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Week 1: Ethical communication and paralanguage

Discuss about the Strategies and Skills for Effective Business Communication.

In this essay, I am going to discuss six modules, which were helpful to understand theoretical, practical and strategic implications of communication, along with its relevance in workplace, and in my personal life. The essay focuses on communication appreciation and the way to overcome this. Along with this, the essay facilitates importance of assertive communication to solve organizational conflicts. I have also discussed interpersonal and intrapersonal communication in this essay. The concept of organizational communication, its advantages, types of organization structure, and how to choose media of effective communication are highlighted in the essay. One can understand the difference between interview and conversation in interview process, and how to conduct ethical interview is also discussed.

In week 1, I came to know about ethical communication which is dignity and worth of human beings that is fostered by responsibility, fairness, honesty, truthfulness, along with self and other respect. Paralanguage means expressing one’s feelings and thoughts as an area of non-verbal communication that gives important attention to body language and voice modulation of a person. The human communication ability is the significant competency in personal as well as in professional life. Many unspoken words can be spoken out by the body language of a person. As per Gkorezis, Bellou, and Skemperis (2015), it conveys the meaning in more appropriate way as compared to spoken words. Posture, hand gesture, eye contact, frequency, intensity, and voice tone are some of the aspects of paralanguage. Theories and models of communication were learned by me with verbal and non-verbal communication covered in this module. I have learned that culture also helps to understand communication.

This will be beneficial in development of my career by the help of commitment to practices socially responsible business practices. This module has helped me to make differentiation between listening and active listening. Active listening plays an important role in building productive interpersonal relationships. Listening is also helpful to evaluate judgment being made by others.

Along with this, the module has helped me to take effective decisions by the help of active listening. Non-verbal communication is helpful to understand culture of various nations. On basis of this learning, I can run my business successfully. Apart from these, I have come to learn about professional communication and five ethical guidelines namely communication should be clear, honest, and democratic. Additionally, I have come to know that good communication always respects its audience and it is always logical. I always make sure that my communication with client, society, and friends comply with all these ethics guidelines/principles. As stated by Gkorezis, Bellou, and Skemperis (2015), following communication ethics, I can reduce the conflicts and confusions among the people of my organization. In addition to this, intrapersonal and interpersonal communications are also learned by me. With the help of this, I came to know that interpersonal communication takes place between two people while intrapersonal refers to individuals’ feeling, thoughts, internal conversations, and emotions. I have learned about the organizational communication which is important for members to come together as well as to perform the given task in effective manner. Along with this, I came to know that communication helps to make understand employees, what is expected from them along with their duties and responsibilities. On basis of this learning, I will always make sure that I communicate effectively with my employees, so that they feel motivated and give their best in organizational growth and success.

Week 2: Communication apprehension and presentation skills

In week 2, I learned that, if a person has communication fear with some person, then it is said as communication apprehension. When person hesitates or shows anxiousness in communication in front of other person or group, it is said to be audience-based communication apprehension. I came to know about what communication apprehension is and how I can reduce it. Through use of this learning, I will be able to effectively communicate with colleagues and subordinates at workplace and to give effective presentation at required places. 

I came to know that, a speaker in a presentation is expected to answer the query raised by the audience, for which two minutes are taken extra while delivering the presentation. I got familiar with ethos of effective speaker such as knowledge of the topic, and selection of topic relates to audience. The body of speech and format of presentation are also learned by me. According to Lipson and Teodorescu (2015), there are two purposes behind presentation delivery namely to inform or persuade an audience. I have also learned informative learning and its role in personal/professional life. The learning of chronological, spatial, and topical format is also facilitated by this week.

I have developed understanding of persuasive speaking, which is generally practiced to make audience believe differently for what audience believed in the past. There are three types of persuasive formats that are learned by me namely problem-solution, comparative advantage, and Monroe’s motivational sequence format. Besides this, I have come to understand the importance of evidentiary support that adds value to the speech with transitions. Besides this, I have got familiar with sales presentation, training presentation, and adult skills. For my future growth, I will make sure to deliver presentation successfully by taking in view the interest of audience. I can become good speaker by working on my communication appreciation weaknesses.

By the understanding the effective sales presentation skills, I can persuade people to purchase product or services of my company. Additionally, I will make sure that my report contains the detail of who can authorize it, problems addressed and scope of the report, methodology used, source of data, data analyzing method, findings as well as recommendations for the conducted topic of the report. Training will benefit me to get participated, have new information and ideas. Adult learning will motivate me also about self-concept and self-directed concepts. As I will gain more knowledge and experience, then it will allow me to engage with adult learners.

Week 3: Verbal and written business communication

I have also got familiar with the two concepts i.e. verbal and written business communication. Now, I understand the importance of two media such as repeat reading of written words can be done by reader while one cannot hear what one has said if it is not recorded by the person. Along with this, I have find out that written words can be analyzed in better way in comparison to unrecorded or spoken words. Moreover, in business communication, everybody prefers written communication more. According to Dwyer (2012), it is because written form of communication is rule-governed and precise. I have also developed understanding about how to minimize or reduce the noise created in the written communication which occurs in the form of choice of poor words, and bad grammar.

From week 4, I have learned how the write employment letters and resume with its importance for starting my career and growth. There are four basic contents for a successful application such as linking skills and experience to employer’s need, highlighting my qualifications and skills relevant to the position. I am applying my work ethics and personality summarized aspects along with my interview availability. I came to know that the length of my application letter must be of three-quarters, where I need to highlight the past and current work experience. Also, I learned that I should provide my education qualification in summary.

I got to know that while concluding my letter, I must end up on a positive note and thanking the employing company along with asking them to contact me in requirement of further information. As illustrated, I can write, “I will like to speak with you for the position require by the company”. In addition to this, I will close my letter with the word 'Yours sincerely' if I know the recipient else I will use 'Yours Faithfully' for unknown recipient (Randazzo, 2012). I also developed understanding on length of cover letter which should not exist one page in length. Besides this, how to write effective Curriculum Vitae was also known to me where at the top of CV, I need to mention my personal details. Educational qualification will be mentioned in next section starting from the recent qualification, employment history, followed by referee’s name. 

Additionally, email and reports of genres of business communication were known to me. Writing Email is easy and in workplace, it is primary means of communication. I came to know that there is a chain of command which is to be followed while sending email. I examined that email does not belong to me but to the company. Hence, purpose of email should be met out clearly. Reports are useful to analysis, gather information, and recommendation for actions. From this week, I understand the importance of written communication in the workplace which will help me to become professional communicator. Also, whenever I am going to apply for a job, it will help me a lot to effectively produce written communication genres namely resume, reports, and email taking in view grammar and spellings.

Week 4: Application letter writing and resume writing

In week 5, I came to know that interpersonal communication is said to be done when individual communicates with oneself along with one's feelings, thoughts, emotions, and internal conversation. According to Hynes (2012), interpersonal communication is to have communication with one or more than one people. Also, I understand that I must be aware of my skills, ability, strength, and weakness in order to become better interpersonal communicator. Additionally, it is known as dyadic communication because it refers to the communication that takes place between two persons or more. Basically, it has six types namely impersonal, workplace, professional, professional, friendship, friends, and intimate.

I got familiar with the term aggressive communication which can be general or situational. Also, it is negative style of communication which is the form of workplace bullying. I understand that verbal aggression can result in irritation, hurt feelings as well as relationship termination which results in decreased job satisfaction and engagement of employees. I came to know that passive communication is style of communication that characterized when person is unable to state a belief or opinion with confidence. Further, I identified reasons for this that include individual’s simply confrontation avoidance along with fear of blame for being happy as well as silent to avoid conflicts.

In addition to this, I understand that passive and active communications are two different terms. Passive communication includes imposing a person by the non-verbal and verbal acts which aim to avoid open conflicts. On the other hand, when I stand up for my own self without allowing another person to take my advantage and without other’s advance then it will be known as assertive communication.  Additionally, according to DeKay (2012), muttering, sarcasm, facial expression that includes anger along with denying the problems are some of the reasons of passive-aggressive communication. In this unit, I examined about assertive problem-solving model which has six steps and model is helpful to solve conflicts.

Also, socio-communication style and orientations with supportive and defensive communication climate were known by me. In socio-communication person see one’s own behavior of communication in terms of his/her personality traits and the way individual examine actual communicative behavior of others are known as socio-communicative style. Moreover, I understood interpersonal communication that allows person to communicate with honesty and accurately is supportive communication while when person feels nervous or worried while communicating it is defensive communication.

Week 5 has helped me a lot to get more familiar with interpersonal interaction along with making me understand differences between interpersonal and impersonal communication. Additionally, by the help of assertive communication and its model, I will be able to solve conflicts in my workplace successfully being a professional interpersonal conflict solver. Further, I can become more competent communicator by having knowledge of style of communication which will help me in my future also. Interpersonal relationship and supportive communication will benefit me to work actively and make be capable of completing my work successfully. 

Week 5: Interpersonal communication

In week 6, I came to know about organization communication and its function and structure in the organization. I understand that the organizational function includes communication coordination, control, and maintenance of organizational activities. It is because if there is no communication in the company it will impossible for members to come together and perform coordinated activities. I examined that communication is important to undertake particular task, work, and activity. In the words of Sievers et al (2015), internal organizational function includes socialization which is a process where members of the company come together to understand norms, regulations, values, and standards that are helpful to operate business. It can be formal or informal.

Besides this, I understand that innovation is also the function of internal organization communication. As illustrated, communication related to improvement of practices in context to better serve the client will come under innovation function. I examined that organizational structure determines communication flow in the company. This is characterized by complexity, centralization, and formalization structure of company. As understood by me, communication channels are important to recognize communication path formally enforced and sanction by the organization. I came to know that there are four types of communication channels namely upward, downward, horizontal, and diagonal communication.

In this week, I got familiar with the importance of horizontal communication which contributes to the organizational climate and have positive work atmosphere. This is the best communication channel among all as observed by me. Additionally, I understand that choosing right medium of communication includes many objectives such as feedback, variety of language, personal focus, and cues. The MRT Theory was also known to me as I was unfamiliar with this. Communication environment aspects were also known by help of this theory. I came to know that if I have equivocal message then I should choose face-to-face communication else I can send detail documents in an uncertain environment to reduce uncertainty.

Dual Capacity Model of choosing communication media was also known to me that ample the set of different comprehensive factor that affects the available communication media. As per Dwyer (2016), constraints of communication capability, media characteristics, and the normative contingencies are basic areas to make this model. I came to know that message can be in the form of clarity, complexity, volume, relevance, and valence. Volume means quantity of information conveyed while valence states positive and negative of message and relevancy means how motivating and interesting message was.

Recipient, organization, and communicator are general areas of capability constraints. Recipients include expertise level, familiarity with media, communication context knowledge while communicator capability relates to comfort, competence, flexibility, and access. The organizational characteristics include structure, experience, and time availability. In this, I understand the importance of various media and its use taking in view various aspects. This will benefit me by choosing right media to communication at right time.

In week 7, I learned about how to plan, develop, and conduct an interview along with understanding, practicing ethical interviewing. I also learned about developing and recognizing various interview types with negotiation engagement. Difference between interview and conversation was known to me. As stated by Kleiman, and Benek-Rivera (2010), interview is pre-arranged, has defined structure in terms of question and answer with specific time, and location. On the other hand, conversation includes various communication actions with questions and answers. I understand that interview is conducted for some pre-defined purpose while motivating employees, and asking questions.

The goal and purpose of interview were known, purpose includes evaluation, information, council, and persuade while interview goals are to hire person, change behavior of person, and make judgments. Also, interview sequence was learned by me and I came to know that there are four types of interview sequence. This includes funnel sequence which starts with open-ended questions and ends with close-ended questions. The inverted funnel includes close-ended question in beginning and moves to open-ended questions. I examined that diamond sequence consider both funnel and inverted sequence of interview while tunnel sequence is beneficial to have simple as well as surface interview information excluding in-depth interviews. 

Types of interview questions were known to me that includes open and close ended questions. Open-ended are asked to have detailed response of candidates while close ended are asked when standardization of high degree is needed. I examined that factual questions include relevant facts and information while opinion questions are asked to take opinion or judgment of a person on specific topic. Next types of question are primary and secondary questions. Primary questions are for new topics and secondary for questions asked but answered incompletely. Hypothetical includes what if situation questions while critical states about real situation. At last, I came to know that leading questions force one-way answer by the side of respondent.

This week was helpful for me to understand structure and schedule of the interview. According to Decarie (2010), the structure of interview includes non-structured, highly structured and scandalized, highly structured, and moderate restructured. Deciding which structure is to choose depends on interview needs and range of response. I got familiar with interview schedule that is outline of questions. The basic structure of an interview includes introduction followed by body and conclusion in last. Additionally, various ethics for conducting an interview were known by me. I observed that interviewers must be able to identify their organization along with themselves. False pretenses for conducting interview should not be practiced by interviewers. Also, it is accepted that interviewers should inform candidates about their interview. I understand the main ethics related to interviewing is to use candidate’s information for stated purpose only.  

In future, I will be able to prepare, build up, and conduct effective interview. Also, as I am aware of various interview questions, I will be able to response taking in view purpose of question asked. This week has helped be to become an ethical and successful interviewee who will take care of responsibilities and things to be followed in successful conduction of an interview.


From the above, it is summarized that effective business communication is important to have successful outcomes in business. It is because if there is no communication in the company, people will not be able to coordinate and complete task. Further, communication apprehension can become barrier in professional and personal life. Therefore, this course was helpful to reduce this problem. I can improve my writing skills in email and resume writing. I came to know about interpersonal, intrapersonal, and impersonal communications which will be beneficial for me to communicate well. Additionally, organizational communication week was so helpful to know about how to choose right medium of communication with organizational structure and communication channels. Types of interview questions, interview structure and schedule with ethics were helpful to pass interview successfully and become valuable interviewer. 


Decarie, C. (2010). Literacy and information interviews. Business Communication Quarterly, 73(3), 306-317.

DeKay, S. H. (2012). Interpersonal Communication in the Workplace: A Largely Unexplored Region. Business Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 449-452.

Dwyer, J. (2012). Communication for Business and the Professions: Strategies and Skills. Australia: Pearson Higher Education AU.

Dwyer, J. (2016). Communication for Business and the Professions: Strategies & Skills. Australia: Pearson.

Gkorezis, P., Bellou, V., and Skemperis, N. (2015). Nonverbal communication and relational identification with the supervisor. Management Decision, 53(5), 1005 – 1022.

Hynes, G. E. (2012). Improving employees' interpersonal communication competencies. Business Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 446-475.

Kleiman, L. S., and Benek-Rivera, J. (2010). A four-step model for teaching selection interviewing skills. Business Communication Quarterly, 73(3), 291-305.

Lipson, R., and Teodorescu, T. (2015). Winning more business by using presentations as part of a solution roadmap. American Salesman, 60(9), 14.

Randazzo, C. (2012). Positioning Resumes and Cover Letters as Reflective-Reflexive Process. Business Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 377-391.

Sievers, K., Wodzicki, K., Aberle, I., Keckeisen, M., and Cress, U. (2015). Self-presentation in professional networks: More than just window dressing. Computers In Human Behavior, 50, 25-30.

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