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Choose one of the topics given below and submit a research project.

Topics to select from but not limited to:

IoT Smart City
IoT Mining Industry
IoT Health Care
IoT in Farming
IoT for Independent Living of the Older Generation
IoT for Reducing Food Wastage in Australia
IoT in Finance Industry and Security Challenges
Business Intelligence in IoT
Future of the Fog Domain
IoT and Data Analytics
IoT in Intelligent Transport Systems
Big Data challenges in IoT and Cloud
Machine Learning for Intelligent Decision Making in IoT
Common Currency for IoT
Utilising block-chain technology in IoT
If you think of any other related topics please talk to your lecturer before deciding.

What is the purpose of this report?
What is the topic you have chosen for your report?

Background of applications of IoT in smart city

The prime objective of this report is to focus on the challenges of the application of internet of things in smart cities. The four different types of modules of a smart city where internet of things is applied are sensing, networking, analysis and control (Mohanty, Choppali & Kougianos, 2016). The internet of things is used to connect all the possible physical objects, this technology allows to sense different sorts of phenomena and control them in an effective way (Scuotto, Ferraris & Bresciani, 2016). The different challenging areas where smart cities are applied are smart buildings, smart energy grids, smart automobiles, water distribution lines, environmental monitoring, wearable sensors, protection of security and privacy of citizens of the smart city (Sun et al., 2016). This report will be focussing on the different types of issues and challenges faced by the smart cities using internet of things (Rathore et al., 2016).

The IOT or the internet of things can be defined as an eco-system that connects physical subsystems or objects like the electrical devices, home appliance and other such devices connected and operated through the internet.  With the help of the Internet of things one can control anything which can be connected to the internet and use it with the help of the internet. In the modern generation this is one of the major development that is taking place, using this can control anything without manual intervention. The IOT amalgamation with cities called the smart cities is one of the major development that is taking place. This embedded technology can help the government of a city to monitor each and every thing in a proper manner and thus making use of the common systems very much user friendly. One of the major advantage of this is security options. When things are connected to the sources of internet the user can control everything remotely hence decreasing the chances of nay errors. As of the government is considered it can help in the proper observations of all the aspects of the society like the hospitals, police stations, power supply stations,  housing complexes and other such common aspects. In other words it can be said that it can help in observing, identifying and understanding a situation without human help that is autonomously. This is one of the revolutionary idea that is been induced by many of the countries in the world.

Smart homes

Smart parking lot

Healthcare industry

Weather and water systems

Transport management system

Environmental pollution

Surveillance systems

Demand response

Car management

Tracking

Weather condition

Camera monitoring

Greenhouse gas monitoring

Violence detection

Fire detection technology

Departure and arrival of automobiles

Identification of issues

Water quality

Environment monitoring

Energy efficiency monitoring

Public place monitoring

Temperature controlling systems

Mobile ticketing

Data gathering

Water leakage

Travel scheduling

Renewable energy usage

People and object tracking

Security systems

Environment monitoring

Sensing

Water level

Traffic jam reduction

Air quality monitoring

CCTV

Social network supporting systems

Traffic congestion control

Equipment used in operation theatres

Water contamination

Assisted driving

Noise pollution monitoring

Traffic Police

Table 2: IOT application in a smart city

Challenges of IoT in smart cities

Created by the author

  • Privacy and Security: It is a foremost point of discussion in the IoT based systems in a smart city (Höller et al., 2014). Systems using IoT are vulnerable to significant vulnerabilities such as data leakage, multitenancy, cross side scripting and side channels, effective measures should be taken to cope up with those issues (Boulos & Al-Shorbaji, 2014). Maintenance of the security of those advanced systems is also an important parameter regarding the usage of IoT in smart cities as the attackers are always using advanced improvised techniques in the cyber-attacks (Fortino & Trunfio, 2014).
  • Heterogeneity: This is one of the major challenges of smart cities (Avijit & Chinnaiyan, 2018). Effective procurement report is very much important for maximum utilization of the IoT based systems (Stankovic, 2014).
  • Reliability: Organisations involving a huge amount of smart systems are prone to reliability issues which should be taken special care of by the organisations using the technology (Botta et al., 2016).
  • Legal and social aspects: The service provided by different kinds of IoT based system are based on different national and international laws which are needed to be followed in order to be completely secure from the external attacks (Jalali, El-Khatib & McGregor, 2015).
  • Big data: This is the biggest challenges of an IoT based smart city (Gonzalez & Rosillo, 2015). The service provided by the IoT based system should be monitored as much as possible as essential information is transmitted to open source networks which can be easily hacked by professional hackers (Ejaz et al., 2017).
  • Sensor networks: All the IOT based systems uses the sensor networks to enable the systems for different types of activities such as measuring, interfering, understanding environmental indexes (Zanella et al., 2014).
  • DR barriers: There are different kinds of barriers which can have an impact on the IoT based systems (Li, Da Xu & Zhao, 2015). The three key set categories of DR barriers are as followings:
  • Framework barriers: The applications of framework barriers are in the suitable electricity market, regulation and policies of organizations and communication limits (Centenaro et al., 2016).
  • Providers barriers: It includes convincing the customers and making incentives for effective function of the advanced IoT based system in a smart city (Alur et al., 2016).
  • Customer barriers: The issues related with customers regarding IoT are lack of knowledge and huge investment required (Bonomi et al., 2014).
  • Hacker attacks: There are different types of problems in IoT based smart city (Hui, Sherratt & Sánchez, 2017). Different types of cyber-attacks lead to data loss for the organisations, use of malicious software’s, phishing attacks are very much harmful and one of the key problems of a smart city (Wang et al., 2016).
  • Data ownership risk: Storage of data in local server or in cloud server has numerous kinds of issues associated with smart cities (Jin et al., 2014). A centralized control system which used for data storing application processing and application storage have numerous issues related to the internet of technology as any single fault may lead to entire system failure (Ranjan, 2016).
  • Data hacking: This is the unethical problem of IoT based smart city (Mehmood et al., 2017). This is the other type of problem in a smart city which incorporates the internet of things due to its vast associated with different types of networks (Bonino et al., 2015).

Public trust: The other vital problem regarding smart cities is public trust (Vlacheas et al., 2013). IT is an important problem regarding the usage of the different kinds of activities, as many people are unaware of the new progresses in the field of science and technology (Perera et al., 2014). Digital disruption is the other type of challenge faced in a city using the internet of things (Ahlgren, Hidell & Ngai, 2016).

According to Centenaro et al. (2016), this paper highlights the importance of the connectivity of the IOT enabled system in smart cities. The authors of this journal help the readers to know about the different mechanisms of short and long-range communication and the type of network used in it. This journal focuses on the different types of wireless connectivity along with the transmission technologies involved in it. This paper fails to guide us the challenges related to the connectivity issues.

As discussed by Gaur et al. (2015), all the IOT enabled systems such as the healthcare industry and transportation industry use variety of domains which deal with huge amount of data uses wireless sensor networks. Utilization of resources is done in a more way with the help of these smart systems. This paper fails to give us the issues related to the incorporation of those theories in the architecture such as the compatibility issues.

As discussed by Memos et al. (2018), this paper proposes a future framework which is used in smart cities for integrating multiple information and communication technology in big business organizations. This paper has stated all the possible privacy issues related to this framework. The security challenges of the IOT network architecture is described in a professional way in this paper.

According to Jin et al. (2014), this paper helps in understanding about the better utilization of the ICT technologies in smart cities where huge amount of data processed regularly. The framework proposed in this paper considers data from sensory level to the network level such as the cloud-based systems. However, the issues related to the different considered levels are not discussed in this paper.

As stated by Strohbach et al. (2015), this paper focuses on the efficient handling of the essential data in an organization with the applications of the machine learning algorithms. This paper helps in dealing with the infrastructural costs associated with the big data technologies. This paper helps in examining the relationship between the big data analysis and IOT. The high-level requirements towards the big data framework are presented with the help of a case study in this paper which helps in knowing the challenges with it in details.

Problems of IoT in smart cities

According to Arasteh et al. (2016), the writer discussed the different types of IOT enabled systems in smart cities. The motivations and applications of the different types of technologies are discussed with great importance in this paper. The most striking feature of this paper is that it discusses practical experiences and challenges related to the different smart systems which are used in the different sections of the society in smart cities.

As discussed by Zanella et al. (2014), the application of the different types of heterogeneous end systems is discussed in this paper. Along with that, the complexities related to the associated of the large variety of devices are explained in details in this paper. The protocols and architecture related to the urban system is discussed here. Technological solutions are also provided in the paper which helps in knowing the issues related to the urban system.

As discussed by Nitti et al. (2017), this paper focuses on the application of IOT in tourism industry. All the features of the IOT enabled system such as the flexibility and authorization control used in the tourism industry are described in this paper with prime importance. The problem related to the manageability of the devices are discussed with priority in this paper. However, it can be said that this paper do not discuss the issues related to the application it only focusses on the positive aspects of the tourism devices.

According to Petrolo, Loscri & Mitton (2014), the prime objective of this paper is to focus on the application of IOT in academic and industry fields with the help of specific platforms. This paper highlights the different types of cloud services which are generally implemented in the different type of activities in smart cities. All the probable challenges of the IOT echo systems are described in the paper which helps the readers to know more about the issues of the academic and industry fields.

As stated by Hashem et al. (2016), the writer of this paper focused on the evolution of the different types of IOT based programs in smart cities. The paper highlights the use of different IOT based technologies such as the network services in the smart cities. The mission and vision of the big data are discussed in this paper along with that the author proposed a business model of big data and the different challenges associated with it. The drawback of this paper is that it focuses on the models more than the practical application of the big data in smart systems.

Review of Literature

Tönjes, R., Barnaghi, P., Ali, M., Mileo, A., Hauswirth, M., Ganz, F., ... & Puiu, D. (2014, June). Real time IOT stream processing and large-scale data analytics for smart city applications. In poster session, European Conference on Networks and Communications. sn.

The foremost purpose of this section of the document is to focus on interconnected echo system in smart cities. The aggregation and streaming problem related to the echo systems are highlighted in this paper. The processing of the large scale IOT data stream is discussed in this paper.

Bates, O. E. G., & Friday, A. J. (2017). Beyond data in the smart city: learning from a case study of re-purposing existing campus IOT. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 16(2), 54-60.

This report focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of the energy information system in smart cities. The different sections of the energy information system such as a building management system and energy monitoring system are evaluated in this paper. All the opportunities related to this system is properly described in this paper.

Ganchev, I., Ji, Z., & O'Droma, M. (2014). A generic IOT architecture for smart cities.

The prime objective of this unit of the paper focuses on the application of IOT in different sections of the society such as environment, agriculture and healthcare. The prime attribute of this paper its examination of IOT infrastructure in smart cities. All the issue related to the application of OIT in smart cities is described in this paper.

Kim, T. H., Ramos, C., & Mohammed, S. (2017). Smart city and IOT.

The foremost objective of this journal is to focus on the properties of the smart systems in monitoring, managing and control devices certain systems. The paper highlighted the importance of the interconnections of the different types of echo systems of the smart cities. The threats associated with the systems are also discussed in the paper.

Byun, J., Kim, S., Sa, J., Kim, S., Shin, Y. T., & Kim, J. B. (2016). Smart City Implementation Models Based on IOT Technology. Advanced Science and Technology Letters, 129(41), 209-212.

The prime determination of this section of the paper is to focus on the implementation of the service models which dedicatedly works to maintain and manage essential data associated with a business organization. This paper focuses only on the integration of the IOT implementation models with in the cloud services.

Based on all the discussed papers it can be said that there are plenty of aspects related to the use of internet of things in smart cities such as

  • Connectivity issues of IOT in smart city.
  • Challenges of architecture in smart cities.
  • Problems related to Media-based surveillance system in smart cities.
  • Importance of framework
  • Challenges of big data technologies.
  • Challenges of different smart systems.
  • Complexities of smart devices.
  • Manageability of the devices.
  • Challenges of the IOT echo systems.
  • Challenges of IOT based technologies.
  • Problem of large scale IOT data stream.
  • Problem of energy information system.
  • IOT infrastructure issues in smart cities.
  • Problems related to interconnections of the different echo systems.
  • Issue of implementation of the service models in smart cities.

IoT or the Internet of Things is generally considered to be another information and industrial wave after the invention of the personal computers, in many cities it has been seen that the Io is put forward as a long term national strategy which have moved forward so as to enter the substantial implementation period after the conceptual stages ate the service level have been completed. Dependency of the different IoT applications upon different architectures are responsible for preventing the co-building of the IoT technology along with preventing the convergence and openness of the IoT technology.

IoT platforms are capable of serving the generic architectural foundation for developing that smart cities and one such model has been depicted in the figure provided below. The core element of this includes the Integrated Information centre that is generally operated by the IoT service providers. From the figure it is clearly understandable that the at the bottom the centre is linked to a set of services and the services mainly includes the water supply, electric energy, city fire protection and security, intelligent transport, fee and tax payment services central heating and gas supply and commercial and tourism services (Kitchin, 2015). Besides this the supplementary platform which is present in the architecture is responsible for supporting the various kind of services which mainly includes the data centres and cloud computing, an application centre, a management centre, an evaluation platform of an urban e-government, mobile service platform, internet infrastructure and a mobile service platform.

Fig 1:  The Generic IoT architecture that is to be used by the smart cities.

Classification of the IoT platforms is possible into four different groups and this mainly includes the e-Government-related, enterprise-based, company-based, and pure business-oriented platforms. The different platforms that are to be used for designing the new system are described below:

1. e-Government IoT platforms: Promotion of the e-Government information system is possible by evaluation and making improvements in the management. For doing so the local or the regional or the national government should be associated with the employment of more management intelligence and this is mainly to be done by making use of the IoT platforms which encompasses all the areas which are relevant. Some of the IoT services that helps in development of the smart cities includes the controlling of traffic, security of the citizens, protection of the environment and many more. Besides this the e-Government IoT is also considered to be the supporting foundation that is responsible for facilitating the economic development of the smart cities, along with improving the management (Albino, Berardi & Dangelico, 2015). This concept is to be supported by the public welfare scheme which in turn is responsible for promoting the development of the e-Government towards the IoT. In addition to this there is also a need of relevant information so as to prevent the effect of “Information Island” and to make sure that security of the information and network is maintained.

This are the type of platforms which are not having the capability of becoming the common business model for the generic IoT operating platforms. The major reason lying behind this is due to the existence of their public-welfare properties and the different social attributes. The IoT platform is not having the value of making business investments and are also not capable of attracting the venture capital. This is generally determined by the Economic development rules. Along with this, they also cannot be realized by the government or pubic administration in an independent way. 

Fig 2: Classification of the IoT platforms associated with top-down design elements.

2. Enterprise-based or company based IoT platforms: For the purpose of making sure that the competitiveness and the service assurance is being improved it is necessary to make sure that the enterprises or companies which are market oriented are requiring an independently funded IoT projects. This is to be done so as to make sure that there is efficient production of the management, warehousing, transportation, marketing, distribution and supply chain management. In addition to this the autonomous enterprises and companies dependent upon the IoT platforms are generally used for the purpose of internal management that the corresponding enterprise or companies are having along with making sure that they are supported by the investments made independently.

This type of IoT platforms are generally responsible for serving the society which includes the end-users and many more. This is done when their final products entre the millions of households. So it is important to integrate the information resource management in the market management.

3. Business-oriented IoT platforms:  Use of a pure business-oriented IoT might be responsible for becoming an important facilitator and stimulus that would be affecting the modern economy. This is done by means of attracting the various kind investments along with the development of certain strategic industry sectors. It is necessary to involve all the end users along with the terminal equipment’s for the purpose of accelerating the entire economic development along with optimizing and integrating the information of the market resources. This involvement is necessary as this helps a lot in building the modern industry and this are generally established on the valuable IOT business model and platforms. For example when the RFID or the radio frequency identification is used in the product logistics then it might be associated with the realization of automatic acquisition of various informations like the information related to logistics recognition of the logo and many more. Besides this it wuld also be associated with the reliable delivery of the cargos, safe customs and tracking visualizations. For the generic IoT platform the IoT integrated information centre plays a vital role as they helps a lot in unifying various organizations along with the implementation and planning of the various integrated IoT application market so as to attract the commercial capital investments. All this information systems are generally operated by the IoT service providers which might be transformed to another major player along with the different type of existing service providers. Besides this the existence of the IoT business model along with the validation of this IoT business models would be associated with motivating the investments for future development of the suitable generic IoT platforms.

Fig 3: Different type of IoT Platforms

Conclusion:

From the above report, it can be concluded that there is different type of issues related to use of internet of things in a smart city. All the risks and challenges can be mitigated using efficient risk management techniques and these will lead to greater efficiency and productivity for the organization where these technologies are incorporated.This paper is associated with discussing about the various visions and goals of IoT in smart cities. Various operations inside the cities are generally facilitated by the various group of service providers who are associated with the usage of their own IoT business models, architectures and operating platforms as well. The methodology which has been selected includes the categorization of the IoT along with the usage of the top down architecture. All this has been described in brief in the report. The usage of the generic IoT platform is best suited for the development of the smart city and managing the various operations inside the smart city. This platform is associated with the utilization of the IoT application technology within the city region so as to adjust and enhance the structure. This in turn helps in achieving a high-end development strategy in the market of IoT applications. This IoT platform is associated with promoting the creation of the IoT terminal industry cultures which is responsible for attracting more commercial capital investments in the IoT related modern service and for the manufacturing industries.

References:

Ahlgren, B., Hidell, M., & Ngai, E. C. H. (2016). Internet of things for smart cities: Interoperability and open data. IEEE Internet Computing, (6), 52-56.

Albino, V., Berardi, U., & Dangelico, R. M. (2015). Smart cities: Definitions, dimensions, performance, and initiatives. Journal of Urban Technology, 22(1), 3-21.

Alur, R., Berger, E., Drobnis, A. W., Fix, L., Fu, K., Hager, G. D., ... & Rexford, J. (2016). Systems computing challenges in the Internet of Things. arXiv preprint arXiv:1604.02980.

Arasteh, H., Hosseinnezhad, V., Loia, V., Tommasetti, A., Troisi, O., Shafie-Khah, M., & Siano, P. (2016, June). IOT-based smart cities: a survey. In Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), 2016 IEEE 16th International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Avijit, K., & Chinnaiyan, R. (2018). IOT for Smart Cities.

Bates, O. E. G., & Friday, A. J. (2017). Beyond data in the smart city: learning from a case study of re-purposing existing campus IOT. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 16(2), 54-60.

Bonino, D., Alizo, M. T. D., Alapetite, A., Gilbert, T., Axling, M., Udsen, H., ... & Spirito, M. (2015, August). Almanac: Internet of things for smart cities. In Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud), 2015 3rd International Conference on (pp. 309-316). IEEE.

Bonomi, F., Milito, R., Natarajan, P., & Zhu, J. (2014). Fog computing: A platform for internet of things and analytics. In Big data and internet of things: A roadmap for smart environments (pp. 169-186). Springer, Cham.

Botta, A., De Donato, W., Persico, V., & Pescapé, A. (2016). Integration of cloud computing and internet of things: a survey. Future Generation Computer Systems, 56, 684-700.

Boulos, M. N. K., & Al-Shorbaji, N. M. (2014). On the Internet of Things, smart cities and the WHO Healthy Cities.

Byun, J., Kim, S., Sa, J., Kim, S., Shin, Y. T., & Kim, J. B. (2016). Smart City Implementation Models Based on IOT Technology. Advanced Science and Technology Letters, 129(41), 209-212.

Centenaro, M., Vangelista, L., Zanella, A., & Zorzi, M. (2016). Long-range communications in unlicensed bands: The rising stars in the IoT and smart city scenarios. IEEE Wireless Communications, 23(5), 60-67.

Ejaz, W., Naeem, M., Shahid, A., Anpalagan, A., & Jo, M. (2017). Efficient energy management for the internet of things in smart cities. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(1), 84-91.

Fortino, G., & Trunfio, P. (Eds.). (2014). Internet of things based on smart objects: Technology, middleware and applications. Springer Science & Business Media.

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Gaur, A., Scotney, B., Parr, G., & McClean, S. (2015). Smart city architecture and its applications based on IOT. Procedia computer science, 52, 1089-1094.

Gonzalez, G., & Rosillo, V. (2015). Study and Deployment of Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things in the GDL Smart City. IEEE Guadalajara GDL CCD White Papers.

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