Positivism Approach - Its Limitations in Applying Empirical Reasoning
Positivism has been considered to be one of the most critical course of social philosophy and academic action which has been recently recognised within the academic learning areas. However, considering the current learning structure, it has been identified by various scholars that the positivism approach might have a subsequent barrier related to its limits in applying a significant empirical reasoning (Kivisto, 2020). Hence, the essay aims to critically analyse the subsequent criticism pertaining the positivism approach through the lens of the implementation of the critical social theory covering the contemporary issue of sexual division of labour.
The Critical social theory has been introduced in the book named “The Disciplinary Position of Theory” which is observed to be directed to provide a deep reasoning to the various theoretical approaches incorporated within the comprehension of the social construct based on the opinions of recent scholars. According to Kivisto (2020), it has been noticed that the rapid popularisation of the theoretical interpretation of the societal concepts it can be noticed that the interest of discovering the critical theory has subsequently behind the basic concept of sociology. The book subsequently discovers the recent intractable patterns it embarks upon the significant social approaches. Considering the views of prominent social scholars like Marx and Engels, the historical role of the working class can be determined through the evolution of the current scenario of the capitalist market economy. As suggested by Browne (2020), to contradict the ideas, the assumption of the critical social theory the essay has been followed a more critical path to channelize the directions provided by scientists like Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg. The implications of their opinions have subsequently pushed back the idea about the involvement of philosophical approaches in defining the course of actions in natural law. Within this context, it can be further added based on the presented argument by Patterson (2018), that the natural science model being emulated over the concept of positivist theory in the matter has gradually contested with the various scientific explanation of the natural events being devoid of philosophical explanations. Within the crirucak of the positivism approach, the metaphysical perception of the history in its rigid and eternal patterns. The theorists also confirm that the constructed outlook of the positivism approach can impact in the emancipation of the critical secondary explanation of the societal events.
The gender roles and division of labour within the different industrial boundaries have been noted to be a predominant issue that cannot be addressed in any method. Moreover, according to Bonell et al., (2018), it has been noted that the critical social theory intricately attempts to explain the various factual implications of the imbalanced gender roles in the society. It has been noticed within the domain of the economic theories that the initial concepts have subsequently afield to meet the standards of the economic productivity due to the subsequent impact of the unbalanced treatment of labour division. As suggested by Patterson (2018), the unequal efforts and financial support several by the employees have been an intricate issue for the progress of the industries into different organisational sectors. The positivism approach can be considerably defied through the values reliable empirical data and information entitled within the experimental setting for evaluating the strategies. As suggested by Strauss (2020), the concept of “Division of labour” as an empirical societal study has been noted to be conceptualised by sociologist Durkheim as he directs to the positioning if labour as a matter of direct proportion to keep a balance within the society maintaining a level of moral density. As suggested by Bonell et al., (2018), the approach can be subsequently defined as the inclusion of the volume of individuals with respect to societal groups or within a particular society. On the other hand, the theoretical concept of labour decision has been contradicted by sociologist Henry David Thoreau and disconnect the people from a subsequent sense of connectedness within the society within a significant natural environment. The present several condition has been examined to be a “savage” society directing the attention of the readers to the prevailing class division within the people based on economic status.
Critical Social Theory - Introduction and its Key Significance
Although the concept has been vehemently challenged by various understating of the social construct by several scholars and sociologist, it has been noticed that the division of labour had certain advantages in shaping the productivity of the nations. According to O’Neill (2018), it has been observing through the course of cation followed by the various organisations in assessing the measures about ways in which Durkheim’s theory has been beneficial for the society. Efficient mastery has been one of the major influence of the division of labour as the skills development of the individuals had been more time consuming and let them focus within particular areas of improving the techniques. Simultaneously, as suggested by Bonell (2018), with a controlled number of employees over a certain area of expertise have been able to receive proper trading for being able to subsequently master the requirements of the job profile. With the efficient allocation of the workers the resource division of the organisations have been easier to maintain quality production whilst reducing the rate of employee turnover within the organisations (Siegfried, 1960). Even though these areas of improvement have been quite successful, it is still agreed upon by the theorists and professors that the critical social theory has been significantly constricted into the nature of modern issues (Siegfried, 1953).
The dependence on the social values can be identified to be one of the major weaknesses of the critical social theories. It is observed that the social theories often depend a significant social entity like communal behaviours to guide the realities of the critical path in the theoretical approaches related to social concepts (Bonell et al., 2018). Since the values are regarded to be substantially subjective to be impactful in defining meaning to the understating of the questions related to social conflict and other areas of explaining the answers to the considerable debates initiated by different theories at specific point of time. Taking in concern the impending stereotypical social values related to the perception of female and male roles as an individual is expected to fulfil. The social concepts are related to the assessing the expectations of the various societal roles have significantly pushed the progress of the society to a great extent. On the other hand, as argued by Patterson (2018), the strengths of the critical theories paradigm it has been known that the combination of the theoretical perspectives have subsequently directed towards the assimilating the set rules of the societal boundaries. It has been further noted that at a global perspective, the empirical theories have been impactful in initiating predictions over the prevalent societal actions (Siegfried, 1953). Moreover, the theoretical approaches have been believed to be capable in bringing then groups and communities together for being a part of small and large scale of projects or programs. The implementation of the critical approaches and theories can be considered to be a quite subjective method which is subsequently handled by the various theorists in asserting the gender roles and implications of positivist outlook (Siegfried, 1960).
From the above analysis, it can be concluded that the critical theories have the power to transform the course of critique society which is often utilised through the underlying misconceptions related societal life. It has been a major reason behind the preventing the individuals from contributing to the “true democracy”. The impending issue of the division of labour based on gender and class division within the societies have been a major reason behind the inclusion of critical paradigms to ascertain the meanings to social practices related to practice of the past. Moreover, the essay also directs the readers through a subsequent debates and critical judgements formed by series of scholars within the society about the conceptual relation of positivism approach in defining the existence of fascism and other social discrepancies. Even though the critical theories are capable of involving individuals and groups into communal practice, the literary restrictions faced from the positivist approach can be considered to be an impending matter of concern in academic diction.
Bonell, C., Moore, G., Warren, E., & Moore, L. (2018). Are randomised controlled trials positivist? Reviewing the social science and philosophy literature to assess positivist tendencies of trials of social interventions in public health and health services. Trials, 19(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2589-4
Browne, C. (2020). Social Practices and the Constitution of Knowledge: Critical Social Theory as a Philosophy of Praxis. Berlin Journal of Critical Theory, 4(1), 37-156. ISSN: 2567-4048
Craig, L. (2020). Coronavirus, domestic labour and care: Gendered roles locked down. Journal of Sociology, 56(4), 684-692. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1440783320942413
Kivisto, P. (2020). Social Theory: Roots and Branches, 6th Ed. New York: Oxford University Press Retrieved from: https://www.redshelf.com/app/ecom/book/1506772/social-theory-roots-and-branches-updf-1506772-9780190060404-peter-j-kivisto
O’Neill, K. E. (2018). Gendered labour divisions and a reconception of the right to water. J Ethical Urban Living, 1(2), 67-88. Retrieved from: https://jeul.cognethic.org/jeulv1i2.pdf#page=67
Patterson, D. (2018). Theoretical Disagreement, Legal Positivism, and Interpretation. Ratio Juris, 31(3), 260-275. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/raju.12216
Siegfried, M. (1953). W.E.B. DuBois Speaks! The Revolt in Africa [Video]. Retrieved 15 April 2022, from https://youtu.be/ceONKcsAxk0.
Siegfried, M. (1960). 0:02 / 34:53 W.E.B. DuBois Speaks! Socialism and the American Negro (Full) [Video]. Retrieved 15 April 2022, from https://youtu.be/kKXglS90qn4.
Strauss, K. (2020). Labour geography II: Being, knowledge and agency. Progress in Human Geography, 44(1), 150-159. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0309132518803420.
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