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Discussion: Overview of Aum Shinrikyo, Japanese Cult

Discuss about the Risk Of Terrorism and Fator.

Acts of terrorism relied on the notion of recognizing the state as a vital system that aims to influence throughout history. In accordance to this perspective, state as an important of system constitutes more than a single centre of authority and the annihilation of such authoritative centres being the primary intention of terrorism. The purpose of terrorism has extensively relied on abating the influence of state and the dominance of law. However this can further be defined as a conception of an evaluated consequence. Since factors related to social, collective, economic, diplomatic and military power of the state is co-dependent from one other. Thus any critical assault which pose harm or violence on one of them, tend to affect the other sections of the state. Thus, such acts are identified as primary causes of the emergence of graded effect by terrorism. In recent times, terrorist groups in order to create a psychological impact are tend to implement methods of threat and fear further resulting to target the state and the people in the strategic level.

As a method, ‘terrorism’ bears no significant ideological or political transformations which further mitigates the mystification of defining certain ‘freedom fighters’ and the groups fighting against the Western powers-‘terrorists’. However, with this notion, ‘terrorism’ has emerged as a process of utilizing various methods of instilling fear within the target audience with the purpose of achieving predetermined objectives, while ‘terrorists’ and ‘terrorist organizations’ develop as people and organization whose dominant method of pursue their policy objectives is regarded as a coercion through fear and anxieties. The following paper intends to evaluate of one of the associations of Japan, Aum Shinrikyo that has officially being designated as a terrorist organization by nations such as European Union, Russia, Kazakhstan and the US by further shedding light on the factors and areas of concern which led to the emergence of the terror group. In addition to this, the paper examines certain strategies and purposes which constitute the group along with its recent actions and the way these actions have been posing impacts on certain countries and its people.

Developing the understanding of ‘terrorism’ as a method suggests that freedom fighters might attain the propensity to resort to terrorism and notions related to terms such as ‘terrorist’ and ‘freedom fighter’ are not inherently mutually exclusive. Thus, it can be critically stated that developing the perceptive of ‘terrorism’ as a tactic of instilling fear and threat by several actors leaves the society with significant number of issues. The later phase of the 20th century has witnessed an increase in Islamic militancy in pursuit of religious and political goals whereby several militants had drawn inspiration from the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran. Furthermore, the Sarin gas attack on Tokyo subway executed by one of the prominent terrorist associations, Aum Shinrikyo in the year 1995 increased immense rate of terror and apprehension among people. It has further been observed that period ranging from 1980s to 1990s had further witnessed the rise of terror acts related to single issue terrorism. Aum Shinrikyo further identified as Aum and Aleph has been considered as a Japanese cult which constitutes an amalgamation of tenets from Buddhism, Hinduism and revealed immense obsession with the apocalypse. However, the group began to attain a considerable degree of recognition across other nations in 1995 during the execution of chemical attack on the Tokyo subway system. Thereafter, the organization has been recognized as a terrorist organization and for other previous attempts for executing biologic and chemical attacks.  However, recently the group has been divided into two vital factions in 2007 which had reportedly been caused because of internal resistance over challenge to moderate the cult’s religious ideologies and further to develop its public image. Furthermore, regardless to the years to indolence, both the groups have remained under the critical surveillance by the Japanese authorities.

Factors associated with the emergence of Aum Shinrikyo

Aum Shinrikyo developed as a passive association prior to its development into an apocalyptic millenarian cult. It has been claimed that at the centre of the group’s ideologies has been regarded as a form of veneration for the association’s founder Shoko Asahara who sermonized that the concluding phase of the world was imminent and that the group’s cohort would only be the significant section of the populace who would survive the apocalypse that has been anticipated in 1996 or between 1999-2003. Furthermore, the group’s founder had claimed that the United States would accelerate the Armageddon with the initiation of World War III with Japan. The Aum cult developed in the later phase of 1990s and significantly aimed to conquer Japan as well as other nations. It has been observed that the Cult leaders regulate the followers with a combination of charismatic and coercive leadership. Being identified as a dutiful unit in 1989 under the Japanese legal system, the association was in action but had been immensely incompetent in local Japanese elections in 1990. Thus being estranged as a devout institution under the Japanese legal system in 1995, the Cult encountered a loss of legal status as well as tax privileges as a religious institution resulting to the violent poison gas attack in Tokyo subway.  

Studies have claimed that the Aum group has been engaged into other illegal activities prior to the subway attack and furthermore the members have reportedly attained samples of the Ebola virus in order to utilize other critical biological and chemical agents for the effective execution of terrorist attacks. However, in the aftermath of one of the most violent 9/11 attack, the world’s intelligence services have initiated the operations against the antisocial associations who have been attempting to acquire such materials. Furthermore, the Aum association in 1990 assailed the Parliament of Japan with botulinum toxin aerosol and after two years reportedly posed violent attacks to the wedding of the Japanese crown prince. It is significant to note that the Japan State Department following the violent act of subway attack had initiated its reinvestigation and stated the organization to be extensively accountable for the sarin subway attack led to a casualty of seven and injured over a hundred.

The members of AUM have been reportedly observed to be involved in several deadly criminal acts prior to the Tokyo subway attack during the mid 90’s, which remained highly vague and unresolved by the Japanese authorities until they initiated their investigation on the violent subway gas attack. The violent event occurred on 20th March in the year 1995, between 7:30 AM and 7:45 AM, five men reportedly made an entry into the Tokyo subway system, carrying each with bags of sarin which vaporized and the fumes harmed hundreds of passengers who were present in the subway during that moment. The ongoing investigations of the attack gradually exposed associations between such presumptions and the previous incidents and thus the suspicion had shed light on Aum Shinrikyo. However, certain reports revealed that although cult’s founder had denied any involvement with the deadly subway gas attack, several of the followers later failed to deny the vital association in the Tokyo and Matsumoto incidents and further implicated the sect in the 1989 murder of the lawyer along with his family. Following to this, it had been further exposed that AUM had attempted the unaccomplished attack of March 15 and was also a significant part in the act of murder of the individuals who were assumed to have developed animosity towards the cult. Furthermore, series of noxious assessment of the AUM members continued into the early phase of the 21st century, with over 10 members receiving capital punishment.

Involvement of Aum Shinrikyo in Tokyo subway attack of 1995 (Enablers and Triggers)

Aum’s repeated attempts of executing lethal and violent attacks had been noted to have initiated five years before the Tokyo subway attack which attained a considerable degree of attention across the world. The group had been revealed to have made significant endeavours of executing around nine biological assaults which however failed to accomplish as per the New York Times report. However, it had been exposed through significant evaluation that the initial strategy of Aum was to exterminate citizens by giving botulin spray, which is identified as one of the most harmful natural poison to human beings. The team of young scientists not only were engaged in the cultivation process of this violent attack but further executed several experimental processes with biological toxins which involved poisons such as botulin, anthrax, cholera as well as Q fever. However, the transition to chemical arms developed following to the repeated breakdowns of the biological attacks carried out by Aum.

Furthermore, several inquiries and analysis as well as legal invasions after the event of the Tokyo subway attack revealed that the terrorist organization developed adequate ability to generate around thousands of kilograms of sarin per year. Such increasing level of criminal competencies further led the terror group to acquire a Russian military helicopter which could have been utilized for the distribution of gas. The preliminary strategies implemented by Aum to produce a terrifying chaotic situation in Japan could not be accomplished in 1993, whereby the Anthrax spores were exposed from a building located in Tokyo which gave rise to a fetid odour along with a cause of deaths of birds, tame animals. However, as per the reports of investigations, the Japanese terror organization sent an investigative team to Zaire in order to obtain insights and further gather Ebola virus samples in the early phase of 1990s.

It is further to note that Aum apparently had spattered few of the unattained consignments of natal weapons in the regions surrounding the US military bases during their initial endeavours which involved the botulin gas. Furthermore, following the violent terror attack in Tokyo subway, the Japanese State Department stated that the Japanese official authorities further investigated and evaluated the propensities of the Aum terror organization to be accountable for the inexplicable and detrimental attack which at the later phase proved to be sarin on  a residential neighbourhood in the year 1994. However, this attack had been noted as one of the violent and destructive terror attacks which caused a death of seven and severely injured over one hundreds of citizens.

Aum’s involvement in other illegal activities

The most prominent cult members of the Aum organization as noted had apparently never been interrogated in any facet of the biological weapons program. Furthermore, the Japanese officials reportedly exhibited greater degree of inclination in the chemical weapons program as it resulted in causing high rate of casualties and further led to creating terror attack on the minds of the people in comparison to the previous biological weapons program which could not receive any success. However, it remained unexplained whether external analyst had previously intended to attain any form of accessibility to the imprisoned cult associates, which could have necessitated the support of the Japanese administrative officials as well as the Japanese government.

Recently attained evaluation based on Aum’s biological weapons anti-social endeavours had developed an argumentative scenario for both reassurance as well as areas of concern and hostility for the people. The terror organization had seized with challenges which would have been dealt with several non-state actors of terror acts which had the propensity to employ higher number of biological weapons, Aum’s anti-social endeavours had been identified as a critical approach with inherent challenges of deploying biological weapons.  However, it is significant to note the failure of the cult and the forms of exchanges Aum had encountered had offered information for the policymakers who have been aiming to cause disruptions to any criminal and antisocial acts of the prospective terror organizations seeking to wield biological weapons.

However, while some of the cult’s endeavours have been exemplified as aspects of science fiction, the pursuit of Aum associated with several biological as well as chemical weapons was based on scientific proficiency to a great extent. It had been noted that chemical weapons were pursued with and in due course identified as a substitute for the unaccomplished biological weapons program. Furthermore, the cult in Japan as per reports had been associated in manufacturing diminutive quantities of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide along with other harmful gases such as GF and VX nerve agents and further executed operations of some of these in certain targeted assassinations consistently without proper achievement. The terror organization further had been engaged in the production as well as dissemination of larger quantities of sarin, which facilitated the cult to kill, harm and further cause terror amongst people on several occasions. However, though Aum apparently undergone a significant number of experiments with a various biological agents, it only severely endeavoured to attain and disseminate both the two botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), acquired from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and B. Anthracis.

Conclusion

Given the areas of confrontations which Aum had encountered along with its crude approach, the program of cult in producing BoNT predictably could not achieve any significant success. It had further been noted that several pests which were used as experimental agents in order to test the ‘yellow fluid’ exhibited no toxic effects. In the advent of the 1990s, Aum association however distributed outsized volumes of fluid from trucks comprised with rudimentary spray devices further deploying these in the vicinity of two US Naval bases, the Narita airport, and the head quarters of a competitive religious organization, Japanese Diet as well as the Imperial Palace. However, an insignificant segment of people were reportedly been affected which included the cult members who unintentionally and accidentally exposed themselves during the operation of dissemination process, thus the efforts could not gather any attention by the legal authorities and government officials.

A variety of aspects had been noted to have provided contribution to the failure of the BoNT program. Furthermore, significant amount of evaluation had hypothesized that Aum had not achieved a strain of C-botulinum competent of generating critical amount of toxin. Furthermore, recent reports reveal the possibility of the terror group to have cultured a soil sample with no endeavour of isolating C-botulinum, which would have further yielded constructive amount of toxin even if the sample had restrained a toxin-producing strain with a range of other organic contaminants.

It is significant to note that in any extensive adversity, response workforce belonging to various agencies along with different ranks of government should put equivalent effort in order to work together during such disastrous situations. This not only involves the public, private but further incorporates the volunteer organizations as well from local, provincial and national levels. However, the primary proficient individual to make presence on the scene mostly has engagement with the local or provincial disaster services along with state as well as national possessions at the later phase. Furthermore, it had been recognized that after the mishap of the damaging sarin attack, the significant response primarily involved emergency medical services, legal authority, fire, police along with other medical professionals from the local, prefectural, and municipal and national government. It has been noted that the Japanese system has been established so that during the process of disaster management majority the portion of the operations were primarily being supported by local governments which involves the process of strategizing as well as executing relative disaster response. However indeed Tokyo Subway Sarin attack, it has been recognised party Tokyo Metropolitan administrative body had assumed these accountabilities whereby the metropolitan police department had fundamental authority over law enforcement, evaluation assessment, enquiry continuance of law and order as well as deterrence of more terror attacks. Furthermore the adversity responses strategy in the year 1995 observed that the local possessions and resources could be contented in a large degree disaster as a result numerous primary necessities for additional support structurally been formulated.

However there had been witnessed a significant interruption in effectively identifying the characteristics of the issues at the time of both the severe attacks as had been explicitly demonstrated by the chronology of the subway assault or attacks. It is further to note that the severe attack was released in the Tokyo Subway before 8 in the morning in 1995 and instantaneously subsequent to the release the ailing commuters astounded from the 5 targeted trains at numerous stations. However it is not an unexpected factor that states the high incompetence of the employees in properly recognising the nature and scope of the violence. However it has been stated that the transit workforce did not receive adequate induction and training in order to proficiently identify or act as responsive to chemical or biological weapons manufacturing and authority to keep a decentralized system in order to properly regulate the factors related to disturbances at the various stations. However even though the Municipal police department started to receive telephonic information shortly after the deadly attack had taken place, it has been noted that until 8:44 am National Police Agency (NPA) had at the end became convinced that the vital detrimental act had taken place and a serious and effective response effort was highly required by the citizens at that time. It is important to state that neither the proper recognition of the agent nor the proficiency level of the dispersal processes recognised to the major section of the emergency retorts work force until numerous hours after the Tokyo Subway Sarin assault taken place. However the legal authorities along with the military support exhibited greater degree of inability to recognize the agent as servant for 2 hours following the deadly attack had taken place.

However following to Sarin attack to self defence force initiated its provisions of offering information and adequate knowledge to the legal authority media and the police regarding the dangerous and detrimental chemical agents. As per senior military department since the Aum cult executed Tokyo Sarin attack nerve agents are transformed as unidentified evaluation of terrorism therefore knowledge on nerve agents had developed as an explicit and manual process for proficient emergency medical services workforce.

The later phase of 1980’s witnessed a significant approach whereby the Tokyo Metropolitan government approved the AUM executives with devout Corporation status. This law is noted tends to provide AUM with vital privileges that incorporate enormous taxation breaks and de facto resistance from the official supervision as well as regulation as well as prosecution of the government. However it has been noted that the AUM members were informed about this immensely important events during the development of the organised terror organisations destructive and immensely violent terror activities. However as per the Japanese Religious Corporation law, following to the recognition of a-group, the associate authorities were not allowed enquiring about its dutiful actions or doctrine. Furthermore the followers eventually gather the insights about the recognition of Aum as religious Association with utmost importance and vitality whereby this organisation embarked upon several antagonistic and insistent lobbying campaign that further involves besieging the administrative officers of the agency who had great involvement with the decision making procedure of the state.

It had been further noted that such a sect in the Japanese legal system had been regarded as one of the vital factors in the emergence of the AUM cult. Furthermore with the registration as a lawfully acknowledged belief or creed, the actions and behaviours of the Japanese cult along with its characteristics radically transformed, whereby its total valuation raised from less than 427 million yen ($4.2 million) when officially accepted in 1989, to over 100 billion yen (approximately $1 billion) until then incident of the Tokyo Subway attack had taken place. Similarly its association had witnessed an increase radically after the official recognition and acceptance from an insignificant number of members in the early phase of 1980 to around 10, 000 members after almost a decade and around 50, 000 across the world in 1995. It is significant to observe that the later part of 1980s had evaluated and elevated level of aggression animosity and destructiveness within the cult members with the evidence of high level of complaints from the family members of AUM recruits claiming high rates of abduction and acts of hostage-taking along with several other physical attack by the cult associates. Thus it had been analysed that the sudden obtained value along with the religious recognition had instilled a high level of buoyancy and poise that they had acquired exemption from any form of legal as well as governmental intervention, which further led them to bring stillness with the Sakamoto.

However, with the effective attainment, the lack of any administrative or legal intervention eventually vitalized the members of the AUM terror organisation to engage in other severe terror acts along with blatant assault at the targeted adversary or enemies in Japan. However this 'religious’ acceptance got congested with the deadly and harmful terror assault of Aum in Tokyo Subway which led the Japanese legal officials to charge around 370 members of the terror cult that included a major section  of their hierarchy. Furthermore, another significant event that has been considered as a shifting facet of the Japanese AUM cult was their concise incursion into the political domain. Following to the cult's official religious acceptance, the founder of the terror association proclaimed that the organization was to initiate an execution of a slate of contenders in the Japanese election process during the 1990’s, whereby the founder Asahara along with over 20 members of the association exhibited their importance to the electoral system under the name of the cult's individual party that was regarded as the Shinrito.

Two decades following to the noxious sarin attack in Tokyo subway by Aum Shinrikyo, a number of victims have been undergoing the prolonged mental as well as physical aftermaths of the sarin attack, further encountering increased level of impediments and issues such as impaired speech, distorted and blurred visions along with post-traumatic stress turmoils. Furthermore, a significant section of the victims have still experiencing severe confinement and captivity. Recently, several investigators have charged over 190 members of the Aum sect for their integrated involvement and alleged role in the terror assault with around 15 members that included Shoko Asahara, founder of the sect receiving capital imprisonment. It has been observed that Katsuya Takahashi, who had been taken into detention in June 2012 after being on the operation for over 10 decades which has been the last cultist on trial. However, Takahashi has been identified to be play critical role for one of the senior cultists who had sprayed the gas and thus has encountered charges that involved murder, abduction and solitary imprisonment further resulting in death and defiance of the Explosive Control Law.

Takahashi however claimed to have no significant involvement to majority of the accusations against him during the initial phase of the trial session at the Tokyo District Court whereby the judgment has been anticipated at the later phase of April 2015. Furthermore, subsequent to the Japanese cult’s dismantlement, the former members of the sect promptly restructured into an association known as Aleph in 2000 whereby other sections united a disintegrated group led by former Aum spokesperson Fumihiro Joyu known as Hikari no Wa or the Sphere of Rainbow Light. Furthermore, the developmental associations are expected to sustain under the Public Security Intelligence Agency’s surveillance until the beginning of 2019.

Conclusion

Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that both the noxious Tokyo subway attack as well as the attempt on Nagaoka’s life could have been prohibited if the legal system and police had efficiently executed proper action and responsibilities. After around 2 decades of the sarin attack and the establishment of Canary Group which comprises of over 100 former cult members, few of the members have commenced education and jobs in the welfare industry as they belonged to the minor section when they were associated to the cult and thus failed to attain adequate education. However, for a significant segment of the cult members it had been a crucial journey to encounter cases of severe depression and anxiety. 

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