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Theorizing western Aid

Discuss About The Strange Case Of Western Aid To Eastern Europe.

According to Easterly (2006) defines the modern western aid as the voluntary transfer of the resources from one country to another , provided at least partially with the goals of benefiting the recipient country. Aid continues to be thought to be the type of the assistance by government or the financial institutions to other desperate countries particularly the third world countries (Gukurume, 2012). It should be noted that the aid are inclined to have numerous capabilities such as  being a signal to the political manipulation, manipulation, diplomatic authorization, tool to improve the military ally or perhaps to reward a government for the behavior preferred by the donor . It would be for the provision of the infrastructures which are required for the donor for the resources extraction from recipient country or maybe in an effort to gain some kind of the commercial access (Easterly, 2002). The most typical type of the western aid is the official development support that is presented in order to promote on the development as well as combating poverty (Gukurume, 2012). management, in this research it would explain on how the western aid it has been used to manipulate politics especially in the Third World countries for the first time.

There have been issues concerning the current practices of the western aid that has received much attention from the scholars in numerous disciplines (Easterly, 2002). The scholars have examined on the geopolitical interests of the donor countries and the impacts these interests have on the provision of the aid (Cohn, 2016). Thus in this research it would generate new observations into the complex relations between the modern western aid on the third world countries in the political manipulation. In this research it might argue also that the western aid is politically motivated and often utilized as an instrument to advertise the western countries interests, thus contradicts on the western aid elements itself (Cohn, 2016). When it came to the post cold war era, problems of poverty as well as the social exclusion has dominated the discussion in regards to the geopolitics relations and western aid (Banfield, 2017).  As the competition between West and the East has subsided in the late 80s, the western aid was generally regarded as the geopolitical and more humanitarian when it came to motive (Gukurume , 2012 ) . Nonetheless, there has been a shift in the patent of the aid provision and the distribution to the recent years especially to the third world countries and this has reflected the geopolitics relations between the donor and the recipient nations (Gukurume , 2012 ) . Within this research it would describe how the provision of the western aid reveals Third World countries to first world political manipulation. In this study it might use case studies for example Nepal to display how political changes have occurred due to the western aid provision and precisely how the priorities of the donor countries and international development agencies have played a major part in expanding on the sociopolitical disparities among the Third World nations.

Political manipulation of Third World by western Aid

According to Mathew Fieden used the term aid to refer to the diverse form of the humanitarian as well as the development assistance which is offered in the short term emergency context along with the longer term capacity when it comes to building context (Banfield, 2017). It could consist of the food rations, water, healthcare along with the general infrastructure. The provision of the aid within a system mainly includes organizations, their political owners and their sources as well as usage of the funds (Banfield, 2017). Rogerson with his colleagues had developed 4 frameworks which had proved to be much useful when it came to analyzing changes in aid system over some time (Busse, Erdogan & Mühlen, 2016). According to these scholars they highlighted that multiple foreign as well as security policy objectives, had loosely been bundled with the anti-poverty goals, with no common weighing system, along with the continued existence of the institutional obstacles which insulated the aid programmes to a great extent from the hard budget constraints (Busse, Erdogan & Mühlen, 2016).  These changes further highlighted that the politics which is involved with the provision as well as the distribution of the aid did demonstrate on the competing interests among the western donors which contributed to the widespread to the inequalities among the Third World countries (Cooley, 2015). Despite the emphasis to broader objectives of the western aid economic and the political growth has been utilized to determine on the aid effectiveness (Cooley, 2015). To be able to understand on the complexities whenever it came to the shift priorities of the western aid within the political context, it is essential to understand on the motives and the motives of the western donor (Gukurume, 2012). On the analysis of the provision of the Nepal case study reveals that there is a diverse interests and motives of the western donors and agencies especially to the Third World countries in their political aspects. In analyzing the motivations to the provision of the aid, there are numerous theoretical approaches which have proven to be useful, such as political stability hypothesis, and the power political hypothesis (Gukurume, 2012). These approaches have offered some insights to examine on how the western donors’ motivations in providing aid and how aid has been politized (Holsti, 2015). On the power political theory describes concerning how aid continues to be provided to gaining support from the recipient (Holsti, 2015). Alternatively, on the political stability and democracy has suggested on how aid should be viewed within the context of the human rights (Pearce, 2000).  These theories have been used to examine on the shifting on the patterns of aid provision as well distribution amongst the western countries over the years (Holsti, 2015).  Different theories have been used to explain various aid practitioners in order to explain issues that are within the domain of the development assistance (Gukurume, 2012). Presently, there has been higher tendency among the scholars in constructing theories of the western aid in regards to some basic paradigms which are in relation to the political issues amongst the states (Holsti, 2015)..  According to Marxist paradigm western aid is regarded as a mean to advance capitalists exploitation as well as widening on the political disparities between the wealthy western nations and Third-World countries (Dreher & Fuchs, 2015).

Western aid is a transnational influence to many Third World countries. The western aid has helped many developing countries to develop on their politics by manipulating them to the first world politics (Dreher & Fuchs, 2015). The relationship between most of the western aid agencies as well as the government in the Third World countries continues to be volatile, in the sense that many of the these western aid agencies have been criticized in meddling in the local politics and has been drivers when it came to the regime change agenda to reflect that of the western nations (Dreher & Fuchs, 2015). Within this view the western aid agencies have been considered the state as mostly affiliated with on the interests of the donor nations rather than being genuinely philanthropic from their resources. Certainly a case study was the one which was made by Bird and Busee (2007) who had observed that in Zimbabwe country western aid from the international community was interpreted as politically motivated facilitates to the opposition. It is in view to such background that in 2002, Zimbabwe government had suspended operations to numerous aid agencies (Gift & Krcmaric, 2017). The government had after that bluntly highlighted that their intention would be to regularize on the activities of the aid community and eventually, the western aid needed to register in case they wanted to resume on their interventions (Gift & Krcmaric, 2017). Hence, ever since then dealings between the western aid population which of the Zimbabwe government had already been characterized by the mistrust (Holsti, 2015). It has also been observed that there was general wrong beliefs in regards to the western aid in Zimbabwe in which many of the politicians have see the aid as an end by itself instead of the way to an end, with the end getting alleviation of the poverty as well as the socio-political development (Holsti, 2015). To such end, the official development Guidance in the Zimbabwe needed fraught with insufficient transparency making it more fungible by the corrupt politicians who makes use of it for their personal primordial needs for example gain of the political economy at expense of the national interests to development ( Cooley , 2015 ) . Efficiency of the western aid ought to be measured first of all by its involvement in order to impact the politics of the Third World countries to the world politics and the support to the human rights, and democracy (Cooley, 2015).

 In sharp contrast when it comes to Zimbabwe aid it is often utilized to further totally contradicting aspects ( Holsti, 2015). This continues to be true particularly with the aid that has been originating from China and other Asian countries which has been used on the projects that has been used on the projects which violate on the human rights and democracy (Wood & Sullivan, 2015). One thing to note is the assistance of the assistance of China in type of the military arms that has exacerbated on the facets of the human rights violations in the nations especially prior to and after the elections (Gift & Krcmaric, 2017). In many of the elections it is observed that individuals are usually brutalized, intimidated or even killed with donated military weapons which act as the symbolic to violence in order to intimidate on the electorate particularly during violating on the process (Wood & Sullivan, 2015). In the case study about Zimbabwe western aid has been used to bring about the political manipulation as a means to attaining contradictory ends from its meant objectives. This concurs to the justifications highlighted by Wood & Sullivan ( 2015 ), who discussed that western aid advance , is generally acquired to further on the personal and political interests along with other parochial uses ( Holsti, 2015). It is usually tied to the party politics, elevation and patronage of the primordial interest instead of promotion to the national needs together with the socio related to politics growth (Holsti, 2015).

The western aid has been able to enable embattlement of the political leaders a tenaciously hold onto the power has been seen in Zimbabwe (Kahl, 2018). This has been the case across the developing countries which have been inundated with the civil strife (Wedel, 2015). In country such as Zimbabwe which is a Third World country much of the western aid has been taken by the government each in funding on the regime and political weapon ( Kahl , 2018). It ought to be pointed out that western aid can foster or support the political institutional buildings as well as processes which may strengthen on the leads for the peaceful existence and decrease on the likelihood of any outbreak of violence between the Third World countries (Easterly, 2002). It could be recognize from the peace making, which is more involved on the political diplomatic which could be directed to bring warring parties to agreements (Cohn, 2016).  The conceptualization to the peace building has been based on the assumption that the human security entails more than the military as well as policing aspects (Cohn, 2016).  Western aid can be reconceptualized as a tool to which promote political manipulation to the developing countries (Packenham, 2015). Moreover, it has been observed that it promotes global security.  It can be a strategic framework process, which can be an instrument to build peace (Carothers, 2015). In 2001, there was a growing realization that the reconstruction as well as institution building need to precede as well as act as a catalyst to the political agreement to ensure that the developing countries exhibit the world politics (Carothers, 2015). According to the maximalists theorists they have argued that aid need to be consciously be utilized as a political building.

There are many political theorists who believe that the traditional societies especially the ones in the Third World countries are being transformed into modern societies, with the traditional features which have been destined for the oblivion and these countries have been regarded as the transient (Carothers, 2015). The political aspects which have been encountered by these countries are in large measures, and they are consequences to shift to modernity (Carothers, 2015). The government in the Third World countries need to implement measures which transform them into industrialized communities and this transformation begin with enhanced political stability.

Western aid has enhanced on the politics of those countries in the sense that the funding has been used to develop on the political systems within a given Third World country to ensure they are functioning effectively and that they are running in line with the other countries across the globe (Jacobson, 2015). In the Third World countries more often they are associated with violence cases which have been associated to leaders who intend to stay in power at all costs even though lives are lost in the process (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim, 2014). Another country which has exhibited such changes is Nepal (Jacobson, 2015). This country is in the South Asia which has not observed any significant improvement in the residing standards of individuals (Jacobson, 2015). The country is widely seen as the poorest of the poor. Their insurgence has resulted in the destruction of the nation infrastructure. There is significant role which the western aid has presented in Nepal political development. The increase poverty robbed the country their self confidence which help to create generalized sense of the helplessness. Since the 50s, Nepal continues to be ruled by the series of the political successions (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim, 2014 ). Previously in 60s, there was clearly a military coup which was led by King Mahadra that have led to the partyless panchyat program which had only lasted till the 90s (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim , 2014).  Despite the political changes the Nepali government had failed to implement progressive reforms and get rid of the class and caste dependent discrimination. Since the 90s, there was a rise in the internal political conflict that have resulted in lose of Nepalese lives as well as destruction of the country infrastructure (Grindle, 2017). Due to the recent reports of the corruption as well as human rights violations committed many western aid agencies to become the major source of concern (Grindle, M. S. (2017). These agencies through their aid they have been able to bring about the political manipulation in which the funds have been used to make effective reforms in the political arena of the country (Grindle, M. S. (2017). This has forced the government to introduce Disruptive Activities Act, which has given the security forces powers to arrest without the warrant (Grindle, M. S. (2017). This has been possible through the funding which the western have brought to this country.

The perceptions  of the western aid in developing country like Zimbabwe as well as other Third World country has been shrouded into the deep rooted ambivalence to political manipulation. This aid has been able to create and at the same time entrench patronage which is the client relationship between the western and the recipients. The western aid has been used as an economic muscle to champion on the regime change in Zimbabwe. Most of the scholars’ highlights that western aid tends to foster on the dependency syndrome and influence on the political aspects of the country that is receiving (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim, 2014). Thus, the critics behind the motives behind this western aid have been on political manipulation of this country (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim, 2014). It is thus against this background scholar such as neo-Marxists have asserted that the aspects which propel on the development of the first world economies such as the western aid which have extended to the Third World countries are the same aspects perpetually suppressing on the growth as well as the development of the developing countries such as Zimbabwe or Nepal (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim, 2014).

Third World countries are a products of the western aid imposed models and ideologies (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim, 2014). These countries are still dependent on the willingness of the world powers to be able to give space to the nascent economies of their very own, or maybe rely on the commitment of the development nations to permit them to set priorities as well as agenda to help them stand on their own in order to design their own fate (Qian, 2015). In most of the time the western aid has been contracted for various specific reasons such as enhancing on the political institutions which are in place along with promoting the short term political interests (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim, 2014).  Sometimes the funds are directed by the government to implement on the foreign policies or political agenda (Dreher & Fuchs, 2015). The good signals to good governance, liberty as well as freedom of the citizen, is laid down through effective governing system in place which ensures that there is participation and there is operation of the democratic institutions which are operating (Mawdsley, Savage & Kim, 2014).

Western aid has manipulated the politics of the Third World countries to a great extent (Cohn, 2016). It has led to the formation of the political parties and it has enhanced competition on the political scenes in order to gain power (Cohn, 2016). This was meant to deny tenure on the power and any possible dictatorships that might have hindered any development and do away with the interest of the western (Nwaogu & Ryan, 2015). This also brought the end of the end period where there was a nascent issue such as security like the terrorism which had drawn attention of the western aid agencies on the matters which concerns the migration (Hook & Spanier, 2018). Western aid has always being given on the condition whose acclaimed aim is ensuring effectiveness in resolving of the issues for which were meant to resolve (Smith, 2014). Good governance as well as rule of the law has both been identified as the fertile grounds where the western aid could produce good fruits (Goodhand, 2002). Presence of conducive political environment could enhance accountability and formulate good policies that can enable transparency as well as practice to the human rights (Goodhand, 2002). The political leaders are the implementers of the policies which ensure there is accountability and good regimes are running the government (Goodhand, 2002). To do this funds are needed and that’s where the western aid comes in to enhance on the political reforms and ensures that there is an active in state societal relationship (Inglehart, 2015). It is important to note that the political leaders in the donor nations might not know that their policies have been counterproductive (Strange, Dreher, Fuchs, Parks & Tierney, 2017). The western donor governments usually have their own interests in mind when it comes to granting funds to the Third World countries (Dreher & Fuchs, 2015).  The political manipulation from the western aid agencies usually lies in the realm of the international diplomacy- which is the high politics (Nwaogu & Ryan, 2015). A case example of this is US government towards Israel and Egypt which offers an example to such sort of the western aid that was intended to bring other governments to support US government view particularly on the international security aspects. That the USA government supported the anticommunist dictatorship in the Third World in post cold war times (Nwaogu & Ryan, 2015).  The western government sometimes uses other kind of the political criteria in order to distribute aid and sometimes they are unconcerned about the adverse impacts to the development as well as corruption (Pearce, 2000).

Conclusion 

This report has been a critical exploration to the dialectical nature of the western aid and this has had mixed results to the recipient of the Third World countries. In this research paper it has fiercely contested aid debates on how the western aid has exposed the Third World countries to the first World political manipulation. Within the research there are case studies which have been provided to explain on the impact of the western aid and their intricate as well as intertwined relationship between the donor and the recipient nations. The report has also focused on theories in which it has explained different school of thoughts on how western aid has emphasized on the need and success stores to developing countries such as Zimbabwe and Nepal. In the paper, it has argued that the western aid in by itself is not in essence evil, but instead its misuse might have ramifications that could breed insurmountable growth challenges. The research has discussed on how the western aid could contribute to the political manipulation within the developing countries which could led to the long term impacts to those countries. Moreover, within the research it has also explained on how the western donor nations uses these aids do their own political and commercial interest in the Third World countries.

References

Banfield, E. (2017). Political influence. Routledge.

Busse, M., Erdogan, C., & Mühlen, H. (2016). China's impact on Africa–The role of trade, FDI and aid. Kyklos, 69(2), 228-262.

Cohn, T. H. (2016). Global political economy : Theory and practice. Routledge.

Cooley, A. (2015). Countering democratic norms. Journal of Democracy, 26(3), 49-63.

Carothers, T. (2015). Democracy aid at 25: Time to choose. Journal of Democracy, 26(1), 59-73.

Dreher, A., & Fuchs, A. (2015). Rogue aid? An empirical analysis of China's aid allocation. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, 48(3), 988- 1023.

Easterly, W. (2002). The cartel of good intentions: the problem of bureaucracy in foreign aid. The Journal of Policy Reform, 5(4), 223-250.

Kahl, C. H. (2018). States, scarcity, and civil strife in the developing world. Princeton University Press.

Gift, T., & Krcmaric, D. (2017). Who democratizes? Western-educated leaders and regime transitions. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61(3), 671-701.

Goodhand, J. (2002). Aiding violence or building peace? The role of international aid in Afghanistan. Third World Quarterly, 23(5), 837-859.

Grindle, M. S. (2017). Politics and policy implementation in the Third World. Princeton University Press.

Gukurume, S. (2012). Interrogating foreign aid and the sustainable development conundrum in African countries: A Zimbabwean experience of debt trap and service delivery. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance, 3(3.4), 1-20.

Holsti, K. J. (2015). Why nations realign: Foreign policy restructuring in the postwar world (Vol. 3). Routledge.

Hook, S. W., & Spanier, J. (2018). American foreign policy since World War II. Cq Press.

Inglehart, R. (2015). The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among Western publics. Princeton University Press.

Jacobson, M. R. (2015). Truman Administration Foreign Aid Programs and the National Security State. Foreign Aid and the Legacy of Harry S. Truman, 10, 129.

Mawdsley, E., Savage, L., & Kim, S. M. (2014). A ‘post?aid world'? Paradigm shift in foreign aid and development cooperation at the 2011 Busan High Level Forum. The Geographical Journal, 180(1), 27-38.

Nwaogu, U. G., & Ryan, M. J. (2015). FDI, foreign aid, remittance and economic growth in developing countries. Review of Development Economics, 19(1), 100-115.

Packenham, R. A. (2015). Liberal America and the Third World: Political development ideas in foreign aid and social science. Princeton University Press.

Pearce, J. (2000). Development, NGOs, and civil society: the debate and its future. Development, NGOs, and civil society, 15-43.

Qian, N. (2015). Making progress on foreign aid. Annu. Rev. Econ., 7(1), 277-308.

Smith, B. H. (2014). More than altruism: The politics of private foreign aid. Princeton University Press.

Strange, A. M., Dreher, A., Fuchs, A., Parks, B., & Tierney, M. J. (2017). Tracking underreported financial flows: China’s development finance and the aid–conflict nexus revisited. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61(5), 935-963.

Wedel, J. R. (2015). Collision and collusion: The strange case of Western aid to Eastern Europe. St. Martin's Press.

Wood, R. M., & Sullivan, C. (2015). Doing harm by doing good? The negative externalities of humanitarian aid provision during civil conflict. The Journal of Politics, 77(3), 736-748.

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