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Using content analysis as a research methodology for investigating intellectual capital disclosure:

Strategic business modeling representation and reasoning.

Generating an item pool for translational social cognition research:

Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research.

Research aim(s), rationale and objectives

In order to gin success in any construction project the accurate choice for procurement path is very much important that has been identified. The Building Information model (BIM), is a major challenge for the dominant construction industries. BIM helps to investigate over the positive returns on investment on different construction industry. The aim of the project is to implement BIM to increase the speed of a slower process with focused decision making. Over the past three decades, the features of construction industry are changed completely. Different procurements methods those are widely use in the construction industry include management contracting, project management, designing and building. With the continuous growth of various procurement methods most of the researchers have started investigating on these approaches. Basically, the selection is done considering the performance in terms of triple constraints such as cost, time and quality. However, the researchers failed to identify the accurate relationship between the methods of procurements and relevant issues like supply chain, technology with innovation, lean construction, sustainability, build-ability etc. The aim of this research, rationale and objectives are elaborated below.

The aim of the research is to understand the role of procurement management in Building Information Model (BIM) in the construction industry. BIM helps to make proper coordination between the public fund and the expected positive return. The construction industry already maintains BIM but it is aiming o develop the existing one with significant procurement process and design as well. After analyzing different real world project it is defined that behind each successful construction project strong procurement team had been worked efficiently (Cho and Lee 2014). Based on the details of the project, the most suitable method of procurement should be selected. Thus, collaboratively the aim of the research is to identify the most suitable method of procurement for the construction industry and the ways through which an absolute procurement method can help a project to move towards success with reputation, large size, proposal and timelines etc. 

  • To emphasize the usage of technical methods needed in the construction industry
  • To endorse a valuable advancement in the construction industry
  • To produce opportunities in the practical ambiance within the existing construction process

 After analyzing the details of the role of procurement management in the construction industry it has been found that it helps to improve the quality, speed and efficiency of the project with a reduced rate of cost. However, many businesses are also there who avoids the process of procurement methods as they feel that it slow down the process dramatically by additional paper works. However, in construction industry, procurement management is referred to as one of the most important things to be considered.  In almost every construction industry, dedicated procurement team is needed to meet the project requirements. The rationale of any project is to hire someone who would define the details of contractor’s requirements, suppliers demand and expected budget for the project implementation as well.   

The aim of research

The research objectives are as follows:

  • To gain enough productivity considering applicable resources
  • To allocate different resources based upon the construction project
  • To apply all the required resources in appropriate places associated to the project activities
  • To execute a speedy growth with all additional productive employment
  • To increase the rate of productivity with each resource those are applicable in the construction industry
  • To analyze the details of the methods for blasting, creating and developing procurement procedures
  • Section 2: Research plan for one year of research

A construction project would be referred to as successful if it is completed within estimated budget and allotted time as well. Other issues that might affect the general flow of the construction project include lack of proper communication, uncertainty, sudden change in environment, enhanced project complexity changing priority and requirements of the consumers should be analyzed accurately before the implementation of the project. It is expected that with the procurement management plan these issues could be minimized easily.  While developing research methodology for this particular research topic, it is defined that there are some steps those should be identified accurately. In order to conduct the research topic there are certain steps those are required to be organized by the researchers accurately.  Following some steps the research on the topic could be done successfully and outline of the research planning are as follows:


Development of research questions: In order to develop the research plan at the initial phase the researcher should develop some research questions. The aim of the researcher is to completely focus on research questions. The research work will be considered as a successful one, if the researchers able to answer to all the questions.  

Select the research associates:  In order to implement the research outcome accurately, people who would be associated to the project must be selected.  Based on the skills and knowledge of the associates, the work pressures must be divided among the project team members.

Time management of research work: Based upon the research requirements a timeline is needed to be prepared by the researchers (Dumay and Cai 2015). If proper time division is done then the researcher would be able to implement the project successfully within accurate time and estimated budget as well.  

Research skills: The skills of the research associates should be analyzed accurately. It would help the researchers to ideate about the research details.  Research skills are important things to be considered to end up the research work being biased.  

Selection of participants: Based on the skills and knowledge of the members of the research team the research team for this particular project must be selected It is expected that if accurate team is being selected then, it would be able to provide as per the requirements of the consumers.   

Selection of research methodologies: In order to gain successful results from the research work the researchers are required to identify proper research methodology. If the researchers failed to fulfil the expectation then, the project would not be able to deliver as per the requirements.  

Explaining the rationale

Different researches approaches are there those are required to be followed by the researchers. It is determined that, based on the research topic proper research methodologies are required to be selected by the researchers.

2.2 Locating the research plan in terms of requirements

Three different types of qualitative research approaches are there such as abduction, deductive and inductive. In most of the cases the researchers apply either the induction or deduction method. However, based on the priority and background of the research study any one research approach should be selected. Induction approach helps the researchers to change the direction from one advanced rules or structure to another through suing the generalization method (Bryman and Bell 2015). Through the help of the observations and different examples only the researchers could successfully reach the research conclusion. Thus, it can be said that induction method is that one through which final resultants could be reached by summarizing all the collected observation from the research work.  

Whereas, deduction is a completely opposite approach in this approach certain predictions are taken and based on those predictions results of the research topic are followed accordingly.  In this case the final conclusions are collected considering the general laws, hypothesis and different theories as well (Horkoff et al. 2014). Therefore, the deduction approach helps to reach the results through generalized knowledge set.

Apart from these approaches there is another research approach that is used by the researchers named as abduction. Abduction approach is referred to as the third step of scientific thinking. In this approach hypothesis are created through which nee ideas understandings are also contributed to the researchers and other learners. This approach implies guess works are often helpful to reach to the possible solutions. New level of knowledge could be generated and even quite logical results could be resulted as well.

Deductive

Inductive

Abduction

These research approaches is aimed in nature and are based upon the testing theories.   

On the other hand the inductive research work is focused towards generation of newly developed ideas and theories considering new data set.

From the set of observation abduction reasoning could be done for getting the resultants.

This research approach starts with the development of different hypothesis.

In order to make the scope of the study narrow, the research questions are used.

IT generates huge number of resultants however; based upon the explanation the suitable result should be selected.

Emphasis is done considering the casualty. This is abundance of resources and risks could also be eventually avoided.

This approach is focused on developing new phenomena with different perspectives.

The most likely explanation is to be selected initially. Scarcity for sources are

Based on predictions results are obtained. This might avoid different kinds of risks.

Based on observations results are generated. Risks should be accepted.

Based on the evidences the abduction research approach is to be done.

Deductive approach is referred to as a concern that helps to develop, different hypothesis considering the existing theories. In the next steps the research strategies should be designed for testing the hypothesis. Deductive approach helps the researchers to move from a particular section to a general domain (Brown et al. 2015). Based on the propositions for the theories, different hypothesis are derived. The processes those are sequentially followed for obtaining the result from deductive approach include theory, hypothesis, observation and confirmation or rejection.

Figure 1: Process flow of Deductive research approach

(Source: Groat and Wang 2013, pp-56)

Overall research objectives

While conducting a research study on implementation of Business Information Model in enterprises, among the inductive and deductive research approaches the researchers should adopt the deductive research approach. In order to fill the research gaps based upon the already established formal theories, data could be collected and used in case of deductive research approach (Kaspina, Khapugina and Zakirov 2014). For this particular case the inductive approach is avoided, because inductive approaches are mostly dependent on real scientific research frameworks. Within the research domain the research questions set would be discussed and thus, the inductive research approach is used.

Explaining the importance of the sequence of these methods

 In case of Business Information Model (BIM) development in any business organization proper sequences are needed to be selected rather applied. Deductive approach helps to get the lesions straight to the point and it helps to save time. There are many rules those should be more explicit in nature and are quickly explained. Thus, it can be said that, among these three different approaches the most effective approach is the deductive (Dumay and Cai 2015). Through the help of this approach the researchers would be able to resolve different issues. All the hidden facts associated to the research work could be exploited with the help of the deductive research method.  In addition to this, the issues of false conclusions and unwanted research level discovery could also be defined with the help of the   deductive approach.

  • Section 3: Research plan for 11 week research project

Three different research methods are there such as deductive, inductive and abduction. Among three of these methods, for this particular research topic “Implementation of Business Information Model” the deductive research approach is nominated and suggested to be used by the researchers.  The conceptual frameworks for the situating methodology different research in terms of both strategies and tactics are also demonstrated in this research proposal (Palinkas et al. 2015).  For processing the inquiry accurately, different research approaches are there those should be articulated by the researcher.  

Three different phases are followed by the researchers while using the deductive research approach. Initially all the already existing observations or results are to be considered by the researchers before the implementation of the newly developed Business Information Model. Then from the experiences the responses from the research participants are required to be collected (Tuff 2014). From the life experience the ideas and existing business strategies can be developed accordingly. However, three different types of research philosophy are also there such as realism, positivism and interpretivism. With the help of three of these approaches, the exploration and even evaluation of the research topic is also possible accordingly. In order to conduct any research work the researchers are required to understand the research initially. However, to serve the purpose of the research work accurate research design is also needed to be adopted. The different research approaches are exploration, description and Explanation. For the improvement of BIM in the business organization the most suitable research approach is the descriptive research. The aim of this research study is to give accurate and absolutely valid representation of the research associated factors those are related to the research questions. This kind of research approach is well structured in nature and in order to avoid the research level issues the researchers are required to apply descriptive research study (Keutmann et al. 2015). With this approach both the primary and the existing data could be analyzed accurately. The factors those are categorized in this research proposal are the surveys, experiment, and program evaluation. Through the help of the deductive research approach both the secondary and primary data analysis are possible.

Preparing research plan

Through the help of deductive research approach a general research work become more and more specific.  This particular research approach is referred to as a top down approach. By collecting all the available facts the research result can be concluded. Thus, collectively it can be said that, deductive research approach starts with general data and ends up with high specification. For the deductive reasoning the researchers considers set of laws, rules and authenticated principles. Based on existing research theories only the research design is needed to be selected by the researchers. However, in the starting phase of deductive research design, the researchers does not feel ensure about the research nature and hypothesis details as well (Thomson and McLeod 2015). The steps those are followed respectively in case of Deductive research include selection of the theory, setting of research hypothesis, data collection and data analysis. However, from the finally evaluated results, whether the result is to be accepted or rejected is adopted. In addition to this, the main difference between the deductive and inductive approach are evaluated based upon the methodological foundation. The deductive approach is undertaken considering the natural specific model and positivism research approach. Again, the detail study analysis of inductive and deductive research approach implies that, deductive approach is much beneficial than inductive research approach.  

The set of advantages for which the deductive approach is nominated are as follows:

  • It helps to verify the hypothesis
  • For determining the associated variables those are termed in different categories like cause and those categories which helps to consider the effect of the analysis
  • For clarifying the relationship between the effects those have to be verified and all the associated variables.

It is expected that with the help of this research methodology if a procurement method is applied in the construction project then the researchers would be able to determine the issues and they would also be able to execute all respective resolving categories as well.

Possible activities to be undertaken

2nd  Week

3rd  Week

5th  Week

6th  Week

8th  Week

11th Week

Selection of the research topic

ü 

Analyzing the research questions

ü 

Literature review

ü 

Selection of research methods and tools

Data gathering

ü 

ü 

Data analysis

ü 

ü 

Identifying the research limitation

ü 

ü 

ü 

Conclusion and recommendations

ü 

ü 

Final research work submission

ü 

References

Abbasi, A., Sarker, S. and Chiang, R.H., 2016. Big Data Research in Information Systems: Toward an Inclusive Research Agenda. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(2).

Brown, J.B., Ryan, B.L., Thorpe, C., Markle, E.K., Hutchison, B. and Glazier, R.H., 2015. Measuring teamwork in primary care: Triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data. Families, Systems, & Health, 33(3), p.193.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2015. Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA.

Cho, J.Y. and Lee, E.H., 2014. Reducing confusion about grounded theory and qualitative content analysis: Similarities and differences. The Qualitative Report, 19(32), p.1.

Dumay, J. and Cai, L., 2015. Using content analysis as a research methodology for investigating intellectual capital disclosure: a critique. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 16(1), pp.121-155.

Fellows, R.F. and Liu, A.M., 2015. Research methods for construction. John Wiley & Sons.

Groat, L.N. and Wang, D., 2013. Architectural research methods. John Wiley & Sons.

Horkoff, J., Barone, D., Jiang, L., Yu, E., Amyot, D., Borgida, A. and Mylopoulos, J., 2014. Strategic business modeling: representation and reasoning. Software & Systems Modeling, 13(3), pp.1015-1041.

Kaspina, R.G., Khapugina, L.S. and Zakirov, E.A., 2014. Interrelation of company's business model structure and information disclosed in management reporting. Life science journal, 11(12), pp.778-780.

Keutmann, M.K., Moore, S.L., Savitt, A. and Gur, R.C., 2015. Generating an item pool for translational social cognition research: methodology and initial validation. Behavior research methods, 47(1), pp.228-234.

Maloney, E.A., Ramirez, G., Gunderson, E.A., Levine, S.C. and Beilock, S.L., 2015. Intergenerational effects of parents’ math anxiety on children’s math achievement and anxiety. Psychological Science, 26(9), pp.1480-1488.

Mayer, I., Bekebrede, G., Harteveld, C., Warmelink, H., Zhou, Q., Ruijven, T., Lo, J., Kortmann, R. and Wenzler, I., 2014. The research and evaluation of serious games: Toward a comprehensive methodology. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(3), pp.502-527.

Palinkas, L.A., Horwitz, S.M., Green, C.A., Wisdom, J.P., Duan, N. and Hoagwood, K., 2015. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), pp.533-544.

Palinkas, L.A., Horwitz, S.M., Green, C.A., Wisdom, J.P., Duan, N. and Hoagwood, K., 2015. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), pp.533-544.

Thomas, J.R., Silverman, S. and Nelson, J., 2015. Research methods in physical activity, 7E. Human kinetics.

Thomson, R. and McLeod, J., 2015. New frontiers in qualitative longitudinal research: An agenda for research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(3), pp.243-250.

Trainor, K.J., Andzulis, J.M., Rapp, A. and Agnihotri, R., 2014. Social media technology usage and customer relationship performance: A capabilities-based examination of social CRM. Journal of Business Research, 67(6), pp.1201-1208.

Tuff, L., 2014. Court Appointed Special Advocates: Is their impact effectively evaluated by current research methodology?.

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