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Introduction to language acquisition

Discuss about the Language and Literacy Learning for Nativist Theory.

This is to be noted that language is a perception that differentiates a human being from an animal. . It is evident that the rest of species do converse with each other by producing a few number of vocalized idioms which have meanings or with limited learning systems. This can be stated that the human beings the rarest of species know to express their emotions or countless concepts through a fixed set of sounds of speech and words (Mai 2016). This specific ability of humans are undoubtedly noteworthy. It is to be mentioned that the researchers found substantiation for proficiency of adopting the complicated skills in growing kids. This can be seen that young kids of significantly 12 months can have that understanding of grammar to comprehend such relevant sentences which apprehend who does what to whom (Stika 2015).

This can be suggested that the theory delivered by significant American psychologist Skinner is acknowledged as the earliest methodical justifications of language attainment. He is recognized as the forerunner of behaviorism (Edwards 2016).

Skinner justified the advancement of language as the subject inspired by environment (Soneni and Mugomba 2016). He claimed a child can learn language on the basis of the philosophies of behaviorist fortification by combining significant words with the specific and apt meanings. It can be mentioned that accurate words are certainly protected while a child comprehends the vocalized significance of words, verses and idioms.

This can be mentioned that the nativist theory is known as the significantly popular theory. This theory suggests human is born with few particular elements in their genes that helps them to learn significant languages. As per this theory the human brain is equipped with language acquisition device (LAD) (Nor and Ab Rashid 2018). This LAD is a responsible device for adopting a language as similar as the hypothalamus who is accountable for managing the body temperature.

It was easy to explain the reasons behind the complex patterns of human communication in compare to other species if language was at least partially biological. This is true that language organ not a physical organ. However, it is strange that the language procurement can face challenges if the brain gets damaged due to the crucial procedure of language development. It should be noted that the harm in left hemisphere can cause aphasia, a malady which leads human brain to face multiple challenges with language without touching the intelligence (Ambridge 2017).

Behaviorism and language acquisition

Wernicke’s aphasia can be taken as an account of example where the victims along with partial damage in brain are unable to comprehend language (Thompson 2015). These sort patients manages to make simple sentences. However, they do not get to understand the meaning of the sentences they are uttering and they are listening to. Unlike aphasia, victims of Broca’s aphasia do face challenges in forming sentences. However, they do not find any problem to understand the meaning of any significant sentences.

The significant researchers stated that an infant child with problems in same portions of brain grow matured with little impaired language capabilities. This Nativist theory suggests that new language solutions can be developed by the brain. However, they cannot be good as the original one. This specific theory also implies that there is a particular grammar pattern which is considered to be the universal grammar. It is evident that the universal grammar pattern circulated through contradictory languages as this grammar is the portion of the genetic temperament of human. This can be said that the greater number of languages across the world have nouns and verbs for sure. However, it is not applicable in every individual case. The language is actually an understanding of comprising a number of different rules and regulations that help the humans forming uncountable phrases. This is to be mentioned that the set of rules and regulations are conditioned into human brains along with significant programs. It can be iconized as the ideal theory for stating the apt explanation on how an infant child learns that complex concepts rapidly. This significant theory states how and what we think of the numeric, irrespective of social backgrounds. It is evident that math works in the same way regardless of social, cultural and political situations and circumstances.

The learning theory emphasizes on treating learning procedure of language as an innovative expertise (Richards and Rodgers 2014). This theory of language attainment proposes that a child can learn or adopt a specific language in similar way as he/she learns to count objects or learns to lace up shoes in a repetitive way. When babies first learn to babble, parents and guardians smile, coo, and hug them for this behavior. It can be seen that a baby gets praised by their parents at their infant age for babbling or uttering coo. The parents later patted their back for speaking in a proper manner. Therefore, this can be said that language grows gradually from significant stimuli and the proper response of it. It is to be remembered that the child does not being able to express the proper meaning of a word or a phase they are uttering. This is because they do not actually learn but parrot or imitate the words or things they are listening from the others.

Nativist theory of language acquisition

The Socio-Cultural theory is basically stating the interactionist approach. This theory compromises the concepts significantly biology and sociology in order to describe how the language has been developed (Saville-Troike and Barto 2016). As per this theory, a child learns language as he or she wants to communicate with the people around. It can easily be said that the language appears from and also dependent on the cultural and social interaction. This particular attitude suggests that ability to learn language comes and gets developed from the wish to converse with other people. This can be said how quickly a child can learn is depended on absolutely on how the environment creates an impact.

It can be said that the child, raised by the mother learns to speak ‘mamma’ rather than the word ‘dada’. This can be stated that the first word a child learns is actually an attempt to ask for food (Saxton 2017). This theory’s impact continues till one tries to learn a new language.

It is evident that the different language classes helps a person to learn familiar phases and vocabularies at the first attempt. It emphasizes on the simple techniques of learning by heart after teaching these set of vocabularies and phases. This is a natural tendency to recall the words which are used regularly even at the time once a person tries to enlarge his/ her vocabularies in the significant national language.  It can be stated even a matured person faces the same challenges to learn a significant language similar as an infant to learn the native language.

It is can be said from the above discussion that that the significant theories of language acquisition are the specific ideas formed by sociologists, scientists and researchers in order to state their interpretations along with the justification. This can be a matter of argument that how relevant and applicable these theories are to the practical world. Therefore, it can be said that language acquisition is basically a complex procedure inspired by the inheritances of an infant and the surroundings they live in. This is to be mentioned that the development procedure is yet to mature. It is true that the constructivist analysts are highlighting the significance of specific linguistic inputs. However, researchers who are dealt with universal grammar aim to make people understanding that the language is a job to obtain without particular inborn tools. 

Reference:

Ambridge, B. (2017). Syntactic Categories in Child Language Acquisition: Innate, Induced, or Illusory?. In Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science (Second Edition) (pp. 567-580).

Edwards, J. (2016). Behaviorism and Control in the History of Economics and Psychology. History of Political Economy, 48(suppl_1), 170-197.

Mai, J. E. (2016). Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior. Emerald Group Publishing.

Nor, N. M., & Ab Rashid, R. (2018). A review of theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge university press.

Saville-Troike, M., & Barto, K. (2016). Introducing second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.

Saxton, M. (2017). Child language: Acquisition and development. Sage.

Soneni, M., & Mugomba, M. (2016). Nhasi todya rice ne chicken: Shona-English contact and the effects of code-mixing. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 7(4), 264-270.

Stika, C. J., Eisenberg, L. S., Johnson, K. C., Henning, S. C., Colson, B. G., Ganguly, D. H., & DesJardin, J. L. (2015). Developmental outcomes of early-identified children who are hard of hearing at 12 to 18 months of age. Early human development, 91(1), 47-55.

Thompson, H. E., Robson, H., Lambon Ralph, M. A., & Jefferies, E. (2015). Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia. Brain, 138(12), 3776-3792.

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