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Causes of Demographic Changes

Discuss about the Sustainability issues in the world: changing demographics.

The overall population of the world is currently at 7billion according to a report done in 2011. This population is estimated to continue growing although at a slow rate (Warren, 2008). The estimations are were done report that by the year 2050, the world will have a capacity of 9billion people (UN, Department of economic and social affairs, Population division, 2011). Among the many issues that are affecting the world today, Changes in the demographics is one of the major issues. The word Demography is derived from the ancient Greek which means “Recitation of the population.” The word comes from two words: Demos meaning the people and Graphien that represents the study. Therefore, in short, demographics is the study of the people (Sheiner et al., 2013). In this case, demographics or rather people who are associated with demographics, the demographers, help in defining or analyzing the size, composition and the structure of the populations (Saskia, 2012). Demographic changes are therefore a term used to describe the shifts and turns that are experienced by different populations structures.    

The demographic changes have been recorded as from the 1970s. The changes that are experienced in the demographics have been reported to have been caused by increase in the immigration rates, decrease in the birth rates and the long life expectancy of the people (WHO, 2011). The changes in the structure of populations have contributed both positively and negatively to the world. In this essay will look at the environmental, social, economic and ethical elements that lie in line with the changes experienced by population structures. In addition, we also discuss the challenges and opportunities that the sustainability issues have brought to the world.

Heterogeneity is one of the main causes of demographic development. Different countries are at a different level and have a different rate of demographic transition. While in some countries the population rate is slowing down, population in the developing countries is highly growing (Gray, 2011). In some countries, their population is aging at a high speed while in others the amount of youth is increasing at a higher rate. These differences in collaboration with inequality persistence increase the pressure in a country (s) (Donald, 2013).


Increase in the level of urbanization is also a factor that cause changes in the demographics. In approximation almost half of the world’s population live in the towns and cities and urban areas (WHO, 2011). According to a report by the United Nations, 2011, it is estimated that in the developing countries, the growth rate of urban areas is by 4% every year. This is mostly contributed to the migration of people from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of employment and better education (Joss, 2017). Many of the immigrants who migrate to the urban areas are forced to settle in informal settlements where they are exposed to environmental risks and health risks. Climate changes also contribute to these effects leading to changes in the demographic both in the rural areas as the population decreases and in the urban areas as the population structure changes due to an increase in settles (John, 2016).

Impact of Demographic Changes on the Environment

Natural disasters are environmental elements that cannot be ignored. Cases have been reported that cause displacement and deaths of many people. Reports by the UN in the IDMC reported that nearly 22million people were displaced in 2013 as a result of floods and severe storms. Wildfires and earthquakes are also a cause of many people’s displacement in the world (Demographics partition org, 2015). The climatic changes that are being experienced in the world are a significant cause of demographic changes as people result in migration to safer places and others die during the strategies (John, 2016). Among the leading causes of natural disasters are human activities such as urban development which is as a result of demographic people brought about by the rural-urban migration.

As termed earlier, the population of the people fully depends on the death rate, birth rate and the migration rate of a particular population. On the social and economic elements that affect the demographic change, we look into age, sex, education level, marital status, birth rate, death rate, income level, the average size of a family (Muhlenberg, 2009).

Marital status: The structure of a population is affected by the issue of marriage. For instance, women who get married tend to migrate from their homes to their husband’s homes. This causes a change in population in their original home and their new residential home (Muhlenberg, 2009). Even though many do not go their husbands home, wherever they settle affected the structure of the population in that particular area.

The age of the people also determines where and how they live. The young do not live as the old do. Putting into consideration that the youth are on migration to urban areas to look for employment and better life opportunities that the rural places do not offer (Miner, Esposito, Guay,  Montorsi & Goldstein, 2012). In many cases, the old are the only population that is found I the rural areas nowadays.

The family size also determines the changes in population. A large family cannot live in an urban setting and enjoy all the pleasures that come with urban life. In this case, it’s either the family lives in the rural area or in informal urban settlements (Jeans, 2011). The larger the family size, the more the responsibilities and burden to provide and therefore in most cases some of the family members end up migrating to the urban areas.

Impact of Demographic Changes on Social and Economic Elements

More educated people are seen to have a good life since they can afford a good job and able to provide for themselves; therefore, most migrate to the urban area where their education is more meaningful (Jeans, 2011). Also, when students graduate and get to attend college, then they migrate to these colleges, which are mainly located in other locations.

The more the income, the better the life and thus the people migrate to places that can better suit their lifestyle. The low the income the poorer the lifestyle and this is where we find slums highly populated with informal settlements risking them with more risks to health and poverty (D’Esposito, 2012).

Population growth and changes have risen an impact in the world today. The growth of population has contributed to environmental, social, economic and security issues in the world today (John, 2016). The best solution to this problem is planning of the family regarding size. This argument has contributed to the discussion of ethical grounds in demographic changes about the human rights and more specifically the rights of women (Demographics partitions org, 2015). Population growth has led to the situation whereby balance has to be maintained between the reproductive rights and the social and economic responsibilities available (Saskia, 2012).

It has been reported that the population of the world will increase eventually although this will be in slow motion. The main campaign underway being that of family planning to help reduce the population growth that is leading to more hazards than benefits. The two ways in which this problem would be solved is if the people embraced family planning or if the natural took it cause and killed the people through famine and droughts ( D’ Esposito, 2012). Moreover, people still alive that it is their responsibility given by God to fill the earth. In this case, it is hard to convince such women of family planning. To some, it is against their ethical morals to prevent childbirth. Campaigns to the issue are undergoing, and we hope that sense will be found among these people.

In many family settings today, a family has a maximum of three children. Therefore, if a family adds on another child, then it increases the rate in which the environment is to be damaged, the rise in the insecurity levels, decrease in the resources available and increases the speed to ecological damage in the world (World economic survey). Therefore, it is the family’s responsibility to be aware of the ethical implications that a large family size would result to.

Ethical Implications of Demographic Changes

According to a research done recently by the UNICEF, around 220million women in the world lack access to family planning technology (WHO, 2011). In consideration that 40% of pregnancies are unwanted either through a mistake or rape. This lead is to the 50000 deaths that take place after failed abortions. To sum them all up, almost 100women die every single day due to issues about the pregnancy (WHO, 2011). In this regard, it is clear that lesser family size is more comfortable to handle than a large family. It is, therefore, the duty of the government to ensure that all the women get an opportunity to get access to family planning and prevent all the deaths taking place.

As much as the world is full of human beings, we should also consider the animal life that is present in the earth as well. The high population hassled to deforestation and the sea levels in our oceans are currently low (Joss, 2017). This has dramatically affected the wildlife and the aqua animals. It is, therefore, necessary to consider being fair to all life on the planet and stop being selfish by only thinking of ourselves.

The government, on the other hand, should make it a priority to promote smaller families and ensure that all women get family planning technology to ensure that the humanitarian ethics are considered (Bogart, 2010). On the other hand, it should also promote education among the women so as the issue of ignorance among then can be minimized. This will help in promoting the political ethics of any state.

Opportunities

There is an increase in the number of self-employed people. Good education and a high-income rate will push people into being their bosses. This will help in the reduction of unemployed people in the towns, and the migration of people to look for employment will be at a low rate. This opportunity will also help in improving the economy of the state.

The embrace of smaller families. This will ensure that the children in every family are well catered for regarding the basic needs and education (Giallo et al. 2012). A small family will also present an opportunity for the women to be empowered and participate in building the nation rather than just being at home taking care of the family.

Increase in the pool of skilled people. Less family ensures that children get the proper education that is required of them. In this aspect, the people will be adequately skilled, and this will help in the promotion of business globally. More skills are equivalent to increase income levels, and this will lead to a rise in the economy and reduction of hazards of health and insecurity.

Solutions to the Problem of Population Growth

Threats

A small family as much as it is manageable and efficient, it provides a sufficient short-term labor providence. This will result in less or no labor in the future leading to a decrease in the income and economy of a nation.


There will be an increase in the number of single-parent families. This will lead to a relatively low-income rate since only one parent is providing. Families with single parents will also reduce the labor force that would be provided if both parents were available.

As much as there will be more competent people with more skills, then the firms will have a hard time as they compete to get the best of the workers. As much as a lower population is adequate, it will cause a rise in the economy, and the business world will have more to cater for regarding finances.

Possible solutions

The best antidote to the demographic changes in the world today is family planning. When the people can plan and manage the size of the family, then it will be easier for the world to manage the population as well (Newman & Zurawski, 2008). Family planning will help in the management of the components of demographics. These are birth, death, and migration. A low family population will ensure equal opportunities, and therefore there will be no issue of migration (Bogart, 2010). Family planning will also help in the regulation of the births in the worlds and prevent deaths when it comes to abortions and due to lack of basic resources

References

Bogart’s, J. (2010). The fertility-inhibiting effects of the intermediate fertility variables. Studies       in family planning.

D’Esposito, S. (2012). Global trends: global agenda survey. 40(10), 100-116.

Demographics partitions. Org. (2015). The science of population. Retrieved on August, 2015.

Donald, T. (2013). Demographic: the methods and concepts of the issue. Terafiniti LLP. London.

Giallo, R., D’Esposito, F., Christensen, D., Mensah, F., Cooklin, A., Wade, C., ... & Nicholson, J. M. (2012). Father mental health during the early parenting period: results of an Australian population based longitudinal study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 47(12), 1907-1916.

Gray, A. (2011). Analysis of the components of demographic change. Math popul stud; 21- 38.

Jeans, E. (2011). Fertility in the history of the 20th century: Trends, theories and policies. The         historical social research.

John, Iceland. (2016). Demography. Springer science and business Media on behalf of the            Population association of America. United States.

Joss, T. (2017). Sustainability trends and management. Terafiniti LLP. London.

Miner, M., Esposito, K., Guay, A., Montorsi, P., & Goldstein, I. (2012). Cardiometabolic risk and female sexual health: the Princeton III Summary (CME). The journal of sexual medicine, 9(3), 641-651.

Muhlenberg, P. (2009). An international handbook of the demography of aging. New York:           springer- Verilog.

Newman, J and Zurawski, D. (2008). Adaptation of suitable practices to protect and preserve the world’s population. Foundation of statistical analysis.

Saskia, B. (2012). Ideas 2020. Press and public relations. Pp.45-46

Sheiner, LB et al. (2013). Population dynamics. Annul Rev Pharmacology Toxicol. United nations Department of economic and social affairs, Population division, 2011

Warren, S. (2008). Doubling of the world’s population is unlikely. Nature. Pp, 387.

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