Implementation Schedule Based on Work
Describe about the Strengthening & Improvement of Peshawar-Torkham Road.
The project plan is based on strengthening and improvement of Peshawar-Torkham Road. The road lies in the Khyber Agency, FATA. The goal of this construction project is to build a road, which is a form of trade communication network. The road connects the Karachi Port-Pakistan to Afghanistan through Peshawar and Torkham. This construction project is a part of FATA sustainable plan of 2006-2015. The following is the project schedule for this construction project so that the management team comes to know the total time taken to construct the road:
Contractor mobilization: The start date for contractor mobilization is 1st October 2012, and the total estimated duration of this particular task is 30 days. Therefore, the finish date is 31st October 2012.
Earthwork: The total duration required for earth work is 540 days, and the start and finish date is November 2012 to 30th April 2014.
Base work: This work started in Dec 2012, and it continues up to 30th June 2014 with duration of 570 days.
Surface course and pavement: Total time taken for the surface course and payment is 540 days, from April 2013 to 30th Sep, 2014.
Structure R/B walls and culverts: It schedules from Dec 2012 to 31st July 2014 with total estimated time of 600 days.
Drainage and erosion work: The start date for drainage and erosion works is December 2012, and the total duration of this particular task is 630 days. Therefore, the finish date is 30th Aug 2014.
Ancillary works: Total time taken for the surface course and payment is 420 days, from July 2013 to 10th Sep, 2014.
Diversion: The total duration required for earthwork is 690 days, and the start and finish date is November 2012 to 30th Sep, 2014.
The project starts from October 2015, and it is commenced till 30th September 2014. Apart from this eight work activities, there are also other work activities for this construction project, which takes the total duration of 330 days. The start time is Nov 2013, and the finish date is 30th Sep, 2014. From the above-identified implementation schedule based on the construction project work, diversion takes more time as compared to other works. It has a total estimated duration of 690 days.
Security threat: In the construction site, there are threats to the life of the workers those are working on the road construction project. If any accidents, as well as explosions, are occurred at the construction site, then there are no ambulances in the site. Therefore, the victims have not reached the hospital immediately. There is no arrangement of protective clothing of the labors those are working in the hazardous environment such as the requirement of helmets, protective goggles and gloves (Dejus & Antucheviciene, 2013). Health and safety of the workers are the major priority of the project management team while processing with the construction work.
Challenges Faced in the Construction Work
Procurement of information: The information regarding the design of the road are not procured easily. As it is a construction project work, therefore information and data related to traffic rate on the road should require gathering to identify the hourly-based traffic count. A Proper survey is not done, and another person can get the information and then that information is misused (Xu & Song, 2014). Therefore, the design and road construction related information are most vital challenges faced by the project team. Access to that information causes insecurity of data and information in the project work.
Traffic problems: While conducting the project of Peshawar – Torkham road construction, the project team is not following proper traffic management plan. It challenges the team by creating traffic congestion on the road. It also creates jams as well as a public inconvenience (Tseng & Torng, 2014). Proper traffic signboards are not used in the construction site, which causes accidents on the road. There is no announcement to the construction community about the construction movement. It influences the progress of the project plan, estimated time as well as budget.
Delay in progress work: Due to bad weather conditions, the construction of the road was not possible. It also delays in time as well as the budget of the project plan. Sometimes, absenteeism of the workers causes a delay in the time and therefore the number of assigned for each activity increases (Srinivasan, 2014). Due to delay in time, the budget also increases based on total days delay. Apart from this, noise and ecological challenges are also faced in the project work causes a restriction in the project plan and its progress.
Special security arrangement: As the construction of the road lies in the Khyber Agency, FATA, and the road connects the Karachi Port-Pakistan to Afghanistan throughout Peshawar and Torkham. Therefore the project requires increasing their security arrangement. The road construction plan connects two countries. Therefore it allows to give logistics maintenance needed by the law enforcers (Mubarak, 2015). In the border areas of Pakistan as well as Afghanistan, strong security forces are required to control the situation. There should be a collaboration with the armies of Pakistan such that they can provide with required security.
Consultation with NESPAK to procure the information: an Initial survey of the construction project work is being done by the NESPAK. They should conduct a 24 hours survey on the traffic count to identify the rate of traffic on the road based on hours. The survey should be done based on selected location, date, day, and type of survey as well as total survey duration. It helps to get accurate information on traffic count (Atlas, 2013). Based on this traffic survey, they should get information as well as data on the traffic congestion on the road so that it helps them to construct the road.
Solutions to the Challenges Faced in the Road Construction Project
Special traffic arrangements: Due to the construction of the Peshawar-Torkham road, the public faces lots of traffic congestion on the road (Harvey, Waterson & Dainty, 2015). Therefore, the proper traffic management plan should require in order to control the traffic jams as well as the inconvenience of public throughout the construction of Peshawar – Torkham Road. Proper signboards are used in the construction site to avoid any accidents on the road. It gives smooth traffic flow. Important announcements are done to give information on temporary movements of the transport (Garber & Hoel, 2014). Due to a construction of the road, some of the routes are locked and therefore the construction project team should arrange for alternative routes. There should be an arrangement of traffic police on the road to control the traffic. Special equipment should also be used such as traffic control system. It is used to integrate the digital sensors to get data on the number of vehicles on the road. It gives the data as well as information based on the queue on the road as well as delay data.
The given PERT CPM chart for this project plan to strengthen as well as improve the construction of a road through Peshawar-Torkham analyzes as well as presents the works, which are involved in completing the construction plan. It shows the critical path of the project plan. This shows the factors, which will influence achievements of the project work with a goal to achieve the objectives of the project such as time and resources (Shaw & Sellers, 2015). From the given chart, it shows the minimum time required in order to complete the entire project construction plan. The critical path of the project plan is contractor mobilization as well as diversion. Therefore, the total shortest duration is (690+50) days = 740 days. From this, it is identified that time is used as a variable that can symbolize the considered resources function alongside with performance arrangement (Narayanamoorthy & Maheswari, 2016). These two events of the project are called as critical activities while other events are the non-critical activities. From the PERT CPM chart, the accurate time is calculated and then the network of the construction project plan is constructed. The earthwork as well as a diversion is dependent on the contractor mobilization.
Base course; structure R/B walls and culverts, drainage and erosion works are not started until the mobilization of the contractor are completed. After the completion of those activities, then surface course and payment, ancillary works as well as miscellaneous activities are to be carried out. Using this CPM chart, the tasks are to be carried out according to the dependent of each task on each other. The given PERT CPM chart shows the time, schedule as well as a sequence of each of the activities involved with the implementation and construction plan (Yang & Kao, 2012). After analyzing the critical path of the project, it helps the project team to make some differentiation between the achievement as well as a breakdown of the plan (Ahmad, 2014). It is also assessed the challenge as well as problems that are faced while conducting the implementation plan for constructing the Peshawar-Torkham road. After analyzing the critical path of the project, it reduces both times as well as the cost of the plan so that the project management team can conduct their work within estimated schedule and cost.
PERT CPM Chart
In order to successfully complete the construction project plan, the recommendations which are suggested as follows:
Minor design improvement: In the project work, there are some challenges based on the design of culverts. Most of the culverts illustrate distress due to a limitation of maintenance as well as its old age. They are extended previously. For this particular construction plan, the width of the road on the culverts is ranging from 11 to 14 m. those culverts are fallen apart from the road alignment. Therefore some improvements are required in the design of culverts. The height of the culverts is varied based on the site condition. Therefore the project team recommended changing RD (1+ 290 and 5+692) culverts. Due to reconstruction as well as renovation of new culverts, it would reduce the traffic problems on the road.
Retrofitting of bridges: The project should require proper retrofit measures to overcome with the damages of the bridges on the road. The damage to the bridges causes risks to the public, as there are chances of breakage of the bridges anytime. Therefore, it should require taking retrofitting of bridges measures.
Cost review: The geometry design of most of the bridges on the road is required to be changed so that the cost of the project should change. In order to review the cost of the project plan, the project team should use cost review technique such as cost-benefit analysis to identify if the plan should get benefit or loss regarding cost. If the project should benefit, then it will be successfully constructed. Finally, proper cost estimation, as well as cost planning, is required before doing any changes in the plan. The cost review for this particular project plan should go for 20 percent towards the accuracy of the estimation of cost.
Pouring of concrete: Pouring should be done at the nighttime, as it will help to lay it properly as well as there should be avoidance of cracks. An excavator should be hired to help in pouring and preparing the construction site. The project team should size, depth as well as size the project plan to have considered at the time of pouring concrete. Concrete installation should be done to get an understanding of how the pouring should be done.
From the entire construction project plan for strengthening as well as improvement of Peshawar-Torkham Road, some of the lessons are learned as follows:
Teamwork: The project team members are doing mentoring, and they are helping each other in conducting the project work. One to one feedback of the team members is taken to identify the problems and issues they face while working in the project. All are working together in order to achieve their project goals.
Planning and resourcing: Each of the work activities is distributed to the project team members individually. Therefore, before starting to work on the project, all the works is distributed dependent on the skills and knowledge of the members. It increases the quality of the project plan. Proper scheduling, planning, budgeting as well as resourcing are required to construct the road. Project requirements are done properly. Development of project schedule, work breakdown structure and cost estimation are done accurately.
Risk mitigation: In order to mitigate the risks, the project uses project communication plan to interact with each member. The weekly meeting is done to discuss the problems, issues, and progress of the project plan. Risk assessment matrix should require doing in order to identify the consequences and impacts of the risks on the construction project plan.
Time management: For each of the project activities, proper estimation of time is required. Therefore, control over the time increases the efficiency as well as productivity of the project plan. If the project team members should able to manage their time and finish each of the activities within the estimated time, then it will help to control the cost as well as time. It maximizes the project benefit by limiting the total project time. Time management is considered as one of the most vital functions of project management.
Cost analysis: By adopting the cost of plinth foundation, it will reduce by 35 percent to 50 percent. Therefore, it reduces the cost of construction and makes the structure more effective. In the construction project plan, the cost consists of construction and initial design cost. Cost effective road planning is also required to reduce the cost so that later no new cost increasing items should be added to the schedule plan.
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