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Assume that an Australian State Government has reviewed the Singapore Government’s Smart Nation Plan and has decided to implement their own Smart State Plan. This will initially consist of a network of smart sensors and cameras at traffic lights, bus stops, rubbish bins, etc. in their CBD to monitor citizens behaviour and address street crime.

1. Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart Sensor Network by looking at:

a. The types or categories of people affected by this proposal, 

b. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens,

c. Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules, etc.

The next part of the Government’s plan is to deploy a Smart WiFi Network which will consist of a series of sensor boxes to act as WiFi hotspots throughout the city. This would allow the introduction of a heterogeneous network where smart phones and other devices could seamless switch between mobile data and WiFi.

2. Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart WiFi Network by looking at:

a. The types or categories of people affected by this proposal,

b. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens using their mobile devices in the CBD,

c. Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules, etc.

d. What are the implications for you If you had sensitive information on your mobile device that you did not want to share?

The Smart State Plan will also enrol all citizens with a Digital Identity to ensure that they can correctly be identified and access services provided by the state both electronically and physically.

3. If you were visiting the State Capital after the Smart State Plan has rolled out, do you think that the use of a digital identity would assist you to maintain your privacy while using your mobile phone or devices during your visit? Discuss the reasons for your answer.  

4. What steps do you think that you could take to ensure the security and privacy of your digital identity while operating your mobile device(s) in this environment? Discuss each step that you would take along with its advantages and disadvantages.   

The Personal and Ethical Implications of Privacy of Government Sensor Network

Cloud services are considered to be attractive to various business as it flexible and cost-effective. But the adaptation of this technology results in various security issues (van den Nouwelant et al., 2015). Criminals also consider cloud services as an attack on various targets which can easily bring a large amount of data. The first step in increasing security is to properly understand the various elements of the attack. Another benefit which can be obtained is that it helps to defend against a new type of attack if and only if past attacks are known. After that another step can be taken for managing cloud services the s to easily quantify and access the given the risk. Smart city can be considered as a well-know term which can be used for providing a description of the compound system which is integrated to operate in various urban regions. Smart cities are considered as an organization with its citizen as employees (Hooper, Giles-Corti & Knuiman, 2014). There is a growing demand for smart cities in the near future which can easily forecast and manage the urban flows. Urban development and growth of cities have turned these cities towards various technology. Smart cities in Australian cities make use of different ICT (Information and Communication Technology). Cities are now changing digital cities into smart cities which are considered to be more technology oriented.

In the coming pages of the report, an idea has been provided regarding the implementation of the Australian Smart national plan in Singapore. After that, a discussion has been a government plan which is used for deploying Smart Wi-Fi. The smart plan for the device will check the fact citizen are identified properly both physically and electronically. A discussion has been provided on the fact that digital identity will help in maintaining privacy. The last section of the report deals with security and privacy issue of digital identity regarding the operating environment of the device.

Cities are now changing digital cities or intelligent cities which are making use of technology (Young & Grant, 2015). A city is termed as a smart city when various elements are properly instrumented, self-repairing, learning. Section of the infrastructure and various facilities are connected and optimized by making use of ICT to easily deliver services to the citizen. Challenges involved in various phases like planning, the operation of cities are more encouraging for a large number of process. Professional across various domains like constructing, information technology is required for proper understanding of stakeholders and the method used for engaging them. The information system has become very relevant in an urban environment which creates opportunities for capturing information (Yigitcanlar et al., 2017).  Water is considered to be an essential element for a living and various people around the globe are wasting it. Water needs to be transported efficiently and an intelligent system should be there which will help in ensuring the quality of water. Currently used pipes in Singapore is not as much as intelligent as treat faults in pipes. Smart cities are making use of sensory-based technology.

The Personal and Ethical Implications of Smart Wi-Fi Network

All the category of people will be affected by the implementation of a Smart Sensor Network plan. It will benefit a large number of people of the society. Smart sensors at a various location like a bus stop and rubbish bins will help them in carrying out their day to day activities in the much easier way. With the help of sensor implementation, people can easily schedule their day to day in a better way like keeping track of the time schedule of buses on their mobile phone.

 With the help of growth technology, the city can be administering to find out faults before any kind of loss. To have a peaceful and healthy living the environment should be monitored on a regular interval. When an individual has a good quality of air he can easily live a blissful life (Uribe-Pérez et al., 2016). Sensors should be implemented at a different location like parks and other places which are used for monitoring air quality and weather. Any kind of upcoming epidemics can be easily calculated with the help of combining data from various sensors. In many cases, it is seen that smart sensors can easily safeguard one’s life and can also act like a guardian. A major problem is encountered in proper data analysis and its transmission by different nodes and post analysis of data. IoT makes use of data which is used for collection and analysis. Sensors placed at different region of city can be easily connected to cloud and it can be done through large number of ways. Data processing would in the cloud can be done with the help of certain rules and protocols. Wi-Fi is considered as the default medium which is used for establishing a connection. It generally carriers almost half of the internet traffic and almost 10 times traffic than cellular. It can be considered to be crucial factor which is used for development more specially in certain regions like cities and business which has been increasing in last few years (Scarborough et al., 2015). The new era of smart cities has been creating connectivity which is easily accessible and reliable. Urban setting has resulted in certain number of challenges which is used for completing the thing used for broader network and internet. In most of the cases Wi-Fi is encountered as a method which is used for connecting internet and advancement of Wi-Fi-based technology which has been kept on promises. Wi-Fi users easily ensure the fact that they have optimal connected experience regarding the device location. Old design of building is mainly dependent on various things like fixed lines and copper cables (Hua, Oliphant & Hu, 2016). Currently the Wi-Fi technology have replaced various kinds of wireless development. Wi-Fi certified technology have grown which has resulted in accommodation of all kinds of all kinds of function that ranges from multimedia entertainment to Wi-Fi calling (Pettit et al., 2015). Connectivity which is developed or provided by the help of emerging Wi-Fi frequency below 1 GHz has been properly developed to the given range. The reach of signal will be easily developed by materials to range signal from more materials. It is particular well-suited for application which comes up with low data in think control and home sensors. It is considered to be more suitable for places for smart home devices and various application which does not require any kind of constant speed connection. This type of devices is located in harder places to reach like kitchens or bedroom. At the other side, 60 GHz band makes easy transfer of data to some physical obstruction (Calder, 2016). This is considered to be a best option which can be used for replacing the various cables lines within the rooms for everything that ranges from home entertainment to home computer networks which require high bandwidth connectivity (Kumar, 2015). In between there are two frequency band that is 2.4 and 5 GHz bandwidth which are considered to be common for use in multimedia and internet connection.

Assisting privacy with the digital identity during a visit

In the last few years, understanding the need for the internet is considered to be vital for various day to day work and has increased a lot. Security concern and issues related to privacy have been raised in different regions of the world (Hu, Wu & Shih, 2015). Various privacy experts have increased the issues of public Wi-Fi system at various places like metro, malls and other places. Some concern is still there for various cities which are planning to easily take advantage of Wi-Fi (Shatkin, 2014). The major kind of issue can be from the problem of connectivity that is 4.5 billion every day. Various connected cities need to address factors which will improve broadband availability and connection.

The use of wireless area networks has been increased in last few years like education institutes, public places and business. 802.11 makes use of mechanism which can give security to data which is transmitted. With the passage of time the number of application related to wireless technology has been increased. People can easily access the internet from location like airport and hotels. Some kind of privacy issues comes into action when it comes to the use of public hotspot. If a customer wants to create a website, then that individual needs to provide some data to the developer. This ultimately leads to some kind of security issues as attack can be done by the help of those details. Unauthorized access is considered to be main problem as there are no other regulation to act on individual.

All the category of people will be affected by the proposed Government Smart Wi-Fi Network. With the help of this plan, people can easily people of the city can easily internet irrespective of their location. The plan will help people to carry out day to day activities like checking mail and notification at any location.

Wi-Fi is required seamless connection of future which is done band of arrays for wireless spectrum. Apart from this, cities and business are coming with a challenge to a limited wireless access (Chiu, 2018). It is done by widespread deployment and connection to web-based location or device. To provide protection of user data and information Australian government focus on retaining people data. It is all about informing people about the kind of data which is collected from them along with ensuring the fact that it is stored properly. In a matter of ISP provider giving free service, it can lead to information of people when they log on with their email address (Ho, 2017). Under the Act, various data protection principles should comply with various data controllers. Along with it needs to be sure that the given information is easily given in a lawful way. It is used in such a way that the given data is adequate and relevant in nature. Similar to mobile phones, Wi-Fi devices come up identifier which can be used for tracking purpose can easily result in various kinds of security issues. Tracking by making use of Wi-Fi Hotspot can easily result in third-party damage like stalking (Rakovic et al., 2016). For making use of service various services need personal information which is provided by the help of advertisement and other third parties services. E-commerce and other bodies generally depend on internet-based services for the movement of data (Denkovski et al., 2015). The flow of data across the borders generally allows various people to easily access the global value or range and quality of services which is provided. It also aims in providing various kinds of benefits to individual and business which allow the digital economy to easily grow.

Ensuring security and privacy of digital identity while operating mobile devices

 While using public Wi-Fi four steps can be easily taken for securing data.

Virtual Private Network (VPN) can be considered as the best way of securing traffic. When a connection is established between the mobile device and public Wi-Fi all the internet traffic is sent from the computer by making use of an encrypted tunnel which is provided at the end point (Maier & Verikoukis, 2014). The traffic can be used for securing any kind of eavesdroppers which is there in public network. There are some kinds of software available which can be used in a mobile phone which starts automatically when a connection is established with Wi-Fi hotspot.

The user should not perform any kind of FTP (File transfer protocol) over the given Wi-Fi. It can be easily avoided by making use of other protocols which transfer the data in an unsecured way

A very common kind of attack generally requires a hacker which is needed for setting up a public hotspot not in their own site of the hotspot. It is considered to be very much similar to various issues in the business case (Sivaraman et al., 2015). The issues are all about the browsing activity are easily routed with the help of the attacker’s network which can help in monitoring. To easily overcome this problem, the proper name of the hotspot from the business is required in the monitoring traffic. To eathe sily avoid this problem, the proper name from the SSID hotspot is required. Along with one point should be taken into account that two access points come up with the same name.

Digital identity is also known as identity 2.0 has grown a lot in the last few years. It makes use of emerging technology like Open ID, Microsoft window space. It helps in keeping a knowledge regarding the servers of Facebook to have an idea regarding users all over the people. Digital identity management is the very important thing which helps us in defining ourselves in the digital world (Zeng, Pathak & Mohapatra, 2016). Everyone around the world come up with a digital identity and it affects the people in the direct or indirect way. All action is built in a digital world that is specifically our identity in the global profile. Traditional digital management system helps in identifying the current digital age. It ultimately helps in identification of privacy which helps in identifying management system. Identity risk analysis helps in getting an idea regarding the probability in a particular transaction. Proper designing and choosing of privacy protection identity management system help in having an idea regarding the founding principles. In current principles, two principles are used for two core information privacy concern are used like observability and linkability (Demetriou et al., 2017). In observability their possibility in which an individual can easily gain information. The observer may look for parties to easily communicating and service providing the communication. In linkability there come up with potential which can be used for linking data with the individual as well as the potential difference between the given data set. It can be easily used for further analysis. Proper controllability generally requires maintaining separate context which can be used for accumulation of sensitive data. Identity information is generally required for keeping a track of information (Hexmoor, 2016). The most well-known principles in Fair Information principles have been adopted by the Australian Government. The principles are widely used for collection and personal use of information (Zou et al., 2018). Identity management system generally needs seven fair information practices principles which are instructive in nature like:

Openness: The current system requires personal data which is known publicly along with a description system for the main purpose. It also elaborates on the use of personal data which is provided in the given system.

Individual participation: Right should be given an individual to easily view the various kinds of information collected about them (Feher, 2015). Apart from this, there should be possibly any kind of way which is used for any kind of correction and removal of data.

Limitation of Collection: Certain limits should be there for the proper collection of personal data. Personal data should be collected in an awful and proper method.

Data Quality: Personal data should be similar to giving purpose for which it is collected and used many times. It should comprise three parameters like accurate, timely and complete in nature.

Finality: The proper use and disclosure of given personal data should be limited in nature. Personal data should be used for the purpose of given time of collection (Feher, 2016). It should not be disclosed without the consent of individual or legal authority.

Security: Personal data should be protected by proper kind of security safeguard against loss of risk, unauthorized kind of access, destruction or modification and any kind of disclosure.

Accountability: The personnel involved in keeping the personal data should be mainly accountable for easily complying with various practices.

There is a large number of methods which can be easily used for the protection of the digital identity of an individual.  

Credit and identity monitoring: Credit card monitoring generally requires some of the services which can be used for saving a breach. Identity monitoring breach generally requires proper monitoring of credit card plus monitoring of dark web of information (Grassi, Garcia & Fenton, 2017). Some of the monitoring issues generally help an individual to over problem when an individual is exposed to resolve various kinds of issues or problems. Credit card monitoring service can be considered as a well-known method which can be used for protection of data.

Password: The best way to solve for password issues can be the use of password manager like Dash lane, Norton Identity Safe. With the help of a password manager, one can easily create a master password which is used for accessing all the password (Hooper, Giles-Corti & Knuiman, 2014). It will merely auto-fill forms from website allowing a citizen to copy/ paste the thing as per requirement. Password manager generally generates and manages a different 16-digit complex password given for each requirement. It generally stores the secret kind of information which is required for making a full-featured digital wallet. It helps in copy and pasting values along with strong encryption. Generally, two kinds of time are required for creating a complex password that one for less secure sites and the second one is for sites which must be secure in nature.

Phishing and Social Engineering: Phishing fraud generally requires the involvement of a fraudster to give the information (Young & Grant, 2015). A fraudster can easily ask for personal information by phone or email linked with attachment. The best to get defense from this kind of attack is to educate an individual on regular basis.

Back up of important data on regular basis: Whenever a ransomware attack takes place; victims can easily get an idea that they could have protected themselves by keeping a back up of data (Yigitcanlar et al., 2017). Now if an attacker gets the access to a system then the additional kind of data can be easily restored from backup. Important data should be backup regularly by IT providers for ensuring that all the vital information is stored securely in the data centers.


From the above discussion, it can be easily concluded that this report is all about Implementation of smart plan. Australian State Government plan has recently reviewed Singapore government plan and has decided to implement their own Smart State plan. The smart state plan mainly comprises of network smart sensors and camera at various places like a bus stop, rubbish bins in CBD. It helps in easy monitoring the behavior of citizen along with addressing the street crime. In the above pages of the report, four aspects have been discussed in details like smart sensors, Wi-Fi hotspot, digital identity and security and privacy controls. The personal and ethical implication of privacy for Government smart sensors has been discussed in details. In this, three important aspects like the category of people affected, changes in behavior, changes in individual behavior has been discussed. After that Government plan for deployment of Wi-Fi hotspots which mainly ensures a series of networks is deployed throughout the city. After that personal and ethical implication of privacy for given government plan has been discussed in detail. In this section, a list of implication for storing vital information on a mobile device has been discussed in details. Smart state plan will provide the citizen with different services which can be used in both ways that electronically and physically. A proper justification has been regarding the fact that Smart state plan will help in maintaining privacy on a mobile phone during the visit of an individual. In the end, a list of list of steps has been provided which can easily ensure the security and privacy of digital identity when mobile devices will operate in such an environment. Along with this advantage and disadvantage of each and every step has been discussed. A list of steps has been discussed which can be used for maintaining the security of digital identity has been discussed in details like monitoring of credit card, password, phishing and social engineering and back up of important data has been discussed in details.


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