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Invasive species, pest and different pathogens cause lot of damaged to forest trees. Write about different causes such as Dutch Elm disease, Ash die back,..etc. The most dangerous diseases, define them and write about how many trees they have killed. Do that in several paragraphs.
At the end wite about the economic and eclogiciacl impacts of tree disease in general. Do not be specific to a single country.

Fungi

Invasive species, pests and pathogens and their causes

The invasive species, pests, and pathogens cause a quite number of tree diseases. They have been a challenge to forests conservation they cause tree diseases which affect most of the tree species worldwide making both natural and planted forests less productive. These diseases include the Dutch elm disease, ash dieback among many others.

Fungi

The fungus causes a variety of tree diseases in the world these fungal have been affecting many forestry parts in the world, and they include Dutch elm diseases among other. Dutch elm disease. Dutch elm is a wilting disease caused by a pathogenic fungus called ophiostoma ulmi sense late. It is spread by specialized back beetles that breed under the back of the elm dying trees. In the past century, this disease has invaded forests in Europe and North America. The Dutch elm causing fungus occurs in natural and planted forests and urban areas. Where it is spread, it has been identified that it has been hosted by all euro American native elm trees such as cedar elm, rock elm, slippery elm, European elm and Wych elm. The disease has also affected some parts of China though not much susceptive.

Sudden oak death is another undiscovered and unnamed disease which is caused by Phytophthora ramorum fungus. Since 2000 scientists have been researching on the cure for this disease and their efforts seems to be futile it has been initially identified in both natural and planted forests it has a full range host trees which has caused much concern in North America and Europe because of high local destruction it causes. The origin of this disease is unknown, and therefore researchers are still working to invent its control. The mortality of this disease occurs within two years. It primarily spread through nursery trade and are locally covered by infected tools, soils, and vectors.

Flatworms

There are species of flatworms such as platydemus Manokwari which were intentional of UN intentionally introduced to Pacific and Indian oceans as a biological control agent for African snails. Though the predator was presented with a positive intention, it is now posing a threat to agricultural areas, coastlands, disturbed areas, natural and planted forests, riparian zones, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands. It is generally found in leaf litter and originated from New Guinea it is now dominant in Australia, Japan, Hawaii, Philippines and many other areas it is causing tree infection. The infection falls into all categories of trees in its field of invasion.

Sudden Oak Death

There are very many other tree diseases caused by worms and fungi which have been participating in the destruction of tree plants in the world. It these tree predators have been a challenge to the development of forests and conservation of the environment through tree planting, and therefore everyone is a subject to participating in the control of these disease-causing predators.

Birds

Birds like red-vented bulbul among others have also contributed to tree destruction. This bird originated from Pakistan. It highly invades trees and consumes tree fruits, flowers, twigs, and even young seedlings. This bird is not profoundly spread, but it concentrates in one area at a time.

Insects

Insects are the most dangerous tree destroyers worldwide, and many scenarios and outbreaks have been approved to this destruction. Some insects destroy tree plants through consumption while others consume and spread some tree diseases to tree leaves, twigs and stem parts of trees. Insects affect both planted and natural forests depending on the environment and infections. Some pests were introduced as a biological control agent for some dangerous insects, but they finally turned out to be an agricultural destroyer while other were naturally introduced. Some of these insects have found a control insecticide while others have become incurable. For the incurable insects, scientists are doing thorough research to come up with a viable control. Out research about this insects the following results have been found, and therefore the most destructive and dominant insects are analyzed and explained in details with their causes and effects to both environment and worlds economy.  The excellent appearance these insects threaten the residents of the affected areas, and therefore they make very many residents complain about their effects and presence.

To begin with, anoplolepis glacilipes was intentionally introduced as the biological control agent for control of insects affecting cocoa, coconut in agricultural plantations. It has now become a pest because of its relationship with Homoptera. It is affecting both crops and forests sectors it is clear that this insect is a great crop and tree consumer. It is spread to Africa through imports and export to and from the infected countries. This insect is rapidly disseminated to almost all world cool areas and therefore appearing in the list of the most ranked destructive insects. The statistics show that it is still adapting to consuming every kind of plant hence becoming an awful insect. It is also affecting the reproductive parts of mammals and birds. It is changing the words economy by evolving attractive tourist areas such as forests and birds. It, therefore, calls for seriousness to ensure it is controlled which is relatively expensive hence pulling the world’s economy worldwide.

Flatworms

There is also an Asian longhorn beetle these insects feed on tree leaves, twigs, and petioles and then digs holes on the tree trunks to lay their eggs. After the eggs are hatched, they feed on tree tissues and the adult dig holes to come out causing the tree to die back. They are native to China and Korea. They affect hardwood trees. Found in disturbed areas, wetlands, coastal regions and agricultural areas. They were first infested in New York and Chicago the infected trees were cut to control its spread but it still appears in other parts of the world. Approximately it has affected over 2.3 million ha worldwide, and more than 7 billion trees have been cut to control the spread. The best control for this insect is yet to be introduced, but researchers are still on to solve this challenge.

The cypress aphid is another destructive insect. It has been observed around the world feeding various tree species. This tree species include; Thuja, Juniperus, Chamaecyparis, Callitris, and widdringtonia among many others. It invades both natural and artificial forests. They feed on tree sap from twigs causing a yellowing to the browning of foliage. This kind of destruction is affecting both young and old trees hence leading to the death of the entire tree it still lacks control since it is hard and expensive to spray forest but a lot of money had been spent to try to control this destructive insect. It is native to almost all continents of the world, and every affected country is spending a lot of money to manage this Cyprus aphid. It destroys commercial and ornamental stands of trees posing a significant overhead to the world economy. Cypress aphid is known to have originated from eastern parts of Greece, spread to the neighboring land and is now known to exist in Africa.

Also, there is an Argentina ant which is a very destructive insect. Historically, it is known to be very successful colonizers producing a massive number of catastrophic workers rapidly. The Argentina ant workers are very aggressive to invade and destroy plants. It affects seedlings on their germination stage, during dispersion and maturity. It invades both disturbed and undisturbed habitats it hailed from South America, and now species can now be found in all continents except Antarctica as well as some oceanic islands. It occurs in coastal areas, wetlands, agricultural areas, scrublands, shrub lands natural and planted forests and riparian zones. The Cyprus aphid control has not yet been invented, but the researchers say that very soon they will get it, something everyone is ever waiting to come unless killed by curiosity.

Birds

The gypsy moth is another insect that has appeared in the top destructive insect's list. It is known to critically destroy hardwood forest, fruits, shade and ornamental trees all through the Northern hemisphere. These caterpillars cause great exfoliation leading to reduced growth and even death of the host trees. Among very many other insects there are mollusks which have been the enormous challenge to the forests and tree plants all over the world. The African snail is one of the dangerous snails known to destroy plants by initiating particular diseases to plants.

The economic and ecological impacts of tree diseases

The tree diseases have caused a significant loss to the affected countries as it involves control research cost and a lot of money has been spending in purchasing pesticides and other tree disease-causing microorganisms control materials. As scientists spend a lot of finances in research activities therefore this high cost is incurred by the involved government. All these costs lower the country’s economy. Also it affects some economic activities such as lumbering. When trees are destroyed then it means there is low production in both timber and pulp industries. Hence poor economic growth which finally translates to the fall of country’s economy. In the ecology sector the tree diseases affects the lives of animals and other plants which positively repents on this trees for shelter and survival. The world’s economy, in general, is concerned and pulled down by tree diseases since trees are essential in all parts of the whole globe, earth. Tree diseases also extend their effects to the cash crops grown in the private farms and therefore causing significant damage to both cash crops and food crops. This kind of destruction has clearly been manifested in the whole world and the spread is rapid as it has been overcoming the applied control methods. That has called for cash to be allocated in the field of research. The tree diseases also affect the sector of tourism which is an economic sector in many world’s countries and states. Tree diseases which affects affect tourists attractive areas such as forests, bird habitats and animal habitats contribute to lowering the country’s economic growth.

Conclusion:

To crown it all the tree diseases have appeared to be the primary and potential economic drawback which if strictly controlled can contribute to economic growth and fast development. Many of America, Africa Australia, and other continents have tried, but it calls for more reinforcement so that the useful tree diseases control measures can be achieved. All business investors who use the affected sector for production have suffered loss. The world can engage in modern technology to tickle this global challenge. Therefore, a better solution can be found. All researchers should be aware that their findings contribute to the happiness of all human races in the world. And therefore should work hard to make our environment balanced and comfortable. Since five years ago there has been a change due to the use of improved modern technology. Since the tree diseases have shown to be one of the most significant global challenges which call for seriousness. But all the victim countries have shown concern in helping to control these menace.

Insects

According to researchers and reality, the planet earth has the required conditions to support life for both trees and animals. The capability of the planet to accommodate all the living organisms has been manifested by the existence of very many living organisms such as macro and microorganisms that are very well and show good health in growth and development. For the survival of living organisms, there has been parasitism for the survival of some organisms. That is, some plants depend on other plants and animals for survival while some animals depend on other animals and plants for survival.

Also, some animals such as human beings have a high thinking capacity and have the power to control the parasitism of living organisms depending on the available resources. Some living organisms such as trees and cover plants make our land beautiful. The parasitism depends on parasitic microorganisms.

It has realized that some of the parasites are destructive as they cause significant damage to plants and forests. Plants have been contributing a very significant percentage in environmental beauty, and therefore they add in refining air for inhalation and also for soil conservation and rainfall attraction. Furthermore, forests have a role as water catchment areas in both arid and semi-arid regions of the whole world. Therefore the high value of the forest trees in the environment poses the need to conserve the environment.

Forests have economic value that they attract rainfall. And also they used for in paper and pulp industries, construction as timber and even Furniture industries and making. Out of these economic values, human beings use trees and therefore earn a living from them. For this great forests demand human beings, therefore, need to plant as many trees as possible for them to avoid the disappearance of some highly demanded tree species which can be one by reforestation and re-afforestation in the affected areas of the earth where economic activities are rampant.

When human beings try to plant and replant trees for conservation, it has been realized that some invasive species, pests and pathogens invade and destroy these trees, therefore, making the human efforts to increase forest percentage bear no fruits, that calls for man find the cause of these destructive organisms. Even though every living organism depends on another for survival some are destructive and therefore need to be controlled. This destructive organisms such as invasive species, pests and pathogens have quite some causes which are expounded bellow precisely.

References:

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Bogdanski, B. 2018. "Stumping out tree root disease–An economic analysis of controlling root disease, including its effects on carbon storage in southern British Columbia." Forest Ecology and Management 143 (20): 62-71.

Cale, J. 2018. "Not dead yet: Beech trees can survive nearly three decades in the aftermath phase of a deadly forest disease complex." Forest Ecology and Management 89 (9): 117.

De Lara, J. 2018. "" This Port Is Killing People": Sustainability without Justice in the Neo-Keynesian Green City." Annals of the American Association of Geographers 114 (11): 48-56.

Ferrero, R. 2018. "Crop production structure and stability under climate change in South America." Annals of Applied Biology 100 (12): 34-40.

Grifoni, R. 2018. "The Landscape as a “Complex Indicator” of Urban Sustainability and Quality of Life of City Inhabitants." In Quality of Life in Urban Landscapes 100 (2): 11-17.

Hessels, S. 2018. "Sustainable Cinema: The Moving Image Created by Natural Force." In Visual Approaches to Cognitive Education With Technology Integration 99 (6): 44-50.

Idrus, S. 2018. "Challenges of Ecosystem Resilience: An Aspect of the Sustainability Science Approach in the Study of Environmental Awareness in the Selayang Munici." 100 (5): 54-60.

Okoli, A. 2018. "Towards a Political Ecology of Food Security and Sustainability in Nigeria Towards a Political Ecology of Food Security and Sustainability in Nigeria." KIU Journal of Humanities 99 (5): 54-59.

Park, S. 2018. "3 Paths of Sustainable Industrialization in the Knowledge-Based Economy." Knowledge, Industry and Environment: Institutions and Innovation in Territorial Perspective: Institutions and Innovation in Territorial Perspective 99 (9): 34-54.

Teel, T. 2018. "Publishing social science research in Conservation Biology to move beyond biology." Conservation Biology 112 (10): 56-67.

Wei, Y. 2018. "The combined effects of tea tree oil and hot air treatment on the quality and sensory characteristics and decay of strawberry." Postharvest Biology and Technology 112 (5): 57-61.

Whitney, T. 2018. "Tree-level distribution of a novel insect-pathogen complex and its potential contribution to eastern white pine dieback." Forest Ecology and Management. 144 (8): 87-92.

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