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1. how to use fundamental marketing concepts across borders with clear consideration for cultural differences and variants;
2. how to analyse cultural diversity when formulating an organisation's marketing strategy;
3. how to create, evaluate and manage the marketing communications function across cultures.
4. collect, analyse and interpret data to understand cultural diversity;
5. explain the conceptual and theoretical justifications behind marketing strategy for cross-border marketing

Findings and Analysis: Product and Market Related Issues

This report intends to explore marketing opportunities of University of Hertfordshire Business School as the organisation is on the verge of implementing their international policies. After reviewing both the educational environment of Kenya and Chile, is has been understood that both geographically and commercially Chile would be a wiser choice than choosing Kenya as an international location for their investment in overseas educational platform. This report following by a situational analysis will try to suggest necessary strategies for publicizing and creating awareness among students across Chile about better quality of education. After analysing the existing issues and external factors with the services and market, an action plan will be framed with relevant marketing theory and considering cultural differences between two places. Successful implementation of marketing strategies across the cultural barriers would help to accomplish business objective as well.

Cultural differences

According to the findings, while working on an international project organisations very likely confront with both the professional and personal cultural barriers. One of the necessary aspect of a successful international expansion is to imply relevant management theories to mitigate existing cultural issues and move forward. Such issues occur as globalised business practices gather so many people together with different backgrounds. According to De Mooij (2015), they perceive varied beliefs about professional culture as far as global marketplace of higher education is concerned.   According to Hofestede’s cultural model and reviewing the journal Pucciarelli and Kaplan (2016), to resolve such issues and to avoid such situations his theory of power-distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity and individualism/collectivism can be implemented.



Ø After analysing the political factors, it has been understood that HBS has immense potential, as discussed in Bernasconi, and Celis (2017), government’s implementation of free tuition policy has influenced students to go for secondary education which is the major reason behind seeking for university degree.

Ø However, Government’s free tuition policy and other loan policies as described in Beyer et al. (2015) would have a negative impact over HBS’s fee structure as well.

Ø As mentioned before, Chile’s economy is in a condition of consistent development. Such condition indicates nature of pursuing higher education among students.

Ø Theoretically, amended credit policies of the country will support the rise of individual organisations like HBS university chains.



Ø Analysing the behaviour of the students; who are the targeted consumer base of  HBS university, it can be stated where literacy rate is high and students tend to choose business studies as their subjects in higher education HBS has potential to exploit the educational marketplace of Chile.

Ø Along with other developing countries, Chile has also embraced the benefits of creating Virtual learning environment rather than personal one (Nagata et al. 2014). HBS has become elated to know such practices within the country as back in UK they are applying the same method in order to provide best guidance to students from global teaching talents. 



§ Governmental policies which encourage literacy among children and finance their secondary education, it is needless to say that in such a place demand of universities is higher.

§ Hertfordshire Business School, itself a renowned organisation in UK and students will feel privilege to have one of their branches in own country.

§ The organisation has a history of managing large variety of global students, the university has invested much time into developing innovative strategies to handle wide range of international exchange of intellects in both developed and developing countries across the world.

§ University provides Virtual mode of learning to students to offer best guidance from mentors all across the world.

§ The students’ behaviour is positive towards business education. Moreover, in a country where literacy rate is high and economy is sustainable; HBS can explore opportunities of educational marketplace prosperously.

§ On one hand government policies are encouraging students by arranging financial aids as discussed in Dinkelman and Martínez (2014), to study yet interference into fee policy of university may create negative impact on organisation’s investment and profitability.

§ Threat of competitors and competitors are high as students are coming from varied cultural and economic background.

§ Cultural barriers would take time to be broken as prior market research cannot predict the occurrence of unwanted incidents regarding cultural differences in spite of implementing several strategies.



§ The behaviour of students towards higher education is so positive that 40% of secondary standard students has already enrolled themselves for studying English in foreign countries. This opens opportunity of institutions like HBS to explore such promising educational environment and student exchange programmes among existing and new universities in Chile.

§ The study Zapata-Sepúlveda et al. (2013), indicates higher bargaining power of suppliers and customers (students) as well here. Pursuing their buying power will satisfy several business need of the institution. Gaining competitive edge can give them opportunity to serve better.

§ Threats of industry rivalry will create tension within such a promising educational platform. Educational infrastructure is so well developed and so is students’ attitude towards higher education; HBS will face threat from existing business schools’ of Chile.

§ Although, as discussed in Pino-Yancovic (2015), students along with their parents have a tendency to study business and management; another 40% of secondary students believe that technical courses would open more scopes for them.

§ In spite of governments’ free tuition policies, Business studies is still expensive for low or middle standard socio-economic groups. In such a condition emerging educational institute may struggle to gain trust and implement desired fee structure.

While researching on selecting suitable international location for business HBS has consider Chile focusing on lesser geographical distance. It has helped them to understand cultural boundaries more than Kenya. In order to understand and being compatible with foreign professional cultures distinct communication and detail research is necessary. After reviewing the study Marcucci (2013), it can be said maintaining a throughout tolerant behaviour is important to learn new cultural aspects and to appreciate students’ perspective.

Being adaptive will assist to get into the culture and that is how the institute will be acceptable among students. Teaching and learning scenario is exchange of thoughts and revelation of varied intellect. In such a situation being adaptive and open minded not only fulfil the purpose of both the mentor and student, but also would make the institution successful to accomplishing their objectives.

Before starting off with the new venture of investment, Chile’s political and legal orientation must be reviewed in terms of accomplishing business objectives. As far as the free tuition policies are concerned that in a way is working as an encouragement behind opting for higher studies; on the other hand has a potential to resist the implementation of desired fee structure. In order to avoid such issues if the university starts to construct fee structure after considering students’ economic background it will be helpful for them to categorised students and implement required student fees. It will both serve the students’ and organisation’s interest as well. Moreover, as reported by the market research students’ tendency towards technical studies are present in the country as well. Hence, an alternative distance course on business studies can be offered for students who do not choose core business studies yet seek for professional edge. This is how HBS can make the base of their institution strong and will be successful to create trustworthy relationship with students and other stakeholders.

According to the prior analysis of industry competition through Porters’ five forces competitor analysis tool; following four points have been identified. Accordingly, strategies will be recommended for each kind of competition within the targeted marketplace.

  • Although, decreased rate of interest and capital cost in Chile are encouraging new entrants yet considering the industry it can be said entering into educational marketplace is difficult as it involves so many technicalities and according toAl?Qahtani and Higgins (2013), virtual learning system which cannot be imitated or adapted within a short period of time. Therefore, it is important to identify the need of the education sector first. As HBS has identified already a need for a good business school in Chile and simultaneously the positive student behaviour towards higher studies focusing a working towards serving needs of the students may help to gain competitive advantage and combat the threat of new entrants. HBS can solve the issue of students who are not able to enrol themselves for foreign education programme.
  • Threat of substitute is high as Chile possesses world’s top ranked universities all over the country. HBS has to identify the way to attract student if they have to increase market share in a progressive way. However, strategically enough focusing less on competitors and more on improving products and serviceshelp a company to align with the market demand and satisfy the needs as well. However, that does not mean underestimating competitors will bring success. A consistent process of following up the market demand and pricing strategies of competitors will help to recognise consumer preferences while choosing a university for higher studies.
  • High bargaining power has been recognised and for that it has become necessary to maintain a good relationship with local universities to seek for future agreements regarding partnership. Collaboration will be mutually beneficialfor both the organisation and the competitor. Besides, acquisition or offering distant education under a renowned university can be effective idea for entering into the educational market place of Chile. Crating strategic partnership will open new opportunities for new venture and for education enthusiasts as well.   
  • Although, in UK, as found in SWOT analysis, HBS has a brand name and positive image among students for creating advanced learning experiences. As per Kastanakis and Voyer (2014), it would be appropriate to improve existing infrastructure and creating advanced communication strategies through social media, launching educational applications or creating websites aligning with local culture and language along with English. Recruiting people from their country would help to recognise both the professional and personal perception of the citizen regarding student community of Chile.

Although, identification of strategies indicates well structure future plan for business yet without an action plan professional edge cannot be achieved. In order to achieve a clear direction it is necessary. It promotes attention, focus and uninterrupted commitment towards the goals. As it comes with expected timeline progress can be easily measured and pushes motivation to do better.

Objective 1


Relevant stakeholders

Expected timeline

Ø Relevant market research to identify cultural differences and student perception regarding higher studies

Ø In order to understand and being compatible with foreign professional cultures developing communication channels would be necessary and helpful too.

Ø  Adapting a tolerant behaviour is important for learning new cultural dimensions and would help to understand students’ perspective.

Ø Stakeholders are undoubtedly students, marketing professional and investors of the new business venture.

Ø Moreover, recruitment of digital marketing executives must be done to reduce virtual traffic and to grab attention of students resolving the cultural barriers.

6 to 8 months

Resources and desired outcome

Ø Efficient and skilled marketing professionals who know how to make communication channels through cultural differences and monetary resources must be invested to pursue several visits to Chile regarding the investigation before investment.

Ø Desired outcome would be to understand the difference and keep the mitigation policy ready in hand to handle unwanted serious cultural conflict or confusion within a learning scenario.

Objective 2


Relevant stakeholders

Expected timeline

Ø Creating a neutral fee structure by categorizing students according to their economic background sounds more realistic and aligned with government free tuition policies as well.

Apart from regular courses offering at affordable fees, alternative distance course on business studies can be provided for students who do not choose core business studies yet seek for professional profile for themselves.

The organisation and the students mainly. University officials must be involved into preparing a fee structure acknowledging legal and political boundaries of Chile.

4 months before the launch of study programme of academic year.

Resources and desired outcome

Ø Monetary resources, research team and strong accounts team will be needed to implement such plans.

Ø The organisation will be able to imply their desired fee structure to get return from business and it will satisfy students’ interest as well to achieve necessary skills by paying an amount which they can afford.

Objective 3


Relevant stakeholders

Expected timeline

Ø To beat industrial competitors, new entrants and substitutes

Ø Developed of advanced communication strategies for marketing, exploring communicational channels the glorious history must be circulated.

Ø Offering courses which are unique and on demand of students.

Ø Marinating healthy relationship with local universities to work on collaboration in order to gain mutual benefits.

Ø Consumers, investors and university officials.

Ø As it is continuous process it would take time and a regular review is needed on a periodic gap. Yet 6 months can be estimated to circulate implement initial marketing ventures.

Resources and desired outcome

Ø Brand name, advanced usage of virtual learning, improved infrastructure and consistent process of implementing innovation and developing services.

Ø Outcome would be, students will be more attracted towards the L&D programmes offered by the university contributing towards the objective of investment.


To conclude, it can be stated that as Chile has been identified acknowledging the potential of educational marketplace; HBS authority must address the threat of new entrants and try to solve those with their esteemed brand name, advanced infrastructure and capability of adapting into a different cultural setting. Following the above mentioned action plan would help them to focus and determinant towards the goals regarding investment on expansion in an international and highly competitive market place.


Al?Qahtani, A.A. and Higgins, S.E., 2013. Effects of traditional, blended and e?learning on students' achievement in higher education. Journal of computer assisted learning, 29(3), pp.220-234.

Bernasconi, A. and Celis, S., 2017. Higher Education Reforms: Latin America in Comparative Perspective. education policy analysis archives, 25(67), p.n67.

Beyer, H., Hastings, J., Neilson, C. and Zimmerman, S., 2015. Connecting student loans to labor market outcomes: Policy lessons from chile. American Economic Review, 105(5), pp.508-13.

De Mooij, M., 2015. Cross-cultural research in international marketing: clearing up some of the confusion. International Marketing Review, 32(6), pp.646-662.

Dinkelman, T. and Martínez A, C., 2014. Investing in schooling in Chile: The role of information about financial aid for higher education. Review of Economics and Statistics, 96(2), pp.244-257.

Kastanakis, M.N. and Voyer, B.G., 2014. The effect of culture on perception and cognition: A conceptual framework. Journal of Business Research, 67(4), pp.425-433.

Marcucci, P., 2013. The politics of student funding policies from a comparative perspective. In Student Financing of Higher Education (pp. 31-53). Routledge.

Nagata, J.J., Ramos, P.H., González, M.Á.C., Giner, J.R.G.B. and García-Peñalvo, F.J., 2014, October. Comparison of the use of personal learning environments (PLE) between students from Chile and Ecuador: An approach. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (pp. 75-80). ACM.

Pino-Yancovic, M., 2015. Parents’ defense of their children’s right to education: Resistance experiences against public school closings in Chile. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 10(3), pp.254-265.

Pucciarelli, F. and Kaplan, A., 2016. Competition and strategy in higher education: Managing complexity and uncertainty. Business Horizons, 59(3), pp.311-320.

Royle, J. and Laing, A., 2014. The digital marketing skills gap: Developing a Digital Marketer Model for the communication industries. International Journal of Information Management, 34(2), pp.65-73.

Zapata-Sepúlveda, P., Jiménez-Benítez, V. and Concha-Astorga, D., 2013. From the struggle for education to the transformation of society: Challenges and hopes in the Chile of the 21st century. Cultural Studies? Critical Methodologies, 13(6), pp.497-503.

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