the following temperatures?

1-4°C – inactive

<23°C – its growth speed gets reduced significantly.

24-30°C- steady growth

31-35°C- rapid growth

45°C- fermentation starts declining

55°C- death

4. Explain the following production methods for short paste including points of care:

5. The rub-in method

The rub-in technique utilizes solid pastry bases with more density that helps keep the shape of a quiche or pie base, for instance. Any fluids added to the base would not leak or soak by means of paste because of the solid base.

It is utilized to deliver light and vaporous item. There are 2 sorts of creaming techniques, it is used to transport light and noxious products. There are two types of creaming procedures, but only one is used for cakes; the other is used for cookies. The fat and sugar are mixed together till smooth in the cooked good technique. This is also known as mixing and is usually done with the help of a mixer with a whisk attachment. The eggs or liquid is repeatedly added until it is amalgamated, and then the flour is quickly mixed in. If the lard and egg mixture start to sour, add a pinch of flour to keep it from becoming sour. While adequate air circulation is required, it should not be exhausted, as the finished product will spread excessively.

  1. Provide the ingredients and ratios of ingredients for the following pastes:

Pastes

Ingredients

Ratios

Savoury Short Paste – Pâte Brisée

Liquid, fat, flour

1:2:4

Sweet Paste – Pâte Sucrée

Sugar, fat, flour

1:2:3

Lining Paste – Pâte à Foncer

Sugar, fat, flour

1:2:4

Sablée Paste – Pâte Sablée

Icing, Sugar, Egg, yolks and milk

1:2:2.5

6. List the sequential steps and points of care for the preparation and baking of choux paste.

Step 1: Boling the butter and liquid together and then cutting down the fats into small pieces to increase the speed of the melting process.

Step 2: Adding the flour and boiling the liquid rapidly, allowing them to accept more liquid. Make sure that butter is melted before adding on the flour.

Step 3: Working the whole mixture with a wooden spatula and returning to heat till the mixture is pulled from all the side of pan.

Step 4: Wait till a white layer is created at the bottom and then remove the mixture from heating and the cooling it below 45 degrees centigrade. It is important to cool down the panada first and then add the eggs.

Step 5: Adding eggs one by one until the entire mixture is reaching the dropping uniformity.

Different Types of Pastes and Their Ratios to Make Perfect Crusts

Step 6: Piping in a greased tray.

Step 7: Bake the bigger items like choux buns at 200 degrees centigrade and the smaller ones like profiteroles at 220 degrees centigrade.

  • Adding very little to no sugar will allow the natural sugar present in the flour to make the crust brown.
  • Sprinkling water on the baking tray would help in providing additional rising
  1. What is Danish Paste? How is it produced? Provide the production steps for different varieties of Danish pastries:

Danish is a rich paste, which makes use of a base of flour, yeast and milk, mixed and kept cold for retarding the yeast and controlling prove (Lucas et al. 2018).

  1. Bear Paws: Rolling paste and cutting down into two strips of about 25 to 40cm. Spreading the filling in centre and then brushing the edges with the fold over and egg wash.  Finally, cutting into three to four centi-meter strips and the cutting the wedges (Bech et al. 2019).
  2. Spandau- Moving the paste to 3-4mm thickness and the cutting down into squares of 10cms. Piping and placing the filling inside and then overlaying the corners into the centre.
  3. Windmills- Moving the paste to 3-4mm thickness and the cutting down into squares of 10cms. Then making 3cm compromises toward the centre. Overlapping one side of the cut towards the middle and then rehashing the other three cuts too.
  4. Which processes puff pastry to rise? How is this done correctly? Which techniques and combinations should be used?

The rise of the puff pastry is done by laminating and then creating steam at the time of baking (Rustamovich 2022).

Six single revolutions produce the nicest full puff paste. This method creates the most layers without compromising the paste's structure, but it requires the most time.

The various procedures used result in a broad range of completed goods. The chef must understand the proper procedure and what it will accomplish so that he or she can examine and evaluate the end products for any flaws in the manufacturing process or the products employed (Gudeman 2019). A variety of techniques are used to create some pastry goods. Yeast and lamination are used in Danish pastry; mechanical and chemical aeration are used in cakes; and yeast and chemical oxygenation are used in some breads.

9. List the ratio of ingredients and the preparation method of a Genoese sponge including points of care:

The ingredients are four eggs, 100gm of sugar, 100gm of flour

The ratio is 2:1:1

  • The eggs and sugar are whisked to blood temp in a bain-marie, subsequently placed in a blender and beaten to sabayon stage, before the flour is mixed in.
  • Butter is used to provide moisture to the dish. This procedure is rapid, and the butter extends the product's life span while using fewer equipment.
  1. List 3 production methods for meringues and provide an example for the use of each type:
  2. For Basic Meringue- The ingredients are four egg whites, 200gm sugar, 10gm corn flour. First, whip the egg whites and then pour in the sugar while mixing everything until the mixture becomes stiff. Finally, add the corn flour and pipe them into shapes.
  3. For Italian Meringue- The ingredients are four egg whites, 250gm of boiled sugar (soft ball stage). First, whip the egg whites and pour in it the sugar mixture while mixing everything. Continue whipping until the whole mixture becomes stable and cold.
  4. For Swiss Meringue- The ingredients are five egg whites, 120gm of caster sugar and 120gm of icing sugar. First, beat the egg whites and add in it, caster sugar in warn brain-marie. Do the same until the mixture becomes stiff. Then continue whipping until it becomes cold and then fold under the icing sugar.
  5. Choose a recipe for a bread yeast dough of your choice and list the steps for the production in order. Provide the key criteria for evaluating the external and internal quality characteristics and explain what the desired eating characteristics should be in general:

Ingredients: Five cups of all purpose flour, two tablespoon of yeast, two tablespoon of sugar, one tablespoon of salt and two cups of warm water and 1/4th cup of cooking oil

Weighing

Calculating the ratios and taking the required amount

Mixing

Ensuring correct time and consistency

Dough

Ensuring correct time and consistency for the gluten development

Intermediate proof

Allowing the required amount of time

Knockback

Weighing precisely

Rounding

Covering to make sure that there is no development of skin

Shaping

Shaping precisely

Moulding

Folding correctly

Final proofing

Ensuring correct temperature of 35 to 40 degree centigrade and relative humidity of 85 to 90%

Baking

Ensuring correct time

Cooling

Cooling down the rack with enough airflow for allowing the items to dry

Internal Characteristics

External Characteristics

Eating Characteristics

Crumb characteristics- whether they are correct bread type

Texture

Strength

Colour

Cores and Seams

Crust colour

Volume

Sidewalls

Symmetry

Corners

Whether the loaf have good shine

Aroma

Flavour

Crumb texture

Mouth Feel

 12. Provide a recipe for unleavened bread and list the production steps.

Recipe

Production Steps

Chapati

One cup of wholemeal flour

Two table spoon of oil

One table spoon of salt

One cup plain flour

3/4th cup of hot water

Add a pinch of salt to the wholemeal flour and add water to it and knead it to make a dough

Add one spoon of oil and knead the dough again

Divide into 10 small balls

Rest for few minutes

Heat a fry pan with medium heat

Roll out the balls and make thin circle

Smoke the chapati in the pan and cook until it gets light brown in both side.

 13. Provide an overview for the storage requirements of pastries, cakes and yeast goods including the appropriate provisions to meet food safety requirements and explain how these storage areas must be checked and maintained.

  1. The perishable products like the dairy products are to be refrigerated in between 0 to 5 degree centigrade
  2. The fruits should be refrigerated
  3. The cans and jars should be air-tight
  4. The dry products should be kept away from moisture and heat

Checking and maintenance of Storage Areas

The equipment that is utilised should also be stored properly. A constant temperature of 0 to 5 degrees Celsius is required in the cool room or refrigerator. In a busy institution, a plastic curtain can help maintain consistent temperatures. Labelling is a vital step since it ensures that FIFO standards are maintained and it also aids in the monitoring of product longevity (Mitreva, Gjurevska and Gjorshevski 2018).

14. You have prepared a selection of different pastries, cakes and yeast goods. How would you present these for sale for individual servings, as part of function/buffet or on display? Which principles for presentation must be considered?

I would be using the display cabinet for presenting my food items. I would serve them on bowls and plates that would suit the overall presentation of the very dish. Pastry ingredients can be included in a petits fours menu. Petit fours will be presented differently depending on the event and serving style. An assortment of biscuits and tiny baked products are frequently offered with coffee as a complement. A big hotel with a pastry kitchen will almost surely give these as part of a menu that includes exquisite tiny tartlets and other treats.

It should wow the buyer, persuade them to purchase, and promote my abilities. The cabinet must be well to bring out the product's sheen and gloss without overheating it. To maximum aesthetic value, keep everything nice, clean, and orderly by arranging variously coloured and adorned cakes.

References:

Bech, S., Brunoe, T.D., Nielsen, K. and Andersen, A.L., 2019. Product and process variety management: case study in the food industry. Procedia CIRP, 81, pp.1065-1070.

Do Nascimento, K.D.O., Paes, S.D.N.D. and Augusta, I.M., 2018. A review “Clean Labeling”: Applications of natural ingredients in bakery products. J. Food Nutr. Res, 6(5), pp.285-294.

Gudeman, J., 2019. Formation of Low Density and Free-Flowing Hollow Microparticles from Non-Hydrogenated Oils and Preparation of Pastries with Shortening Fat Composed of the Microparticles.

Lucas, T., Collewet, G., Bousquières, J. and Deligny, C., 2018. The size of eye-shaped bubbles in Danish pastry in relation to the size of fat fragments; A reverse engineering approach of the alveolar structure. Journal of Food Engineering, 237, pp.194-203.

Mitreva, E., Gjurevska, S. and Gjorshevski, H., 2018. Optimization of the business processes in a company for manufacture of bread and bakery products in Macedonia. Tem Journal, 7(2), pp.439-445.

Passini, A.F.C., Chagas, P. and Demarco, J.D.O., 2019. Cleaner production options for a small bakery. Gestão & Produção, 26.

Rustamovich, A.O., 2022, February. Stages Of Production Of Bread And Bakery Products In Uzbekistan

. In Conference Zone (pp. 355-358).

Siminiuc, R., 2020. The influence of biotechnological strategies on nutritional aspects of bakery products.

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