(1) Critically evaluate computer science literature relevant to their chosen project in their specialist awards or generic awards;
(2) Refer to the findings of other academic writers to justify their chosen approach to the development of a solution, and to evaluate the outcomes of their project work;
(3) Combine their knowledge of the subject, their reading of research papers and the outcome of their own investigations to conceive original ideas of their own.
(4) Plan and manage a substantial body of work, identify any risks inherent in their chosen approach, and work independently with minimum supervision;
(5) Select and use appropriate techniques and tools employed in computer science in order to conduct a practical investigation of a particular advanced computer science problem; or
(5) Undertake a practical piece of work that demonstrates that they can apply their knowledge and skills to the design and development of computerised solutions to a particular problem within the domain of computer science
(6) Both critically evaluate and discuss the outcome of their project work in written and oral form;
(7) Articulate the broader contexts of their work in relation to legal, social, ethical, and professional issues, and assess the economic impact of their project.
One of the most important sources for development of REST interface based search engine in order to navigate as well as explore the amazon’s website ontology. Because REST is an architectural style and not a strict standard, it permits for a large amount of flexibility on the web service. Because of that convenient and independent of structure, there is also a huge and proper development for design good practices. The first section offers an overview of the project, describe the research question its constraints, and what makes it unique. The second section supplies the progress to date. Later sections go more in depth to provide the Web service creator more support and discussion around major task of this project.
The main objective of this project to create a simple interface to view the data of Amazon and to implement two different alternative architectures to access the services provided by the Amazon. To achieve this aim many interfaces will be studied such as SOAP/XML and REST API (XML/HTTP) and the efficacy of these approaches will be analyzed. The alternative approaches will be studied for the implementation of the interface architectures for the Amazon services. These are analyzed.
The research will be based on the some questions such as how can we prove that Amazon's current searching is displaying the results, which tool is used for testing the REST API. We are going to prepare the website and integrate with the existing system using REST API. In another way the research is focused on to testing the search engines of the Amazon. The research will be done from the information gained from the secondary resources and past researches.
As indicated by the changes which is happened in the business environment, for the individual who examining the data and formulate it further accurate and craft decision for launching the new social network design is very dangerous. Approximately every organization collects huge volume of data and those data is not easy to manage. The new applications and techniques are handling and take out those large volumes of data.
- Client Identification
- Client Attraction
- Client Retention
- Client Development
To develop the Customer or client relationship management, more new mining tools and techniques are available in the marketplace.
Client identification produce: before begins sponsoring your industry, you must need to know the client or consumer needs and what they want and why they want it which means why they requires your creations and helps. Now you can identify your client or consumer easily.
Progress to date
Research your client: the beginning point is researching your clients or consumer. Developer’s market enquiry must support them for understanding their client or consumer. Additionally client research information should useful for identifying and understand more about them and based on this research developer can recognize the intention of clients. And the few key characteristics of understanding client information like Gender, Address, occupation and Annual income.
Recognize why they go shopping: after recognized about your client, you should discover the reason for buying your products and how they know about our product and what inspires to shop that products.
Recognize favored shopping method of client: Since you understand why the client your product as well as you needs to find what method they prefer for shopping. For identify the clients favored method of shopping and reason of shopping, reflect the following uncertainty they prefer
- Online shopping through the mobile phone or websites.
- Make carefully or freely thought product buying decision
Care about client expenditure habits: variety of client likes to spend various cash for products. You must need to identify the financial capacity of client and their expenditure habits. For Example, consider the following things,
- if the client has an average income
- the share of amount from their income for your product
- if they have budget
Discover what the client thinks about you: understand about client’s opinion and their expectation of your product or business. For discovering client judge about you, consider the following like your products and its services, Customer service and rivals competitors
The overall significance of fast web application which have response time needs a deep understanding for establishing a large end Web Application in the World-Wide Web. Purpose of this project to develop a REST API to enhance the new trend in the searching display. This methodology mainly used to communicate between the client and server via HTTP protocol, in order to share the information which is needed. Also discussing about the languages used to develop this process as well as testing environment. NLP perform automatic learning methods to overcome the large set of hand codes which is based on semantic web technology. It will translate a human language into machine understandable language automatically. Ontology is used represents the data using classification and it will connect the information across various department.
- To achieve the aim of the project the NetBeans IDE will be used and java programming language will be used.
- The experiment which is done by the previous researchers on the REST API will be discussed and the working of the application will be studied.
- Approaches suitable for this implementation process will be discussed.
- To increase the searching facility of the Amazon services, the developed book search interface will be integrated with existing interface. It will be implemented in the browser by using the existing HTML search.
- An alternative solution will be tried in this implementation work to link with another web services. For example eBay
Rest API tool is installed to improve the current searching method of the amazon's search results. The process of the rest API is given with its advantages. The algorithms used in the proposed method like NPL, ONTOLOGY, ONTOGEN are given. Semantic web technology is used for the design of the system. The implementation process using Rest API with java is analyzed. Path mappings and regular expressions are given for the system. Advanced pathparam is given with its specification. In the implementation part, Netbeans IDE is used is used.
Languages used for development and testing environment
REST is expands for REpresentational State Transfer. REST is a web standards and it is fully Web based structure and uses Hyper Text Transfer Protocol for information communication. It can also solves around resources where each and every tool is a resource. This resource is fetched by a common interface. By using HTTP standard techniques. The REST API is a kind of technology which helps in sending and receiving the information or the data between the client and the server (Kurtz and Wortman, 2014). Rest is a very lightweight process and there is no complexity as like SOAP. It a kind of a technology in which it leverages less bandwidth. It is more suitable for the usage of the internet. API is a code for the website which helps in donating two different software programs interacts each other (Ribunal and Stuewe, 2013). This is mostly used by the browsers. It is considered as the main language of the internet which is used by all the people. API helps in emerging the web services to explore. For the purpose of building API in logical way, the Representational State Transfer is used. This REST APIs are used mostly by the IT giants like Amazon, Google and so on. It helps in connecting the user with cloud services. The REST architecture supports client and server resources (Uzayr, 2016). The resources are mentioned by URI type. In proposed system java language is used instead of c++. Because of its simplicity performance, safety, dynamic linking, Portability, Reflection, standardized system type and compatibility. While implementing the project some issues are raised such as time and space complexity. The C++ includes RAII model, lack of storage collection, lack of modules, and lack of template specification. The client MySQL library has the transportation of the data. It finally treats the source of the data. MySQL is performing extremely good even in the average case Rest is typically used to provide a best way with ROA which means Resource Oriented Architecture (Charalambides, 2013) The binary data so called the binary resources can be given in a simple manner upon the request (Celko, 2014). For the communication of the data, Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the foundation (Lafler, n.d.). It is a kind of text which is structured and it uses logical links or the hyperlinks which acts between the nodes in the text. It is a kind of protocol that is distributed in wider manner and it is a collaborative nature (Dewald, Hughes and Turley, 2013). And also has a hyper media for the system of information. It mainly aims at transmitting information between two. They are the server and the user. The user requests the server and the server responses to the user accordingly. It is a client server technology. The user acts as the client and receives the response from server. REST is a combination of SOAP and WSDL protocol. The REST web services are built in XML. The REST web services communicate between client and server through HTTP protocol. The client sends HTTP request messages to server at the same time server responds HTTP response messages to client (Java Tutorial Blog, 2017).
Alternative architectures for accessing Amazon services
REST is a light weight process because it runs on several platforms. There are some traditional web services features like HTTP, language independent and platform independent.
There are four basic designs are supported by REST web services such as
- It supports multiple representations.
- It represents URI format.
- The REST web services are followed by stateless protocol.
- Use one or more HTTP protocol methods.
REST API’s Process
Representational State Transfer cuts off the transactions to enhance the smaller modules. Each and every module helps in addressing a specific part of the transaction process. This mainly aims at providing flexibility to the users with the help of models. Some of the models are Amazon Simple Storage Service which is so called Amazon S3, open stack are the most popular.
Advantages of the REST API
- The separation between the server and the client
- Platform and Language Independent
- Visibility, scalability and reliability.
The separation between the server and the client
The rest protocol helps to extract the UI (User Interface) from the storage of data and the server. This also increase the portability. There are many advantages for the users at the time of development. This permits the various components for the purpose of development independently. This also helps in reaching the scalability, reliability and visibility.
Platform and Language Independent
The REST API mainly adapts to the kind of platform or the syntax being used. It provides freedom in the considerable way when new kinds of environment would change or at the time of testing while at the developing stage. Languages like PHP, python, java makes use of the REST API. The language is mainly aims for the purpose of the information exchange.
Visibility, Scalability and Reliability
There is a greater advantage when there is a separation between the client and the server. Each and every team of the development can scale the product without any issues. They have the capability of migrating to the other servers and then finally makes all the different kinds of alterations in the database. Each and every requests provides the data in a correct manner. They have the front and the back on various servers as there is a separation easier.
REST is a kind of architectural style in the field of software. This is widely used for the purpose of web services. To make it popular, there is a need to loading the test Rest API. The testing of API is done with Apache JMeter. The Restful API has a set of functions which helps for the developer to perform the services like request and response via Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. There are four kind of requests, they are
Research questions and methodology
The purpose of GET request is to retrieve the users from the level of database. The purpose of PUT request is to update the attributes which is given by the users and it is identified as it is provided with unique identification. The purpose of DELETE request is to delete the given user and it is identified as it is provided with unique identification. The purpose of POST request is to create a new user for all the level of database.
The REST is a kind of software architecture which is stateless. It mainly aims at reading Webpages. It reads pages containing REST and XML. It is an alternative to SOAP which is so called simple object access protocol and it is simpler one. An API which is restful uses two things. They are HTTP and REST.
The REST is a creation of the service mainly for the professionals based on many communications software without the help of the REST API (Doglio, 2015). The horizontal growth is not practically possible. The REST aims at spreading the standard creation of API logically and in efficient manner mainly for the services of the internet. The REST is a kind of interface which acts between the system and uses hypertext transfer protocol mainly for obtaining the data and finally generates the operation for the particular data in the format which is needed by the user the formats like XML and JSON.
Natural Language Processing algorithms are called as machine learning algorithm. NLP perform automatic learning methods to overcome the large set of hand codes. Here the input is taken from wikipedia about the various services. It has two components Pos Tagger and Service Annotator.
NLP documents are retrieved through service crawler and parsed using NLTK parser. Nouns represent resources cloud service classes whereas verbs represent the relationship among the resource. Nouns are then passed to Service Annotator that provide a lexical concept of cloud service by using wordnet to
categorize concept as noun, verb, adverb. Weight of each concept is identified as noun by Pos tagger
This rules are used to analyzing large corpus, like book. There are some models. They are
- Summarize blocks of text
- Automatically generate keyword tags
- Sentiment analysis
- Reduce words to root
Summarize blocks of text
It is using summarizer to make extract the important concept and main ideas while neglecting the irrelevant data.
Automatically generate keyword tags
It automatically generate keywords from information using Auto Tag which uses a technique to found content consist text within a body.
Importance of fast web applications
It is used to identify the text of the sentimental string from negative to positive level.
Reduce words to root
It decreases the words to stem by using Porter Stemmer or it will cuts off the text into word tokens using Tokenizer.
Natural language processing techniques take string of words called as sentences as input and develop structured definition involves the meaning of those sentences as output. The respected output is completely depends on the task. A natural language processing system (NLP) considerate system providing as a user interface to database. Database might agree the question in English that relate to the information held by database. In this case, the meaning of the input or output expressed in terms of SQL (Structured Query Language) queries which can be directly acknowledge to the database.
The main use of the computers to manipulate natural language method was in 1950s to automate the language translation between English and Russian. Bur these method were unsuccessful requirement for human translator (Russian-English) to post-edit English and post-edit the Russian. Based on breaking code techniques in World War II, they considered individual words separately and found the definition for particular words. Popular things in the system leads mis-translation in phrase e.g. “hydraulic ram” is converted as “water goat”.
Serious growth in natural language processing took place in 1970s as its strated to use as for general approaches and describes some rules about languages. LUNAR gives a English interface to database which consist of samples of moon rock. SHRDLU is a kind of interface to a database holding virtual robot in a form of blocks. The blocks will move around by accepting command in English and responds to the question about the particular words.
Later natural language techniques have focused on specific domains to provide for the purpose of general understanding about language with less success. A main goal in language processing research is to develop systems which works with human like abilities rather than separated sentences.
Issues in Natural Language Processing
Two difficulties in natural language processing method is to cause different approach to be used than those integrated with the compiler construction for the purpose of processing artificial language. The issues are 1) ambiguity level that exists in natural language processing method 2) the semantic data complexity is consist in the form of simple sentences.
Commonly language processor consist of large number of words and large grammar which permits various phrases types to be construct from the similar string of words or sentences. Language processor are become more complex due to language irregularity and various kind of ambiguity which can occur.
REST API tool for improving Amazon's search results
Task involves in Natural Language Processing
The Natural Language Processing method consist of four distinct stages fig 3.1. This stages are hardly occurs as separated in real system, continuous processes. In this overall description it follows the analysis of both syntactic analysis and semantic analysis will be deals with same techniques called parser.
1) Morphological Processing
This the preliminary stages in natural language processing, it take place before syntax analysis. The main aim of this stage in language processing is to split the strings of input language into group of token respected to sub-word, discrete words and punctuation. For example “unhappily” is a word. It can split into three words as:
Primarily morphology is concerned with recognizing the base word which would be modified to form other word with same meaning but often there is a variation in syntactic categories. Modification takes place by the addition of postfix and/or prefix but other textual changes also made. Generally Word form modification is divided into three category, they are
In this words represented in textual form will change because of their syntactic nature. In English, for example, most of the plural noun denote s as a suffix, superlative and comparative forms of adjective which is regular adjective take suffixes.
It is nothing but a new words are derived from existing words. This construction of word often take place in a regular manner which allow following morphological methods. For example, some adjective in English take –ness as suffix when creating noun (happy->happiness). The same approach apply in most of the human interactive language where it invoke different rules.
Grouping existing words are formed a new words. This is not take place frequently in English (e.g. include “toothpaste” and “headache”) but it is largely used in other language where long words occurs infinitely in morphology.
Basically the morphological processing is completely based on language being analyzed.
In few language single words hold all other information of tense number and person of sentence. In another language this data may be scattered across many words. For example in English phrase “I will have been walking...” where auxiliary verbs is being used for the purpose of extract the complex tense information.
2) Syntax and Semantics
A language processor consist of number of various function based on semantic analysis and syntax analysis. The syntax analysis purpose have two folds: to check a sentence is well formed and to split up into the form of structure that brings the syntactic relationship between various words. A parser (syntactic analyzer) used to perform lexicon (word definition) by make use of this and a group of syntax rules called grammar. A simple lexicon only consist of syntactic case of each word.
Advantages of REST
3) Semantic and Pragmatics
The next stage after semantic analysis process deal with pragmatics. Though universally, there is no accepted distinction between pragmatics and semantic. This sources is common with various author created the distinction as follows: semantic analysis is combined with the meaning of individual sentences. Pragmatic analysis is used to perform by means of interpreting the result of semantic analysis from a particular context. This describes with a sentence like “the large cat chase the rat” semantic analysis can construct an expression that means the large cat but cannot perform the upcoming process of inference need to identify the large cat by its name Felix. This would be remain to pragmatic analysis.
The pragmatic analysis suit actual event which present in a given references achieve during semantic analysis.
Put the orange which is currently in the basket onto the shelf
The term ontology is derived from Greek word. “Onto” means “being” , and “logos” means “science” so that ontology is traditionally considered is the science or study.
The term being represented in two senses:
- Something that exists;
- What it is to be exist and what are the common things
There are some convincing things to represent ‘concept’ are called as conceptualization in the recent literature in ontology follows from the fact. Concepts, also known as classes. It can be abstract or composite. In this, a concept can be anything, it can also be the task description, action, strategy, function etc. on other hand ontology defines ‘four basic concepts’: entity class at top level and three subclasses includes interaction, pathway and physical Entity. Ontology is a combination of methods and theories with multiple number of disciplines (Bacchini, Caputo and Dell'Utri, 2014).This represents the information or the data using the method named classification. The research is a philosophical study and involves philosophers (Garbacz and Kutz, n.d.). An ontology is provided with an account of entities. This have the wider range of both theories and the methods. They work on the more classification systems. The classification areas like engineering, in the field of bioinformatics. In the field of security and the defense. Ontologies do have the data representation and the data is provided with well-structured ontology (McWherter, n.d.). It can be easily retrieved and then integrated. In the field of computer, the ontologies generated through ontogen tool (Thomasson, 2014). Ontologies connect the data or the information across various departments or the sectors. The data is finally accessed to the software.
- Seed ontology
- Application ontology and the
- Domain ontology.
The seed level describes the basic relationship in the domain. For instance, a customer is a human. Application ontology is achieved through the application data or the information via ontology generator. The application ontology database provides information available in the business application system (Petrov, 2012). It develops the fundamental relations or the concepts of the domain (Appelt, 2011).
Basic features of REST web services
The research gives the foundational course to the areas such as the natural language processing (NLP), data integration, the annotation of data and the finally builds intellectual computer system (Kumar, 2011). By making using of this ontology, the human to human interaction will surely reaches the heights and then there will be a successful reach through collaboration (Magnini, 2013). Ontologies is achieved or implemented using Ontology Web Language (OWL) (McCarthy and Boonthum-Denecke, 2011). The research in ontology is achieved using a technology called Semantic Web Technology.
In physical concerns, in order to improving an ontology following things are includes the following things are, Generating classes in the ontology, ordering the classes in hierarchy, Defining slots and describing permitted rate for these items, filling the appropriate value for the instances. Pragmatically, an all metaphysics characterizes the vocabulary for which queries and additionally assertions would trade "around operators. Ontological commitments need aid assertions so as to utilize the imparted vocabulary done a sound and also steady way. Those operators imparting a vocabulary require not allotment in the build for information. An agenize that commits should a metaphysics may be not necessary should provide for the result to the greater part queries. Thus that might make figured in the imparted vocabulary.
The concept, objects and other entities are supposed to exist in some interested activity and the relationship that occupy. A conceptualization is a simplified abstract which is used for the purpose of representation.
Recently the literature rides with ontology description and focus on its purposes, Most seems for reuse at high level mechanism. In other dimension include the nature of software with ontology will be used where it has to be shared among their groups and reuse within the variety of applications. So ontology term denotes as a structure of knowledge. Another main motivation for ontology is to combine the models from various domain into organized framework. This will leads in business engineering process, here we need to integrate the enterprises applications and its operations is organization and its customers in distributed structure.
With these kind of intuition, ontology uses are subdivided into following three categories:
- System engineering: reliability, specification and reusability
It is very necessary to know why the ontology is build and what this uses are. The last section exposes the space of possible users; this may be an initial stage in purpose for identification on ontology that could be constructed. It will useful to find and characterize the range of intended users in the ontology.
Compatibility with different platforms
There is a collective experience in constructing and using ontologies, usually there are no standard methodologies exist for constructing ontologies.
There is methodology for creating ontologies to include the following:
- purpose and scope identification
- Constructing ontology;
It is a software tool which is freely available in the market, called as open source ontology editor and system of knowledge management. Hence it is used to define ontologies by providing graphic user interface (GUI). It consist of deductive classifiers for validating the models which is consistent. Protégé is a frameworks which suggest plugins and this application developed in java and swing where it helps to create user interface (UI).
Ontogen is a data-driven editor of ontology and semi-automation tools concern about ontology topic edition which means group of topics connected with various type of relations. Hence system uses by combining the techniques called text mining with the user interface to reduce spending on time and complexity for users. In this way it connects the complex editing tools in ontology with the domain experts who are developing the ontology. Here developer must not need to aware of ontology engineering.
Semi-Automatic those framework is an intelligent media apparatus. This camwood additionally helps the client throughout the metaphysics development transform. It might make infers those in general concepts, relations the middle of the concepts, title to those concepts, naturally assigns instances of the concepts, visualizes instances inside an idea and in addition gives a great diagram of the metaphysics of the client through particular idea scanning and diverse sort of visualization. In those same duration of the time those client camwood completely alter every last one of properties of the metaphysics by manually including alternately uprooting concepts, relations What's more reassigning instances.
Data-Driven the majority of the support Gave by those framework. It may be dependent upon a percentage underlying information Gave Toward the client toward the beginning of the metaphysics development. The information reflects those Web-domain for which those client will be make a metaphysics. Case in point and example co-occurrences are concentrated starting with those information together with their profiles.
Real features of the OntoGen framework usually serve one or both. The two essential outline. Objectives about OntoGen that is visualization Also investigation of existing strategies starting with those metaphysics Also an alternate particular case will be expansion for new systems or Overall evolving from claiming existing particular idea through straightforward regulate methods helped Toward machine Taking in and also quick mining.
Issues encountered while implementing the project
The fundamental window will be splitted under three principle field. Those limitless and only those windows may be committed with. Metaphysics visualization also report management a piece which will be in the correct side. On the upper exited side may be the idea tree expressing every last one of systems starting with metaphysics and on the bottom left side is those field the place the client camwood weigh every last one of subtle elements and additionally might unable should wrist bindings properties of the chosen particular idea and get suggestions to its sub-concepts.
Those general course of action of the primary window will be same similarly as the past rendition for a little upgrades. It is mostly In light of those suggestive. That is we got from the clients. Metaphysics visualization and rundown about technique documents Right away stake the comparative window territory and the client camwood ready to shift the middle of them. This gives those client an immense parcel of the window. At they are being used which thus makes visualization and in addition the report oversaw economy for a simple way.
OntoGen might unable with backs a few enter formats. For the content instances for example, organizer also named Line-Documents. Also help for proprietary content enclosure configuration. In the OntoGen window holds the alternative organizer. That loads An set about html put away On An provided for record organizer et cetera alternative named accordance Documents loads documents from An provided for document the place every Furthermore each offering will be deciphered Likewise a record for the beginning expression in the offering being its title.
The client might equipped make another void idea repositioning an existing particular idea will diverse position in the chain of importance or uproot a past idea from those metaphysics. Each about these assignments may be attained Eventually Tom's perusing initial picking those origination. The idea tree et cetera clicking those catch that corresponds of the wanted activity. That is new, move also at last erase. The point when moving the concept, those system pops dependent upon a dialog window. That is used to asking the client to pick those end particular idea. Which may be demonstrated in the beneath outline.
There are two distinctive methodologies actualized for idea taking in. There need aid three grouping techniques executed for OntoGen. That is k-means, LSI and k-means. The principal two were now and only the To begin with versify same time the most recent technique is recently included in the most recent form. There is additionally a suggestive strategy called classification which simply gathering every Also each instances as stated by the labels included in the data information. Those client camwood select which system the framework ought to utilization to generating suggestions.
MySQL client library for transportation of data
The amazon particular idea is shown in the focus of the visualization. Also sub-concepts of the amazon idea need aid shown in the ring the root concept, et cetera. Those client camwood pick an idea by clicking on it on the visualization. The right now chose particular idea will be drawn for red color, other ideas would draw clinched alongside blue shade and the relations are drawn for green shade.
Those instances starting with the idea would checked. Duty for instances camwood be altered by checking alternately un-checking them. The client must click apply catch toward those end with affirm those progressions in the window. The framework calculates similitude between each example in the rundown and the centroid vector of the technique.
Instances from claiming chosen concept, which might make imagined by clicking the idea Visualization catch.
The semantic technology of web is the combination of OWL (Ontology Web Language) and the descriptive languages like RDF (Resource Description Framework) Yan, Z. and Chakraborty, D. (2014). It is built in XML which means the eXtensible Mark-up language (Closs et al., 2014). It is then provided with the information or the content of the web based document (Peroni, n.d.). This kind of interpretation system allows intelligence software machines (Hoer’s et al., 2016). It automates the web based information by the analytical exploitation (Jaafar et al., 2014). The semantic web based technology offers the overview of the knowledge of semantic technology as well as the criteria of the research (Kim, Ding and Kim, n.d.). The extraction of the metadata goes in depth (Supnithi, T. (2015). This type of semantics web technology plays vital role in the management of the knowledge (semantic information access) (Szeredi, Luka?csy and Benko??, 2014).
It is the study of the meaning of signs, such as word or terms. It is based upon the approaches,methods or techniques used to add semantics to the respected terms, various form of semantic can be performed. The semantic level has shown in following figures
- Controlled vocabulary:
A controlled vocabulary is the group of terms such as phrases, words or notations thatcan be calculate efficiently. All terms lies in a controlled vocabulary should have an non-redundant , unambigious definition. For e.g, Amazon.com has controlled vocabulary which can be choosed by the user to search for products represented in the following (Table 1)
- Taxonomy:A taxonomy is represented as subject-based classification that sorts the content in a controlled vocabulary into a hierarchy form without performing anything. The arrangement of taxonomy in a home shown in Figure
- Thesaurus:A thesaurus is a collection of controlled vocabulary terms. This terms is with conceptual relationship between terms. It is an extension of a taxonomy where it permits terms to be sorts in a hierarchy form and also allowing other relationship between the terms as well as statements.
- Ontology:It is similar to taxonomies but it always used richer semantic relations among attributes and terms. Ontologies have been accomplice with logical inferencing and it is started apply to semantic web. It is often called as a shared conceptualization of the world and it consist of high level schemas such as attribute, entities, vocabulary, interrelationship between vocabularies and knowledge of facts are all integrated in a semantic manner.
Semantic Web is the new era Web that tries should speak to majority of the data. Utilized by machines, not simply for presentation purposes, be that as to automation, integration, What's more reuse over. Furthermore, semantic Web will be over unequivocally declaring those. Learning installed done large portions Web built applications, coordination majority of the data. Way, giving semantic built get of the Internet, What's more extracting majority of the data from writings.
Resource Oriented Architecture (ROA)
Traditionally, HTML gives the standard about organized report distributed on the web. However the Straightforwardness of HTML pushes those Growth of the Web, it genuinely improved. For example, such that processing, Comprehension and semantic interoperability for Data held on a few documents. Semantic Web is the new era Web which is used to Makes time permits with express majority of the data on precise, machine-interpretable type. It empowers. For example, majority of the data brokers, operators and data filters, and additionally offers more stupendous purpose and interoperability. Semantic Web advertises Web built requisitions contain both semantic and syntactic interoperability. The unequivocal representational from claiming met information. This procedure might at last make greatly educated. Frameworks with Different specific thinking administrations. Those structural engineering of semantic Web (W3C) is demonstrated in the diagram. Those semantic Web innovations. Offer another approach should overseeing data and courses the key rule about which. Will be those making Also utilization of semantic metadata.
URI is a universal resource identifier (URI) may be a formatted string that serves as a method for recognizing the Conceptual or physical asset. A URI camwood a chance to be further ordered concerning illustration a locator, a name, alternately both. That is Uniform Resource Locator (URL) alludes all order of the subset of URI that identifies assets by means of a. representational for their elementary right instrument. A Uniform Resource Name (URN) refers to those subset of URI that is needed to stay comprehensively exceptional and persistency Indeed At the. Asset ceases should exist or gets inaccessibility.
It gives an exceptional amount for each character, freely of the underlying of Platform, program, alternately dialect. Preceding the production from claiming Unicode, there were Different distinctive. Encoding frameworks of those different encoding aggravated the control of information complex. Any provided for the Machine necessary to backing numerous diverse encodings. There might have been constantly those danger for encoding. Conflict, since two encodings Might utilize the same number to two distinctive characters, or use. Distinctive numbers for the same character. Samples for more seasoned and great referred to encoding frameworks. Incorporate ASCII What's more EBCDIC.
- XML Namespace.
XML (Extensible Markup Language) for XML namespace what’s more XML pattern definitions makes. Beyond any doubt that there will be a as a relatable point punctuation utilized within those semantic Web. XML namespaces permit the Specifying diverse markup vocabularies done one XML archive. XML diagram serves for. Expressing diagram meaning of a specific XML report. The point when it goes will semantic. Interoperability, however, XML need Hindrances.
- RDF and RDF schema
Communication of data through HTTP protocol
On highest priority on XML will be the Resource Description Framework (RDF), to speaking to data. Something like assets clinched alongside a chart type. RDF will be dependent upon triples O-A-V that type a chart information among the objects.
- It helps in enabling the semantics for different new kinds of concepts in particular domain by defining more number of schemas.
- It provides a precise mechanism for the purpose of representing the ontology using RDF language.
- It provides a kind of mechanism for the purpose of creating SPARQL called as the generic queries.
- It also provides a mechanism for creating ontology and query using different technology.
- This also provides evaluation of rule and the execution mechanism to develop derived facts.
- It provides mechanism to combine external concepts with the existing concepts.
- For the purpose of interacting with the user intelligently or in the best way possible, the semantic web technology permits the natural language system. In this current era, the semantic web technology permits enormous integration of various resources which defines the same thing and it can make the natural language system the more robust.
SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) is a query language which is able to retrieve the data store and then manipulate accordingly in Resource Description Framework (RDF) (Groppe, 2011). It was developed as a standard of RDF and accessing working group (DAWG) over World Wide Web consortium. Therefore it is considered as a key technology of semantic web (DuCharme, 2013).
SPARQL permits query to contain conjunction, disjunctions and triple patterns and so on. The implementation part for the multiple languages of program exist. There are tools which translates the SQL query to the other different query languages for instance SQL and XQuery.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has promote the resource description framework (RDF) Language at the top of XML to assimilate the definition and use of metadata. RDF is a common purpose metadata language. It is used for representing data in the World Wide Web and provides a technology for developing and describing relationship between the information. In RDF, there is a possibility to add predefined technical primitives for the purpose of expressing semantic of information to a document without having any inference about the structure of the file document.
The basic concept of Resource Description Framework are properties, resources and statements.
Resources: A resource can be an object, can be things such as a song, person, or a webpage. Every resource must have URI to identify itself.
Properties: It is one of the special kind of resources; it describes the relationship between the resources, For example “written by”, “author”, “song”, “age” and so on.
Statements: It assert the resource properties. A statement is represented as an object-attribute-value (O-A-V). It consisting of a resources, a value and a properties. Value may also denoted as (Subject-Predicate-Object) and it can be either literal or resources
The fundamental structure of RDF is in triples form.
Object/Resource/Thing ↔ Property/Attribute ↔ Value (is also a resource / literal)
It helps in developing queries called key-value data. RDF data is also considered in the relational database of SQL.
It is easier and more powerful for the columns and it contains more number of values.
It helps in providing the entire set of query operation which is analytic. Some analytical operation queries are
There are four different query form for SPARQL language. They are
- SELECT query
- CONSRUCT query
- ASK query
- DESCRIBE query
It is mainly used for the extraction of the raw values from the endpoint of SPARQL, the outcome is returned in the form of table.
It is used for the extraction of the information from the end point of the SPARQL.
This helps in providing simple Boolean result for a query at the endpoint of SPARQL. The Boolean result must be in the form of True or False.
It is used for the extraction of information from SPARQL endpoint, It is completely based on useful information at the point of maintaining.
OWL is one of the computational logic-oriented Language which is designed to show the data schema as well as represents rich and complex knowledge about hierarchies of things. Also describe the relations between things. It is complementary when compared to RDF and permits for formalizing a data schema with in a given domain, separately from the data itself. OWL ontology languages permits the users to write explicit, formal conceptualization of domain concepts.
Three types of OWL
- OWL full it is used to specify the union of OWL syntax and RDF as well as the maximum expressiveness.
- OWL DL is widely used for ontology representation and also used to define the restricted to FOL fragment (¼ DAML+OIL).
- OWL Lite is for taxonomies as well as simple hypothesis. So implementation part is very simple and easy. This is a subset of OWL DL.
The REST API services are implemented by HTTP protocol. The REST API is a portable implementation which can be used to run on servelet container. The JBoss Application develops the user experience environment and it is a server-side application programming specification (Li, 2011).
There are some specifications are available in REST API implementation such as
- The JAX-RS is implemented by using REST API.
- The tomcat server is run by JDK 5 software.
- The embedded server is also implemented by REST API.
- It supports integration of spring and EJB.
- The JAX-RS defines server binding.
- The HTTP client requests are activated by client framework.
The RESTAPI is implementing ServetletContextListener as well as Servlet. Some basic components are initialized by ResteasyBootstrap listener. The ResteasyBootstrap listener is used to configure the Resteasyprovider factory and registry (Hu and Czen, 2013).
The path annotation is not supported by simple path expressions.
The resources are routed by GET method
The regular expression format is
Format of PathParam
The PathParam is one the annotation parameter which can be used to assign URI fragments (Barbaglia, Marilla and Cudini, 2016). The information’s are passed by URI parameter and the strings are also act as a parameter. There are some URI parameters like String, java object, constructor and String parameter (Wang, Song and Li, 2010).
The URI segment is embedded by one or more specification. For example
It is one of the abstraction method which can be used to examine the fragment of URI path. The URI path is invoked by path segment command like
This command is used to map the URI query string parameter or URL. The parameter should be in this format like String, Primitive and class.
This is owned to map HTTP request method invocation.
It can be used to represent the resources and it is implementing raw id as well as attributes.
For the purpose of object representation cookieparam is used.
The Fromparam passes individual form parameters from request body to method parameter values.
Encoded and Encoding. It can be used to specify the path definitions and parameters.
Output is generated in java NetBeans IDE
Code file is attached here.
This program implemented by algorithm such as Knuth moris pratt and ranking algorithm which is used for advance search mechanism. Ranking algorithm is used for priority checking. This keyword based search to fetch exact requirement. The requester can provide a query in natural language processing through this interface, which in turn parses the query for the concept of the request. This document is passed to service concept definer to continue with proposed approach for service discovery. The retrieved services are recommended to the user. User query interface is the front end available for a user to access the system and to provide the query in natural language.
Source file is attached here
Ontology is created for amazon using ontogen tool. Here is the step to create ontogen
- Open ontogen tool and create new file
- If you already have ontogen source file, go to file menu click load ontology then select proton topic ontology for loading the existing source file.
- In this, concept’s document will show the similarity measures of each document calculated using K–means clustering algorithm. Its will automatically calculated the similarity matric between these documents.
- The query user interface (UI) is a front end available to the user for searching the particular word in a document.
- Ontology visualization is used for viewing all concept and sub-concept in the document. The concept of amazon is shown in the center of the visualization and sub-concepts of are displayed in the circle around the root concept, and so on.
- Concept visualization is highlighted. It is used for the purpose of finding the particular word for corresponding concepts.
To make the searching process faster, the Ranking algorithm is used because it follows the advanced search mechanism. With the help of keyword, the requirement will be fetched from the database. The request will be processed from the client system. According to given request, the query will be parsed for the delivery service. For query processing the NLP algorithms are used. The obtained result is produced with some exceptions. These will be cleared and will improve the developed work. The book search interface will be created and it will be integrated with the existing search engine of the Amazon services.
At present, a user must rely on a search engine for service selection. This does not provide a satisfactory solution since current keyword-based techniques suffer from certain disadvantages. REST architecture pattern is commonly called as lightweight in the nature. So that when you have a bandwidth conditions, then you should always prefer that REST web service. And it is very simple and it very fast in order to development of web service. The concepts of the service are defined and updated in this ontology. The cloud service document is parsed using a natural language processing techniques, which leads to higher requirements in terms of time for updating of the ontology, this is a primary drawback of the system which could improve using parallel processing techniques. Hence this ontology must be updated whenever changes are made by providers, a possible direction of future research is the development of a system which stores previous user experience with cloud service provider in order to recommend services according to user requirements.
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