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A Report On The Management Of Change

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Question: Why is resistance to change frequently demonised as a problem that must be managed.What are the ethical implications of this and how else can resistance be understood.You may use examples from your own organisation to illustrate your essay.     Answer: Concept of Organizational Change Management (OCM) Organizational change management (OCM) concept refers to a vivid framework to manage the impact of business processes, various organizational changes like that in structure or culture internally. So, this concept deals with the addressing of human resource about change management. Often, organizational higher authority or corporate employers take up the decision of incorporating changes within the organization aiming at positive outcomes (Park, 2013). A systematic method of implementing organizational change management benefits the entire organization when it requires members to learn new skills as well as behaviors. With formal set up of expectations, employment of effective tools for improving communication along with proactively reducing any sort of misinformation internally may enable implementation of organizational change management (Saksvik & Hetland, 2009). This systematic approach would also require stakeholders to coordinate in a mutual basis so as to lead to a successful implementation of desirable change without causing any sort of discomfort to the organizational members. A successful organizational change management strategy involves agreement of all organizational members towards any common goals or visions without any competing initiatives, strong leadership style for communicating those visions with selling of business case to lead to change, changing strategy for educating employees regarding regular work, and a definite plan for measuring whether a desired change is beneficial or not, and also follow up plans to measure their success or failure  (Simha & Cullen, 2012). Organizational change management also includes changes in the structure of social or monetary rewards which encourage members to adopt ownership of innovative roles and responsibilities. Forces in Organizational Change As per Lewin’s force-field analysis model, every organization is considered to be an open system. Changes can include basically two forces, one that pushes the organization towards a new direction, namely driving force, and another that prevents the organization from changes to occur, namely restraining force. When driving force is greater than restraining force, change is likely to occur. This leads to the organization to move towards a new direction. On the other hand, when restraining force is greater than the driving force, the organization is likely to stay at the location where it was initially. When the two forces are equal in strength, the organization will stay stable temporarily. When any organization is about to change, various forces prevent such change like that of restraining forces. These restraining forces may be categorized into three levels, organizational level, secondary level, and individual level. Some of the factors within the organizational level include structure of organization, system pressure, pressure from earlier reputation, and organizational culture. Factors from secondary level include interest conflict amidst departments or standpoint differences. Individual level factors include misunderstanding, personal benefit feeling, custom, lack of trust, uncertainty, etc.   The ways to manage all the factors which may prevent successful changes of organization are to be introduced by the organizational management. The most efficient way is to gain support and trust or organizational members by means of training, participation, encouragement, effective communication, and active involvement. Other ways may be eliminating resistance of members by means of negotiation control, assistance, or coercion. These factors would vary depending upon the situation (OʼDonnell, 2007). It is an important aspect for management of almost all organizations of the current scenario to address and manage resistance towards organizational management. It is mainly because organizational changes are brought about for organizational gains and benefits in the long run. Management aims at introducing effective changes within organizational environment such as structure, culture, functions, behaviors, or the ways of business transactions. For this it is extremely important for the employees of the organization to understand this. Management can make the employees aware of its mission and goals by means of effective communication with the members (Simha & Cullen, 2012). Since it is a natural tendency of human beings to resist any sort of change, it is inevitable that such plans for organizational change would be resisted either by the employees. So, it is the responsibility of the higher authority of the organization to deal with such aspects in a cautious manner because it is often related to the sentiments of employees. Resistance to Organizational Change With respect to the given question as to why resistance to organizational change is deemed to be a problem and that must be managed, it is to be understood that organizational change is always for the betterment and improvement. Organizational heads or higher authority take up the decision of leading change within the organization when all situations and environment are feasible and that of favorable to lead to positive outcome (Oreg, 2006). Since management is always on the track to lead to something better and increasingly effective, this concept of organizational change is inevitable. On the other hand, organizational members who tend to resume their usual form of performing towards organizational production and stability are quite habituated and comfortable with the usual norm. Now, any sudden change or even the idea of organizational change leads to their mental commotion and gives them a feeling of insecurity. This feeling of insecurity results in the rise of resistance to organizational change (Mushtaq, n.d.). This resistance from organizational members towards any organizational change can prove to be a major problem or hindrance in the path of organizational success. Hence, resistance to organizational change is considered to be a problem or threat and that it needs to be effectively managed or counteracted (Lines *, 2004). It is not that easy for organizations to avoid changes, since innovative ideas encourage growth and progress for them as well as their members. Changers are brought about due to several reasons like new roles of staff members, increment or decline in funding, new visions, missions and goals, new target groups, or even technological advancements. Changes often create opportunities, but these are often associated with strong criticism by the organizational members, individuals or groups. Managing Resistance to Change In the present business situations like that of today, it has become a normal matter to experience resistance every time an organization engages into change. In having a proper understanding of the existence or probable chances of resistance to any change would enable anticipating resistance, identifying the main sources and causes, and modifying individual and group efforts for managing the issues related to change for ensuring success of efforts (Downs, 2012). Resistance, if viewed effectively, is healthy to a great extent. Since the concept of organizational change is something that makes employees insecure about their current positions, they tend to resist the idea of organizational change (Downs, 2012). Thus, this resistance to organizational must be well-managed and controlled by the managerial heads or higher authority of an organization so that it does not affect the organization or the desired change to occur. Here, it demands a proper and effective management of such organizational changes.   Resistance in the organizational context is quite a common phenomenon. This resistance needs proper management in effective manner so that organizational effectiveness is not hampered. The higher authority of management must be alert as well as careful towards introduction of change within the organization, since it involves a matter of lifetime, and that success of organizations depend greatly on the involvement of higher authority ('Special issue on Resistance to change: redefining and resituating its role in change management', 2010). It needs to introduce a strategic plan and once implemented successfully, it needs o be properly monitored so that change can be beneficial to organization. Resistance to organizational change occur due to various reasons like loss of job security, non-reinforcing reward system, fear of unknown, peer pressure, an organizational politics  (Danışman, 2010). These resistances act as driving forces for the organizational members. Also,
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