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Discuss about theThe Prevalence of Breast Cancer among Women.

Research Design Plan Elements

Description and explanation

Evaluation of potential understanding

Research question and the main elements

1.      What is the condition and experience of persons living with breast cancer?

2.      What is the experience of children brought up mothers diagnosed with breast cancer?

3.      What are measures in place to deal with rising breast cancer cases?

The research questions shall assist in understanding the prevalence of breast cancers cases: Emerging issues

Literature review

Similar to all other types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the deadly disease and one which is killing almost one per hour globally   (Thomson, 2014). According to research carried out, United Kingdom leads in the number of women who are tested positive for breast cancer; the study showed that most of those women who are diagnosed with this disease are female above 50 years of age (Holloway, 2016). Nevertheless, younger women were also found to have breast cancer in particular individual cases. Almost one out of ten women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their entire lifetime which sends an alarm to the reason for the study  (Taylor, 2015). Doctors together with the international humanitarian Organizations brag of milestones in reducing cancer cases in their countries as well as globally. However, the ratio of breast cancer diagnosis is quite high.  Although there is a great chance for women who are tested early to be treated, it remains to be a deadly disease (Kasimir-Bauer, et al, 2012). According to research conducted by the University of Michigan students, it showed that any woman no matter the food intake or the number of activities that do per day are at a high chance of testing positive for breast cancer (Ed,2012). Hence it is imperative for every woman to check their breast regularly for any symptoms and where applicable seek medical attention from their GP.

Although it is not sure of the cause, scholars attribute, age, previous benign breast lump, obese and excessive alcohol use as some of the causes of the deadly disease (Sullivan-Bolyai, 2014).

From the brief literature review, it is clear that there have not been numerous researchers who have researched or bothered to test the hypothesis on the prevalence of breast cancer across the continents. Hence this research lies at the best opportunity and position to fill in the gap between the diagnosis of disease on patients, the life of the patients as well as the cause for the increase in the cases of breast cancer as compared to the previous years.

Research methodology

Research Design: Descriptive research design.

The study shall apply descriptive research design. As per Gay, descriptive analysis is the process of collecting data to test the hypothesis or to answer questions regarding current status of elements in the study (Matthews, 2014). The design is the best for the study since it shall report on the first-hand interaction of mothers diagnosed with breast cancer. The methodology and design are best for the study since it will report the engagements of women diagnosed with breast cancer while in hospitals as well as at home. The methodology shall bring out information on their human as well as physical environments, in turn, provide valuable information regarding breast cancer and patients which will be used to be able to ascertain the reason for escalated cases of cases of breast cancer (Sullivan-Bolyai, 2014). With this methodology, the real information regarding the patients and their subjects of study which include nurses shall help inquire in more detailed form.

Study areas: The areas of this study shall entail, hospitals especially the cancer centers, homes of patients with cancer and regions identified as cancer prevalent.

Study population: the target population of this study shall comprise of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, children of mothers diagnosed with breast cancer, nurses handling these patients and oncologists who have expertise in breast cancer (Neuman, 2014). The target population shall also include nutritionist who will offer expertise on causes of breast cancer.

Descriptive research design and methodology is one of the best design on the study since it will assist in the collection of data which is from the primary sources  (Kasimir-Bauer, 2012). The methodology shall help me to gain the life experience of the mothers living with breast cancer and their children to know when it was diagnosed and treatment plan.

The research methodology shall also inquire on lives of nurses treating these patients and their efficiency, hence assist in investigating if there is civic education.

Through the method, we shall also inquire more from oncologists. Through the inquiries from key informants, I will be able to gain more knowledge on the reasons or causes that are propelling the prevalence of breast cancer in the world across the continents. 

Key informants shall also assist to understand the gap lying between so many patients contracting breast cancer despite the World Health Organization efforts for civic education.

Is it their failure as the health department or other agencies?

Data and collection method/strategies with consideration of ethics and cultural competence

Different data collection methods shall be used at various stages of the Nursing study. The entire study shall triangulate data collection methods where possible to be able to acquire reliable data. These data methods shall utmost promote ethical consideration as well as cultural differences present in our diverse study population  (Sohoni, 2014).

Survey method: it shall be the primary method of data collection.  There shall be questionnaire issued to respondents. The study shall make use of both the closed and open ended questionnaire on all the respondents involved. The questionnaire shall be of use in generation of data that will be analyzed using qualitative and quantitative to give standardized outcomes which will be statically tabulated (Englander, 2012).

Focus group discussions:

This Is one type of data collection, which majors on group dynamics and gives the opportunity to the small group of respondents who are guided by a skilled moderator, who assist the team into deep levels of inquiry and issues surrounding the topic of research (Jayasekara, 2012). Note taking techniques, and the tape recording shall accompany this method to gather more information  (Panneerselvam, 2014). It is one of the most important ways since it prompts discussion in the topic of debate, which in our case is breast cancer.

Key informants: this is the data collection method that constitutes of the oral source of information from experts. The key informants are repositories of knowledge from which the researchers get expertise knowledge  (Neuman, 2014). In this research, the key sources will include oncologists, nurses, and nutritionists. Based on their training and professional experience, the principal sources shall provide information both quantitative and qualitative regarding the problem of breast cancer and emerging issues.

Structured Observation method:

This will also be used in the research to observe and note the nonverbal communication of the respondents during the interviews to ensure that clear understanding of the primary objective is attained (Matthews, 2014). It will also be important to record on the physical environment of the hospitals where patients are placed.

Secondary data:

This is where I will use articles and journals that have been written and published regarding breast cancer and those relating to my topic of interest.

All the data collection methods are the most important and noble methods to use in this research and ones that will uphold the ethics of research; confidentiality and plagiarism of the secondary data.

In the event where I approach a patient, I will introduce the purpose of the research as well as seek authority from the relevant to carry out the research.

Analysis and interpretation of data

The data that will be collected during this study shall be analyzed in both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative analysis shall deal in deriving explanations as well as interpret the findings entirely basing our comments on the descriptions of the entire engagement of patients at home and those at home and their interaction with their family. The quantitative analysis shall include deriving of the statistical descriptions as well as the interpretation of data using various descriptive statistics (Grbich, 2012). The numerated, as well as the Likert scale questionnaire data, shall be analyzed and document using the SPSS, this is to be done by a social scientist to reduce chances of short falls (Gelman, et al, 2014). The findings generated from the data which will be analyzed using the SPSS shall be presented using, pie charts, percentage tables as well as frequency tables. The qualitative analysis shall be important in the search for content and themes in the qualitative data generated from, the key informant interviews, biographic and as well as focus group discussions (Sohoni, 2014). The results of this qualitative data shall be of use to explain the patterns that are emerging as far as breast cancer is concerned from the descriptive statistics.

Limitations and Implementation of the research in practice

There are plenty of limitations that I will be faced with in the implementation as well as the research of the proposal:

First and foremost I expect resistance from the oncologist to offer best regarding their failures to assist the patients (Taylor, et al, 2015).

The language barrier is also a challenge I expect.

When it comes to implementation of the research, I expect resistance to change from the medical practitioners in service. For instance, FGD has not been used in the medical setup and having sourced out plenty of data from the settings; most PR actioners are more likely to down the research.

I also lack the chance to make policies regarding the recommendations of my research.


Englander, M. (2012). The interview: Data collection in descriptive phenomenological human scientific research. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 43(1), 13-35.

Gelman, A. C. (2014). Bayesian data analysis . (Vol. 2). Boca Raton, FL: CRC press.

Grbich, C. (2012). Qualitative data analysis: An introduction. sage.

Holloway, I. &. (2016). Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. John Wiley & Sons.

Jayasekara, R. S. (2012). Focus groups in nursing research: methodological perspectives. Nursing outlook, 60(6), 411-416.

Kasimir-Bauer, S. H. (2012). Expression of stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in primary breast cancer patients with circulating tumor cells. . Breast Cancer Research, 14(1), R15.

Matthews, B. &. (2014). Research methods. Pearson Higher Ed.

Neuman, W. L. (2014). Basics of social research. Canada: Pearson.

Panneerselvam, R. (2014). Research methodology. . PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd..

Screening., I. U. (2012). The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: an independent review. The Lancet, 380(9855), 1778-1786.

Sohoni, M. (2014). Data Analysis and Interpretation.

Sullivan-Bolyai, S. B. (2014). Data Collection Methods. Springer Netherlands: In Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research .

Taylor, S. J. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

Thomson, R. E. (2014). Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. Newnes.

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