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The Three Stages of Human Nature

Question:

Discuss about the Transactional Analysis and Theory.

The term transactional analysis derived its origin from the department of psychiatry. In this process, there are number of conceptual tools present that designed to promote the growth and change of the person. It is a kind of counselling therapy with a wide field of practice. There are certain theories that are applicable in this case. Eric Berne has developed the base of the theory in the year 1950. It has covered the three stages of human nature such as parent, adult and child.

It has been observed in many cases that the person who has been neglected in his childhood by his or her parent, they developed certain different nature and has had certain hatred in them. It has been stated by the researchers and the psychiatrist that they become habituated with the facts that the nature of human being is to get neglected. It becomes a serious problem in their later stage. There are many examples of that and the present case is bear the character of it.

Transactional theory is a talking theory and the experts of this theory have examined the patient by analysing their personality (Appendix B). It ensures a non-judgmental and positive life style and it has been recognised in many countries. There are certain key concepts present in this case that are as follows:

  • In certain circumstances, it has been observed that the patient has developed an egoistic personality within himself that are determined by the interaction and relationship of the person.
  • It has also been observed that the persons were being neglected in their early life by their parents and that affected their personality a lot.
  • Provision regarding the strokes is also getting populated regarding the theory and it has been stated that the complement, acceptance and recognition make the body of this theory.
  • The transactional theory has certain specific address regarding the intimacy and it has been observed that the dysfunctional intimacy of a child can lead him towards the potentiality and psychological problems.
  • There is another principle regarding the redecision chapter and the main criteria of this theory are to obtaining the capacity to redecide a matter and make certain changes to it.

In Singapore, there is an association namely Transactional Analysis for Self-Awareness and Relationship Management who works on the topic. It has been seen that the cases on transactional analysis have been increased in the territory of Singapore. The main objective of this theory is to create an equal relationship in between the client and the therapists. Equal relationship helps to achieve the goal to promote an atmosphere of friendly ambiance.

In 1962, a case on the problem has been observed in case of George, a boy from Crete who was facing the problem as his father was killed and the effect of the same affected his life and behaviour.   

There are certain theories involved in this transactional analysis such as psychoanalytic theory and unconscious theory. The theory regarding the psychoanalytic theory has focused on the awareness regarding the emotional problems. It has been observed that the main field of the theory based on to understand the human behaviour. Eric Berne has developed the paradigm of transactional analysis. It is a kind of clinical method that helps to develop the personality of a human being and cured the problem by adopting psychopathology. It is sort of study about the mind and the process of treatment regarding the same is to redefine the mental agony of the patient.

Psychoanalytic Theory and Unconscious Theory

The theory regarding the unconscious theory based on certain pre-existing scripts and it concentrates on the unconscious mind of the victim. Mind concept is a well-known concept and past-life traumas are essential for the purpose. This theory is one of the most popular theories in the history of psychology.

Structural and functional analysis:

The concept of psychoanalysis requires certain interpretations that will help to understand the moral view of the theory regarding the transactional analysis. It is very important to understand the framework and objective of the theories. In this purpose, it is important to chalk out the structure and functional sphere of the same. The subject matter of the case is based on certain obsession facts. It has been observed that the patient of this case has been faced certain negligence from his mother and therefore, he becomes obsessed regarding the female relationship that affects his conjugal relations. A child has certain fundamental defences that develop the knowledge regarding the preserve of attachment. Structure regarding the same can be divided as split-off-part-self and part-object structure. The functional analysis concentrates on the process to maximize the changes to the client. The main objective of such analysis is to improve the therapeutic relationship of the client. Functional analysis is an ideographic approach applied to the psychotherapy.    


Life position analysis

The analysis regarding the life positioning indicates certain particular behaviour and the lesson regarding the same should have to be made at the early stage of anyone’s life. For an example it can be stated that the word that contains “I am O.K., or you are O.K.” denotes a number of O.K. experience. It has been stated under this analysis that at the childhood, a child understand the worth regarding others. Life positions are certain beliefs that are gained justified behaviour. Eric Berne was coined the theory for the first time by stating the fact that this theory will help to make the mental things keep healthy. A person experiences such position when he becomes victimised. The ultimate effect of this analysis can lead towards the depression or obsession that can be resulted into violent crimes. In the present case, it has been observed that the victim had faced a lot of troubles and therefore, there is a change occurred to the behaviour of the person.    

Script analysis

There are certain decisions present that denotes the life cycle of a person. These decisions are to be made unconsciously and script analysis helps to uncover the decisions. There are five clusters present in the transactional analysis and script analysis is one of them. The main objective of the script analysis is to provide aid to the client and the scripts are containing certain values and decisions regarding the human behaviour. The outline of the said script denotes the relationship that encourages the behaviour of the human being.

Functional Analysis and Script Analysis

Script analysis at the personage echelon considers that life plan is involved in this case regarding the mental state of the child. This theory is known as the script or unconscious life plan. Script analyst works on the hypothesis that a person's actions are partly programmed by the script. The conception of experience of early life has been followed up in this theory. Many of these same people initiating a life plan, start commerce or work into management positions in administrations (Appendix B).    

Racket system analysis

It is the common nature of the human beings to do certain works unconsciously. In such circumstances, the person does not even get to comprehend the genuine feeling, because another instantaneously takes its position. There are certain people who tend to obtain emotional replies that seem inappropriate for the situation. An example of the same can be when someone laughs during the discussion of painful event (Appendix C).

There are certain scenes that help to point out the elements or indications of this situation:

  • Faced with a threat, people feel FEAR, and they react by freezingor running.
  • When dealing with a barrierthat restricts them from getting their goal, they feel ANGER, which energizes them in attacking and destroying the barrier.
  • Positive eventsmake people feel HAPPINESS, which offers a physical sensation of well-being, calm, satisfaction.
  • When people suffer a loss, they feel SADNESS, which leads to holding onor letting go.
Game analysis

Eric Berne has described a game as an partial series of concealed communication that lead to a knowable outcome. Ulterior transactions are complex interactions that involve more than two ego states and send a camouflaged message. In other words, in game theory, it has been stated that the theory come into existence when someone is trying to accomplish something other than what he is supposedly expressing. Game analysis is the process of observing and understanding what games are played, what the results will be and how these games interfere with a person's relationships.

It has been, therefore understand that there are number of theories represent the psychological effects and practised since long. This theory is one of them and a social worker, Mary McClure Goulding, and her deceased psychiatrist husband, Robert Goulding, found it in the year 1970s. Redecision therapy (Goulding & Goulding, 1979, 1989) is an amalgamation of Eric Berne’s transactional analysis and Fritz Perl’s gestalt therapy. Therefore, it can be stated that base of both the theories can be found in redecision therapy. In case of Transactional analysis, it has been stated that the decision made in the childhood are very much affected by the parental injunction. Parental injunctions are delicate parental verbal and nonverbal messages. Children respond in emotion and then form decisions, which they carry with them well into adulthood and this affects the life of them and their belongings. These same decisions and assessments of life often evolve in response to later adult traumas and the outcome of the same can be regarded as interaction like the one I am unsafe. I am in pain. I am not in control etc.

Redecision Therapy based on Eric Berne's Transactional Analysis and Fritz Perl's Gestalt Therapy

Self-assessment becomes the working model of the adult stage and shapes the adult’s later reactions to their situation without consciousness. The redecision method helps the therapist to make out these assessments of self in communication and to look for present symbols that signify these decisions and the sentiment causal to them. After the therapist can identify specific assessments of self in interaction, the therapist asks the patient to imitate back in time when that specific assessment of self in interaction was experienced before. The therapists have applied this process repeatedly. After sufficient cognisant age deterioration, the therapist then asks the patient to reflect on the many different feelings like fear or sadness or anger. These forced the patients to make the situation more complicated. The patient is confident to talk to the cause in the bare chair or any venue that would provoke the patient to talk to the resource with a view as if he/she were in the room in the present tense. It is the main theme regarding the principle of the gestalt therapy developed by Fritz Perl. It is a part of the hypnotism. This assists the patient to develop material that had not been completely processed on previous occasion. After this material is experienced and processed, therapist steered the patient to make a new self-assessment in interaction that is the redecision (Appendix D).

It is clear from the facts of the redecision theory that it concentrates on the previous experience of the patient. In the present case, it has been observed that his mother has neglected John in his childhood and that creates a devastating impact on his life. He becomes aggressive while interacting with the girls and treats them neglectfully. It has also been noticed in this case that the mentality of the person has been affected by the parental behaviour and he has applied his grievance of childhood on his wives. Theory of redecision can be helpful in this case to resolve the dispute by considering the past things and self-assessment can be regarded as helpful in this case.   

References:

Berne, E., 2016. Transactional analysis in psychotherapy: A systematic individual and social psychiatry. Pickle Partners Publishing.

Erskine, R.G. ed., 2015. Transactional Analysis in Contemporary Psychotherapy. Karnac Books.

Ertem, M.Y. and Kececi, A., 2016. Ego States of nurses working in psychiatric clinics according to transactional analysis theory. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 32(2), p.485.

Fornaro, A., 2016. Rethinking Ego States in an Intersubjective Context. Transactional Analysis Journal, 46(3), pp.209-221.

Hargaden, H. and Sills, C., 2014. Transactional analysis: A relational perspective. Routledge.

Jeness, C.F., 1975. Comparative effectiveness of behavior modification and transactional analysis programs for delinquents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(6), p.758.

Keshavarzi, S., Azar, E.F., Mirnasab, M.M. and Gargari, R.B., 2016. Effects of a Transactional Analysis Program on Adolescents’ Emotion Regulation. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 8(4), p.51.

Mei, Y., 2016. The Relationship between Teaching Transactional Analysis Theory and College Students’ Locus of Control: an Empirical Research. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 1(1).

van Rijn, B., Wild, C. and Moran, P., 2016. Evaluating the outcomes of transactional analysis and integrative counselling psychology within UK primary care settings. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 2(2).

George (Our sponsored orphan in Crete).” Transactional analysis bulletin 1:4. Oct. 1962.

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