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Positive and Negative Effects of Tourism on Iceland

Discuss about the Tourism Resilience and Adaptation To Environmental.

Recently, I visited to the Iceland with my friends for the short trip and I am completely surprised with the number of tourists I saw in the Iceland. Our guide told us that from last few years, big number of peoples visit Iceland. All these incidents force me to think about the impact of tourism on the Iceland.

Iceland is considered as the holiday destination which is quite popular because of its unique landscapes and fascinating cultural activities, and also because of   its location between the America and Europe Tectonic plates and around the Arctic Circle. Tourism play very important role in the development of Iceland, and it is also considered as the important industry in the Iceland because it provides immense jobs opportunity to locals such as tour guides. This industry also play important role in the development of the economic conditions.

It must be noted that, tourism as both negative and positive impacts on the economy, environment, locals and tourists. Impacts of the tourism on Iceland economies include number of positive attributes, and it can be said that this is one of the most contributive industries in the Iceland. As defined by the 'Iceland's Travel& Tourism Economic Impact 2012', total contribution of the tourism in the GDP of the Iceland was ISK 284.7 billion in 2011, and this amount accounts for 17.4% of the whole GDP. However, on the other hand, tourism is considered as the one of the major environmental issue which impacts the environment of the country in negative manner[1].

This paper mainly discusses the “Impacts of the increasing tourist on Iceland and measures taken by country do to take care of this?. Structure of this paper includes problem definition, methods used in data collection, boundary which defines the area which are not included, conceptual guide, analysis includes the discussions on the problem, and lastly conclusion which conclude the important facts of this paper.

The main aim of this paper is to discuss the “What impacts has the increasing tourist connection for Iceland as a destination and what does the country do to take care of this?” This problem of the assignment is divided into two subjects, and both the subjects are stated below:

Impacts of the tourism on the Iceland are defined by the first subject in which all the impacts whether it is positive or negative are discussed. This section of the assignment includes Environmental impacts, sociocultural impacts, and economic impacts. The main purpose of this section is to classify the consequences, concepts and terminology. Impacts of the tourism can be both positive and negative such as it contributes in positive manner for the economy of the country, but it contributes in negative manner for the environment of the country[2].

Measures Taken by the Government to Manage Tourism Impacts

Second subject of this section defines the actions conducted by the government of the country for the purpose of managing the positive and negative impacts of the tourism on the Iceland. This section mainly defines the measures which are used by the country so that tourism provides maximum benefit to the country without causing damage to the environment. In this section of the paper, stakeholder analysis of all those stakeholders who involve in above section is conducted. TALC model is used in this section which is developed by the Butler. This model is known as Tourism Life cycle model, in which Butler stated that all the tourist destinations go through the six stage model[3].

For the purpose of completing this research paper, author used secondary data method. Secondary data is classified as that data which is collected by the person other than user itself which means data is already available on different sources and analyzed by any other person. There are number of sources through which published and unpublished secondary data can be collected such as published data, unpublished data, internet books, magazines, trade journals, peer reviewed articles, newspapers, etc.

This section defines the areas which are not included in the file while conducting the research and those are also which author decided to exclude. For this purpose, author mainly focuses on the international tourism.

Total number of international visitors was almost 2.2 million in 2017, and this reflect the increase of 24% from 2016 because number of international tourist in 2016 was 1.8 million. Almost 98.7% of the total number of tourists reaches from Keflavík International Airport. Almost 1% visitors reach the destination through Norræna from Seyðisfjörður, and remaining 0.3% reach from Reykjavík Airport or Akureyri Airport[4].

This task excludes the local tourist, because this area is broad in nature and it is not possible to cover such large amount of data within limited word count and limited period of time.

Tourism: Tourism is considered as the activity conducted by the people who are traveling and staying at the places which do not fall under the general environment for leisure, businesses, and other purposes for not more than the 1 consecutive Year. Tourism is the industry which is dynamic and consecutive in nature which mainly requires the skills to adopt the changing needs and desires of the customers on constant basis[5].

Iceland: Iceland, a Nordic island nation, which is defined in context of its dramatic landscape with volcanoes, geysers, hot springs and lava fields. Vatnajökull and Snæfellsjökull national parks are also the great natural heritage which provides protection to the Massive glaciers. Maximum population of this country resides in the capital, Reykjavik, which runs on the geothermal power. This country also includes the National and Saga museums, and relevant history[6].

Research Method: Secondary Data Analysis

Environment: Environment defined as the surroundings, which also includes anything which affects the organism during its complete lifetime, and all these things collectively defined as the environment. Environment is the sum which includes total amount of water, air, and land. It also defines the interrelations among these elements and also relationship with the human beings, other living organisms and property[7].

Economy: Economy is the area which includes different areas such as production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

As stated above, this section of the paper defines the impact of the tourism on the Iceland, and this includes all the necessary all the positive and negative impacts:

Economic impact: Tourism leaves various positive impacts on the economy of Australia, and it is considered as the most contributive industries in raising the economy of the Australia. Following are the most important areas of economy which is affected by the tourism:

  • Tourism contributes in the export revenue, as share of tourism in the foreign exchange earnings increase from 23.7% to 39.2% between the year 2012-2016, in context of the measurements related to the exports goods and services. It must be noted that, tourism generated the higher foreign exchange earnings as compared to the export of the marine products and industrial products between the year 2013-2016[8].
  • Revenue related to the foreign tourist is amounted to ISK 359.7 billion in the year 2016. This data reflects the increment of 36.7% on the basis of year-to-year. In 2016[9], tourism industry, break down the expenditures related to tourists in sector. It is reflected that almost 107 billion is expended in holiday accommodation and services related to the catering, 79.3 billion spends on the passengers transported by air, 50.8 billion amount is spend on the passengers transported by land and sea, 49.7 billion expenditures relates to the travel agencies, 48 billion related to the different retail enterprises, and 24.7 billion is miscellaneous[10].

Environmental impact: Environmental issues are considered as the biggest negative impact of the increasing tourism in Iceland, and this happens because of the sensitive nature of the Iceland’s environment and this is also the reason of the largest tourist visits on the land of Iceland. It must be noted that, energy of Iceland is mainly supplied by the geothermal and hydropower due to its unique geological location. Because of the mass increase in the tourism, there is rapid increase demand of the energy supply, which impose extra force on the natural environment of the Country and result in more development in the wildness areas which includes more construction of the plants at the parts of Reykjavik and Akureyri with high volcano concentration, large number of dams are built at the streams of the country, and also on the rivers and lakes[11].

Soil of the Iceland is impressionable in context of the erosion because of its increasing content of the volcanic ash. Therefore, moss is difficult because it holds strong absorbent power to hold on tight to the soil and also restrict the erosion of the soil. All these features also reflect the danger of the air pollution[12].

Socio Cultural impacts: Tourism has number of positive impacts on the Society and culture of Iceland, as tourism contributes towards the GDP because of which employment increase, which means life and standard of the locals improved.

It must be noted that, Iceland is ranked as the friendliest countries of the world in the report of the global tourism. Maximum locals show positive attitude towards the increasing tourism and reflect polite attitude towards the foreign tourist. Tourism does not disturb the life of locals, and local tourist can also enjoy their places as before.

Excluded Area: Local Tourism

Visitors contributed in the culture of the Iceland as they make huge investment by purchasing art pieces, sculptures and postcards as souvenirs from the locals. Communication held between the tourists and locals encourage the culture of the Iceland as they exchange knowledge about their cultures and praise each other’s culture. Tourism increase the overall cultural scene in Iceland’s, because when more tourist come to an Iceland, then more locals get aware about their cultures in the Iceland[13].

However, Tourism has some negative effects also on the locals and their cultures such as more number of people from different parts of the world visit in the Iceland, there is danger that locals more attracted towards their culture. This effect is known as the demonstration effect[14].

Iceland has many places to visit that attract number of tourist towards its beauty. It has been found that the international tourists globally totalled 1,184 million in 2015, and about 0.1% of them visited Iceland. In the context of international, the tourism sector of Iceland is not large and hence, there are number of opportunities for further development in spite of focusing in increasing in historical terms. There is a major reason behind less range of tourists in such places which is seasonal fluctuations. It has been found that the part of tourists visiting Iceland in the month of June, July, and August peaked at just fewer than 50% in 2010[15]. The major tourists of Iceland are come from US and the UK because they love to visit this place due to its attractive sights. Around 2% of the Americans who travelled to Europe came to Iceland at the time of the initial 10 months of 2015. It is apparent that the Iceland has enticed market share away from other destinations among American tourists over this period. It has been found from the report that the rate of tourists will be increased rapidly and the range of tourists will be around 30,000 each day of the year. The role of the government in managing the impacts of tourism industry is significant as they can control the negative impacts over the country and can attract number of tourists to visit. It has been analyzed that the role of government is not limited up to managing the impacts but also they facilitate in increasing the tourism within the Iceland.

The dependency of Iceland has long been relied from its travel industry, which contributes around 5% of GDP. It has observed the requirement to develop a more logical and integrated strategy to tourism. In such case, PKF international in 2012 was commissioned through Promote Iceland to perform a master mapping project for the Icelandic tourism industry and to develop its foreign direct investment prospective. This initiative has been taken by the government of Iceland on order to amplify the profitability of the tourism industry and for increasing the quality, professionalism, environment awareness and safety of the tourism sector[16]. There are some concepts mentioned below that would be helpful for getting better understanding about the role of government in making improvement in the tourism industry of Iceland.

Tourist Statistics in Iceland

The engagement of the stakeholders in Iceland’ tourism policy as well as in the implementation are supportive because there has been wide-spread cooperation between travel agents, municipalities and tourism[17].

The government of Iceland is usually supportive of tourism in Iceland:

  • There is a set up of the tourism site protection fund, which helps in developing and maintaining of infrastructure that prevents nature at commonly visited attractions and at new sites.
  • The Icelandic Tourist Board focus on making cooperation with governmental agencies and legislators

It has been found that the country has clear objectives regarding the tourism industry in which Iceland 2020 is a clear objective vision entailing a specific “growth agreement for tourism”.

To enlarge the tourism industry in Iceland, number of approaches were undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of the policy. It has been found that the government of Iceland were conducted survey and along with that funding mechanisms were reviewed. The government has established a fund for tourism, protected areas and national parks with the revenue imposed from tourist taxes. The government has taken concern of environmental and capacity for the purpose of establishing which tourist destination in each region needed effective access and traffic management.

As per the agreement made between the Icelandic government, the Icelandic Association of Local Authoriries, and the Icelandic Travel Industry Association (SAF), the Tourism Task Force was made which will carry on in operation till the ending of 2020.

Iceland has been endorsed by the tourist industry as ‘Europe’s last wilderness’ where the term of wilderness is used as an icon and a brand to promote the country and its goods. The concept of TALC model entails that destinations pursue a relatively consistent process of development along with that a recognizable cycle of evolution. This model is considered as the theoretical concept that involves the assumptions that sooner or later a porch is attained after which a tourist destination is apparent to decline in desirability. It is the model that elaborates the improvement of destination in the relation of the six states that are explained by the various visitors and the level of transportation in the form of indicators of development[18]. The six stages of TALC model is exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, and then a range of possibilities from rejuvenation to decline. The Tourist Area Life Cycle model in managing the impacts of the tourism industry is defined below:

It is the first stage which includes small number of tourists and there are no secondary tourist attractions. In the context of tourism industry in Iceland, the exploration stage of this model shows that the international tourists globally totalled 1,184 million in 2015, and about 0.1% of them visited Iceland. It is the stage in which tourism has no social as well as economic significance to local residents[19].

Major Tourists of Iceland

Due to increment of the visitors, some local residents would involve the involvement stage and start to provide the primary as well as exclusive facilities to them. It has been expected through this stage of this model that the contact between the local and residents should be strong[20]. The government has taken initiates to do advertisement for the purpose of increasing the tourists in Iceland.

The development stage of this model shows a well-structures market area of the tourist, created by heavy advertising in tourist-developing areas. In this stage, the involvement of local and control of development will refuse rapidly. This stage elaborates that the natural and cultural attractions will be improved specifically. Iceland currently represents the growth stage as the government of Iceland has taken various initiates to make improvement in the tourism industry[21].

It is the stage of the model that entered the rate of increase in numbers of visitors will decline[22]. The major component of the economy of the country will be tied up with the tourism industry. The large number of visitors will be expected at high rate for the Iceland which has been found from the report of after evaluating the length of the stay in Iceland; it can be assumed that nearly 30,000 tourists will be visited each day of the year[23].

When the area of specific place enters the stagnation stage the huge range of visitors will have been reached. The level of capacity of variable will have been gone beyond due to concerns of environmental, social and economic. It is the stage that reveals the well created image but it will not be in fashion for a long time. There will be deep dependence on replicate visitation and on re-union and same forms of traffic. Iceland is not under this stage as it is on the growth stage of this model because regional as well as national involvement in the provision and planning of facilities will almost positively be essential[24].

It is the stages that reveal the area that would not be capable to compete with latest attractions and that is why face the issue of declining market, both numerically and spatially. It will no longer demand to vacationers but certainly will be taken use of strategy for increasing the weekend or day trips. The facilities regarding tourist disappear due to less attractive area to tourists and the feasibility of other tourist comforts becomes more problematic. This stage is forced local government to involve as employees and other residents are capable to buy services at considerably lower prices due to market declines[25]. 

Importance of Sustainability in Tourism

The rejuvenation might occur, although it is definite that this stage will not come without an entire amendment in the attractions on which tourism is based. The major possibility of rejuvenation scenario needs a entire change in tourism attractions. It has been argued by Butler that if the delivering capacity of the tourism management was increased, the attractiveness of the tourism place would be declined. Iceland would not be as competitive and would consider as the decline in the number of investment, development and visitors. For making ensure that the different carrying capacities (economic, social-cultural and environmental) of the Iceland were not exceeded.

The TALC model reveals that tourist destinations are active and multifaceted systems. The management of the number of tourists along with the development of tourism infrastructure at a purpose over time is robustly dependent on number of significant aspects that contribute to the amplifying complexity of the tourist destination system. There are a number of benefits utilizing systematic-dynamic approach because it has the ability to show the fundamental concept of complex concerns, by demonstrating the sorting way itself where reason and impact are in centre of attention for making better analyse the structural relationship. Tourists are increased in Iceland in 2015 in the comparison of 2014 which shows that the Iceland is the development stage of TACL model[26]. The government has established 2020 vision for Iceland Tourism that encourages Iceland to make effective destination in the view of tourists for the purpose of increasing tourism rate[27]

Conclusion:

After considering the above facts, it is clear that tourism play most important role in the development of the Iceland and its positive attributes enforce the government of Iceland to take actions which increase the tourism in the Country. However, there are number of positive and negative impacts of the tourism on the Iceland and all these impacts are divided into three areas that are environmental impact, socio-cultural impact, and economic impact. Tourism leaves various positive impacts on the economy of Australia, such as tourism contributes in the export revenue, revenue related to the foreign tourist, GDP, etc. Environmental issues are considered as the biggest negative impact of the increasing tourism in Iceland, and this happens because of the sensitive nature of the Iceland’s environment and this is also the reason of the largest tourist visits on the land of Iceland. Tourism has number of positive impacts on the Society and culture of Iceland, as tourism contributes towards the GDP because of which employment increase, which means life and standard of the locals improved. However, Tourism has some negative effects also on the locals and their cultures such as more number of people from different parts of the world visit in the Iceland, there is danger that locals more attracted towards their culture. This effect is known as the demonstration effect.

Lew, A.A. and Cheer, J.M. eds., 2017. Tourism resilience and adaptation to environmental change: Definitions and frameworks. Routledge.

Journal Articles

Ólafsdóttir, R. and Haraldsson, H., 2015. A systemic approach to assessing the environmental impacts of tourism and the attractiveness of tourism destinations. Tourism managment, submitted.

Kristjánsdóttir, H., 2016. Can the Butler's tourist area cycle of evolution be applied to find the maximum tourism level? A comparison of Norway and Iceland to other OECD countries. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(1), pp.61-75.

Sæþórsdóttir, A.D., 2014. Preserving wilderness at an emerging tourist destination. Journal of Management and Sustainability, 4(3), p.65.

Kickbusch, I., Behrendt, T. and Organisation mondiale de la santé. Bureau régional de l'Europe, 2013. Implementing a Health 2020 Vision: Governance for Health in the 21st Century: Making it Happen. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe.

Aramberri, J., 2009. The future of tourism and globalization: Some critical remarks. Futures, 41(6), pp.367-376.

Zhong, L., Deng, J. and Xiang, B., 2008. Tourism development and the tourism area life-cycle model: A case study of Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, China. Tourism Management, 29(5), pp.841-856.

Rodríguez, J.R.O., Parra-López, E. and Yanes-Estévez, V., 2008. The sustainability of island destinations: Tourism area life cycle and teleological perspectives. The case of Tenerife. Tourism Management, 29(1), pp.53-65.

Garay, L. and Cánoves, G., 2011. Life cycles, stages and tourism history: The Catalonia (Spain) experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), pp.651-671.

Cole, S., 2012. Synergy and congestion in the tourist destination life cycle. Tourism Management, 33(5), pp.1128-1140.

Sæþórsdóttir, A.D., 2013. Managing popularity: Changes in tourist attitudes in a wilderness destination. Tourism Management Perspectives, 7, pp.47-58.

Cságoly, Z., Sæþórsdóttir, A.D. and Ólafsdóttir, R., 2017. Tourism changing the edge of the wild. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 17, pp.1-8.

Jóhannesson, G.T. and Huijbens, E.H., 2010. Tourism in times of crisis: exploring the discourse of tourism development in Iceland. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(5), pp.419-434.

Lee, C.C. and Chang, C.P., 2008. Tourism development and economic growth: A closer look at panels. Tourism management, 29(1), pp.180-192.

11 Geo Kelly Luo, Consequences of tourism, < https://11geokellyluo.weebly.com/tourism-impacts.html>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

Baraniuk, C. (2017), The Country that tourism has taken by surprise, < https://www.bbc.com/future/story/20170222-the-country-that-tourism-has-taken-by-surprise>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

BFSC, The Butler Model of tourist resort development, < https://geographyfieldwork.com/ButlerModel.htm>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

Icelandic Tourist Board. Numbers of foreign visitors, < https://www.ferdamalastofa.is/en/recearch-and-statistics/numbers-of-foreign-visitors>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

GO2HR. What is tourism?, < https://www.go2hr.ca/bc-tourism-industry/what-tourism>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

Inspired by Iceland, Closer than You think, < https://www.inspiredbyiceland.com/about-iceland/>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

European Commission, Environment, < https://europa.rs/images/publikacije/environment.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

Icelandic Tourist Board, Tourism in Iceland in figures in 2017, < https://www.ferdamalastofa.is/static/files/ferdamalastofa/Frettamyndir/2017/juli/tourism-in-iceland-2017-9.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

Icelandic Tourist Board, Tourism In Iceland In Figures May 2016, < https://www.ferdamalastofa.is/static/files/ferdamalastofa/Frettamyndir/2016/juni/tourism_-in_iceland_in_figures_may2016.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

WTT Council, (2017), Travel & tourism economic impact 2017 Iceland, < https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/countries-2017/iceland2017.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

Icelandic Tourist Board, Environmental issues, < https://www.ferdamalastofa.is/en/quality-and-environment/environmental-issues>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

11 Geo Kelly Luo, Is Tourism In Iceland Sustainable?, < https://11geokellyluo.weebly.com/sustainability.html>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

Icelandsbanki, (2017), Tourism In Iceland, https://www.islandsbanki.is/library/Skrar/Fyrirtaeki/Islensk_ferdathjonustuskyrsla_2017_enska_fjorblodungur.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

Icelandsbanki, (2016), Tourism In Iceland, < https://www.islandsbanki.is/library/Skrar/English/Products-and-Services/Publications/tourism_in_iceland_2016.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[1] 11 Geo Kelly Luo, Consequences of tourism, < https://11geokellyluo.weebly.com/tourism-impacts.html>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[2] Baraniuk, C. (2017), The Country that tourism has taken by surprise, < https://www.bbc.com/future/story/20170222-the-country-that-tourism-has-taken-by-surprise>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[3] BFSC, The Butler Model of tourist resort development, < https://geographyfieldwork.com/ButlerModel.htm>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[4] Icelandic Tourist Board. Numbers of foreign visitors, < https://www.ferdamalastofa.is/en/recearch-and-statistics/numbers-of-foreign-visitors>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[5] GO2HR. What is tourism?, < https://www.go2hr.ca/bc-tourism-industry/what-tourism>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[6] Inspired by Iceland, Closer than You think, < https://www.inspiredbyiceland.com/about-iceland/>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[7] European Commission, Environment, < https://europa.rs/images/publikacije/environment.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[8] Icelandic Tourist Board, Tourism in Iceland in figures in 2017, < https://www.ferdamalastofa.is/static/files/ferdamalastofa/Frettamyndir/2017/juli/tourism-in-iceland-2017-9.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[9] Icelandic Tourist Board, Tourism In Iceland In Figures May 2016, < https://www.ferdamalastofa.is/static/files/ferdamalastofa/Frettamyndir/2016/juni/tourism_-in_iceland_in_figures_may2016.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[10] WTT Council, (2017), Travel & tourism economic impact 2017 Iceland, < https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/countries-2017/iceland2017.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[11] Icelandic Tourist Board, Environmental issues, < https://www.ferdamalastofa.is/en/quality-and-environment/environmental-issues>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[12] 11 Geo Kelly Luo, Is Tourism In Iceland Sustainable?, < https://11geokellyluo.weebly.com/sustainability.html>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[13] Icelandsbanki, (2017), Tourism In Iceland, https://www.islandsbanki.is/library/Skrar/Fyrirtaeki/Islensk_ferdathjonustuskyrsla_2017_enska_fjorblodungur.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[14] Icelandsbanki, (2016), Tourism In Iceland, < https://www.islandsbanki.is/library/Skrar/English/Products-and-Services/Publications/tourism_in_iceland_2016.pdf>, accessed on 22nd June 2018.

[15] Cságoly, Z., Sæþórsdóttir, A.D. and Ólafsdóttir, R., 2017. Tourism changing the edge of the wild. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 17, pp.1-8.

[16] Jóhannesson, G.T. and Huijbens, E.H., 2010. Tourism in times of crisis: exploring the discourse of tourism development in Iceland. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(5), pp.419-434.

[17] Lee, C.C. and Chang, C.P., 2008. Tourism development and economic growth: A closer look at panels. Tourism management, 29(1), pp.180-192.

[18] Lew, A.A. and Cheer, J.M. eds., 2017. Tourism resilience and adaptation to environmental change: Definitions and frameworks. Routledge.

[19] Cole, S., 2012. Synergy and congestion in the tourist destination life cycle. Tourism Management, 33(5), pp.1128-1140

[20] Garay, L. and Cánoves, G., 2011. Life cycles, stages and tourism history: The Catalonia (Spain) experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), pp.651-671.

[21] Sæþórsdóttir, A.D., 2013. Managing popularity: Changes in tourist attitudes in a wilderness destination. Tourism Management Perspectives, 7, pp.47-58.

[22] Ólafsdóttir, R. and Haraldsson, H., 2015. A systemic approach to assessing the environmental impacts of tourism and the attractiveness of tourism destinations. Tourism managment, submitted.

[23] Rodríguez, J.R.O., Parra-López, E. and Yanes-Estévez, V., 2008. The sustainability of island destinations: Tourism area life cycle and teleological perspectives. Th case of Tenerife. Tourism Management, 29(1), pp.53-65.

[24] Kristjánsdóttir, H., 2016. Can the Butler's tourist area cycle of evolution be applied to find the maximum tourism level? A comparison of Norway and Iceland to other OECD countries. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(1), pp.61-75.

[25] Zhong, L., Deng, J. and Xiang, B., 2008. Tourism development and the tourism area life-cycle model: A case study of Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, China. Tourism Management, 29(5), pp.841-856.

[26] Aramberri, J., 2009. The future of tourism and globalization: Some critical remarks. Futures, 41(6), pp.367-376.

[27] Kickbusch, I., Behrendt, T. and Organisation mondiale de la santé. Bureau régional de l'Europe, 2013. Implementing a Health 2020 Vision: Governance for Health in the 21st Century: Making it Happen. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe.

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