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Construction management requires a holistic approaches to its iplemetation due to the multiple roles it has to undertake. Consider how modern management techniques and processes have evolved and how the latest software packges are able to support management in being able to provide the necessary skills and strategies to fulfill this role.

Project Management Practice

Project management essentially entails application of knowledge, skills, processes, experiences as well as relevant techniques through functions such as planning, organizing, leading and controlling so as to efficiently and wholly accomplish the objectives of a given project (What is Project Management?, 2018, p. 2). Construction project management hence refers to the application of the stated criteria, that is, application of knowledge, skills, processes, experiences as well as relevant techniques in construction projects (Arditi, "Construction Quality Management: Principles and Practice", 2012). Construction management integrates building up a project plan, which consist of distinguishing and upholding the task targets, how to attain them, distinguishing spending and measuring the assets requisite, and determining expenditure procedures and timetables for completion. It similarly includes dealing with the implementation of the undertaking strategy, in conjunction with working ordinary 'controls' to surety that detailed and target data on 'execution' in related to the arrangement exist, and the instruments to realize convalescence undertakings where important ("A Peek into the Future of Project Management", 2015).

Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in a project/ enterprise. The levels of management are based on the range/ scale of operation, technical facilities as well as size of a given construction project (Brockmann, 2013, p. 29). Basically, there are two broad management levels namely; administrative management and operating management (Smith & Hinze, 2010, p. 223). Administrative management also known as the upper level of management deals with formulating/ creating functions such as planning and setting up standards, laying down project policy ("Construction Management and Economics", 2014). On the other hand, operative level of management, also known as lower level of management deals with execution of guidelines, and supervising the tasks to attains the project goals ("Developing Project Management", 2013).

Considering hierarchy of authority and responsibility, three levels of management are popular (Halpin, Lucko, & Senior, 2017, p. 151). These include; top management, middle management and the lower level or operative management. Top management includes board of directors, chief executive officer, chairman, general manager or executive committee having key officers (Hobbs, 2015, p. 37). Note that, depending on the size of the construction project, either or most of the aforementioned personnel may be part of the top management. The function of the top management include;

  1. To build up targets or objectives of the project.
  2. To make strategies and formulate plans to achieve the laid goals.
  3. To set up an organizational structure to lead the activities according to plans.
  4. To gather the assets of cash, men, materials, machines and techniques to execute the undertaking designs.
  5. To practice successful and effective control of tasks.
  6. To provide overall leadership to the project.

Middle management comprises of functional departmental heads viz purchase manger, marketing manager, financial controller, and divisional officers supervised by the functional heads (Huang, Xu, & Wu, 2011, p. 176). The middle management is responsible for the following functions;

  1. Executing authoritative plans in conformance with the organization's approaches and the goals of the best administration;
  2. Characterizing and examining data and strategies from top administration to lower-level administration;
  3. In particular, rousing and giving direction to bring lower level administrators to help them in execution enhancement and achievement of organization targets.
  4. Structuring and actualizing operational group work and information frameworks
  5. Characterizing and checking group level execution markers
  6. Diagnosing and settling issues within and among work groups
  7. Structuring and executing reward frameworks
  8. Supporting cooperative conduct
  9. Announcing execution insights up the hierarchy of leadership and, when pertinent, prescribing key changes.

Construction Management Levels

Lower level of management includes the foremen, supervisors, superintendents etc. (Hughes, 2015, p. 63) and performs the following functions;

  1. Preparing designs: - They get ready designs with respect to their work and distribute the work to the laborers.
  2. Speaking to the issues affecting workers: - The supervisory level directors come to know the issues and complaints of the subordinates and pass them on to the middle management.
  3. Upholding good working conditions: - The supervisory administrators’ give great working conditions, for example, sufficient lighting, ventilation, and so forth and give different luxuries to the staff.
  4. Looking to wellbeing of laborers: - The Supervisory level administrators give sheltered and secure workplace for the specialists by legitimate fencing and putting security monitors at all basic focuses for maintaining a strategic distance from mishaps.
  5. Helping the middle management: - The supervisory level directors guide and help the middle level chiefs in the determination, preparing, position and the advancement of the laborers.
  6. Welcoming recommendations: - The Supervisory level chiefs urge the specialists to step up with regards to their work. They welcome proposals from the laborers for improved production and lessening wastage.
  7. Maintain quality principles: - The Supervisory level chiefs need to ensure that there is relentless stream of yield and that the quality models are kept up by the laborers.
  8. Boosting the spirit/ morale; - The supervisory level chiefs need to support the assurance of the representatives with the end goal to complete the work from them adequately and effectively.

A skill is defined as a person’s capacity to translate knowledge into action, hence it is a demonstration of a person’s performance. Skills can be inborn but mostly is acquired through application of acquired/ learned knowledge as well as by practice in relations to his or her environment or a situation or a need etc. three major skills are essential for a manager to successfully attend to his/ her roles (Kerzner, 2017, p. 145). These skills include the human relations skill, conceptual skill and technical skill.

Conceptual skill refers to the manager’s aptitude to identify, consider and interrogate broad and farsighted perspective of the organization and its future (Klakegg, 2013). This entails the mangers ability to be able to; think in abstract, analyze the operating forces in a situation, innovativeness and creativity capacity, evaluate the setting and changes if any.

Technical skill is the understanding of the manager on nature of job his/her staff are designated to do, that is, the mangers proficiency and knowledge in the techniques or processes involved. This type of skill is very crucial for low level managers than top level management based on their exposure as well as the designated tasks (March, Construction management: theory and practice, 2017).

Human relations skill basically means the ability of the manager to effectively interact with all persons at different levels. Human relations skills entails therefore the ability of the manger to distinguish opinions and feelings of others, to judge probable actions to, and results of a selection of options of activities he may assume and to scrutinize his/her perceptions and values which may empower him/her cultivate more valuable attitudes about himself (Meredith, Mantel, & Shafer, 2016, p. 321).

In construction management as well as other fields where project management has been recognized as an important discipline, there has been more need to come up with better ways to make use of resources available. This need has been the basis and hence the propelling factor towards the evolution of management theory. Many techniques have existed before but over time better techniques or improvement of the existing techniques through modifications has resulted from evolution of management theory (Novotny, 2018, p. 57). Researchers and managers are involved in such pursuits so as to come up with improved ways to do the principle of management tasks.  Such techniques includes use of latest software packages such as: BIM, COBie and IFC software. These re discussed as follows:

Management Skills

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a procedure including the age and the board of advanced portrayals of physical and practical attributes of spots. Building Information Models (BIMs) are documents (regularly however not generally in exclusive organizations and containing restrictive information) which can be separated, traded or arranged to help basic leadership in regards to a building or other constructed resource. Flow BIM programming is utilized by people, organizations and government offices who plan, structure, build, work and keep up assorted physical foundations, for example, water, reject, power, gas, correspondence utilities, streets, railroads, scaffolds, ports and passages.

COBie is an execution based determination for office resource data conveyance. Two kinds of benefits are incorporated into COBie: gear and spaces. While maker information for introduced items and hardware may one day be straightforwardly accessible (by means of the SPie venture), COBie enables the undertaking to group compose electronic submittals endorsed amid structure and development and convey a solidified electronic O&M manual with almost no extra exertion. COBie information may then be foreign made straightforwardly into CMMS and resource the board programming, again at no expense. The PDF, drawing, and building data show records that go with COBie are composed so they can be effortlessly gotten to through the protected server indexes as of now set up at the office the board office. The national government's prerequisite for conveyance of Real Property Inventory (RPI) data might be met by COBie.

While the specialized subtleties of COBie can seem complex. COBie documents are not proposed for end-clients. COBie gives framework to-framework trade of the space and hardware data without client intercession. Consider COBie and comparable "data trade" tasks to be a sort of "ASCII for structures." Today, individuals don't have to realize ASCII to utilize an internet browser, email framework, word processor, or other programming; the words simply go along as a result of ASCII. Similarly, when we have accomplished COBie all over, just a not very many developers should allow COBie a misgiving.

IFC is a worldwide standard for information trade in the building ventures. IFC is both a typical information demonstrate and an open record arrange. Building industry experts can utilize IFC to share information paying little heed to what programming application they use to complete their activity. Additionally information from one period of the building lifecycle can be used in a later stage without the requirement for information reentry, custom import interfaces or restrictive modules. IFC is a worldwide standard for information trade in the building ventures. IFC is both a typical information display and an open document arrange. Building industry experts can utilize IFC to share information paying little mind to what programming application they use to complete their activity. Essentially information from one period of the building lifecycle can be used in a later stage without the requirement for information reentry, custom import interfaces or exclusive modules.

Modern Management Techniques and Evolution of Processes

IFC is possibly the fundamental empowering influence of synergistic lifecycle BIM. Its solitary genuine elective today is institutionalizing on a restrictive organization as depicted here. Its utilization is required by proprietors in an ever increasing number of undertakings internationally. It is an essential thought for any handover technique. In the meantime IFC is a subject to a few mistaken assumptions and numerous "variations" as we will see later in this article.

Utilization of BIM apparatuses is on the ascent. To receive the rewards of BIM data trade is required. BIM execution designs commonly state necessities for this trade. Building proprietors ought to have the capacity to express their prerequisites. There is fluctuating nature of the shippers and exporters of the BIM instruments today. Most require custom settings. IFC has qualities and shortcomings. In specific zones and in specific settings it truly sparkles. In different regions utilization of IFC could be counterproductive. In the event that you are perusing this you are probably going to either require the utilization of IFC or offer on undertaking where the utilization of IFC is required. To be effective your group needs to go past a fundamental comprehend of the IFC standard and stay up with the latest on the improvements encompassing it.

IFC Model Contents - Geometry, structure and information IFC models contain a structures blend of geometric and non-geometric information. This information can be shown, dissected and altered in various courses in different programming applications

The IFC models contain building geometry and building information. They incorporate "all" or a subset of the data that is contained in local BIM documents. Changing and sending out the local information into an IFC record is an approach to exchange information starting with one application then onto the next. The trade design is without open and very much recorded. By giving ifc fare and import interfaces that acclimates with the IFC standard(s) the application seller can furnish interoperability with many other BIM instruments and space applications. The utilization of IFC is today most basic in the structure and development stages. In structure the fundamental utilize are plan perception and conflict location. The plan group would now be able to reference or consolidation discipline models paying little mind to starting application a similar way they traded DXF records to blend (XREF) CAD documents previously (or overlay diagrams before that). Notwithstanding referencing models from different orders IFC documents are utilized to import information starting with one application then onto the next. BIM objects with geometry, information and timetables can be traded from one starting application and afterward bringing in into another to proceed with structure or examination.

Building Information Modelling

Management theory as a technique have also been useful in the following ways: it forms the basis of organization formulation and provide a guide in realizing the organizations objectives, it gives a sense of heritage and enable managers to limit past mistakes, it has enhanced future predictions and management trends, and finally, it has enable managers to avoid application or adoption of guesswork and intuition in performing their respective tasks (Pellicer, 2014, p. 180).

Management theories can be classified into four main schools of thought: Pre-Scientific Management Theory; Classical Theory Behavioral; and Theory Modern Management Theory. Of concern in this paper however is the latter, which is the Modern Management Theory (Portny, 2017, p. 42).

With swelling intricacies of organizations, modern management theory advanced as an amalgamation of operational theory, contingency theory, quantitative theory and systems theory of management ("Project Management"). The understanding of modern management is associated with features such as:

  1. Management is receptive to environmental variations. Effective organizations adjust to environmental vicissitudes as a feature of the management rehearses.
  2. Business organizations are dynamic foundations made out of between related objectivities and sub-objectivities.
  3. Firms have numerous aims. Managements balance financial and non-monetary aims and augment the interests of differing groups of partners like investors, clients, merchants and so on.
  4. Management is multi-disciplinary in nature. It attracts information from different areas and combines it to take care of administrative issues.
  5. Management is prospect oriented. It figures condition through logical procedures and rebates it to settle on choices in the present. Effective projections decrease hazard and increment association's flexibility to mutable environmental factors.

It turned into a worthy hypothesis amid World War II when Britain needed to tackle the issues of war (Researchers needed to build the effectiveness of besieging and discover methods for recognizing adversary supplies). The issue was that the radar framework did not perform well at field locales as it performed at the testing stations (Valles-Chavez, 2015, p. 19).

On location logical perception was, in this way, called amid actual operations. The issue was considered by P.M.S. Blackett, a Nobel laureate of the University of Manchester. To analyze a few points of view of the issue and take care of complex issues of war, Blackett amassed a group of individuals from various disciplines like Mathematics, Physics, Statistics, Engineering and Economics.

This group was known as Operations Research (OR) group. It made out of an astrophysicist, two numerical physicists, a general physicist, two mathematicians, three physiologists, a surveyor and an Army officer. Specific information of individuals from this group helped the British take care of their issues.

In this way, when Americans entered the war, the US military administrations likewise shaped an OR group dependent on models like those of the British and connected quantitative techniques for compelling usage of rare assets.

Mathematicians, engineers, physicists, therapists and others were enlisted to help the undertaking of military basic leadership. Other than upgrades in the developments of radar, exercises, for example, hostile to submarine activities, flying mining of the ocean, transport moves under flying assault and factual examination of bomb harm were likewise considered.

After the war was finished, the quantitative pros discovered occupations in business associations and connected the between disciplinary systems of OR to ventures. Huge companies and government organizations planned research exercises to manage operational issues like research endeavors coordinated to item advancement and showcasing (Meredith, Mantel, & Shafer, 2016, p. 56).


Activities inquire about is "the utilization of logical/ scientific techniques to issues emerging from tasks including coordinated frameworks of individuals, machines and materials." It includes learning of between disciplinary research groups to give ideal working arrangements. "The quantitative management perspective spotlights on the utilization of arithmetic, insights and data helps to help managerial basic leadership and effectiveness of an organization."

The classical, behavioural and quantitative theories center around one part of the organization; 'undertaking', 'individuals' or 'numerical basic leadership/ and or decision making'. They apply under clear arrangement of suppositions. The systems theory takes more extensive perspective of administration where the association is seen overall, brought together and intentional element made out of various parts.

System implies a mind boggling entire, an arrangement of associated parts or a sorted out assortment of things. It is an arrangement of parts or things which perform normal capacities. Instead of breaking down parts of the organization autonomously, systems theory sees the organization all in all which works in the larger external environment.

It expect that each part bears association with each other piece of the organization and, subsequently, manager should see the organisation as a whole comprising of numerous inter-related parts. This hypothesis gives new reasoning to the investigation of organizations and management. It distinguishes concurrent varieties of commonly subordinate factors of the organization.

System implies an arrangement of between related parts. As indicated by Fred Luthans, "A system perspective may give the force to bring together management theory. By definition it could meet the different methodologies, for example, the procedure, quantitative and conduct ones, as subsystems in a general hypothesis of administration."

This theory sees association in general which works in the outer condition and has internal environment comprising of offices (generation, promoting, fund and so forth.), interrelated with one another in a way that input-yield transformation is done generally proficiently. Firms have divisions that function as sub-frameworks, e.g., creation, showcasing, back, work force and so forth (Novotny, 2018, p. 74). On the off chance that any sub-framework quits working, complete operation of the association stops.

The association itself is a sub-arrangement of the bigger condition. In this way, the idea works like a winding where each internal circle influences and is influenced by the external circle. Internal circle is a framework in itself and a sub-arrangement of its external circle ("Project Management Methodologies: 1.0 versus 2.0", 2015, p. 95). With regards to the economy all in all, with different firms working in it, this circle can be spoken to as in figure 1:

Figure 1 on sub-arrangement of firms to external factors

The system approach, accordingly, sees organisation as a solitary, incorporated arrangement of sub-frameworks. "It is an arrangement of between related parts that work overall in quest for shared objectives. The systems approach as connected to associations depends to a great extent on work in biology and the physical sciences."

The contingency theory created in 1950s when an exploration group headed by Joan Woodward, a modern humanist, considered 100 British firms of various sizes delivering diverse items. Better performing organizations were contrasted and normal or underneath normal performing organizations to know the reasons why they successful more than others. It was inferred that distinction in level of success of those organizations was not a direct result of standards of classical theories but rather in light of better innovation to create merchandise. This built up a hypothesis that 'suitable actions by managers regularly rely upon (or are dependent upon) the circumstance (Project Management, Publicity and Awareness, 2013, p. 56). As indicated by classical theory, if management needs to get the best out of specialists, it ought to increase compensation or loosen up working conditions. The behavioural school of thought accentuates on human needs to boost their commitment to organizational yield. Contingency approach is blend of the two. It doesn't advocate both of the two to be all around appropriate. It relies upon the circumstance (Reh, "Understanding Project Management and Tips for Success", p. 7).

In the event that laborers are gifted, participative style of administration or behavioural theory can be compelling however in the event that specialists are untalented or their physiological needs could really compare to the higher-arrange needs (self-actualization needs), classical theory will be more suitable (Li, Wang, & Wang, 2015, p. 19).

Every association is one of a kind, every issue is special, every choice is interesting and, hence, the method for handling each circumstance is likewise one of a kind. Each choice or arrangement relies on the factors that influence the circumstance. Distinctive circumstances call for various choices. There is no most ideal method for doing things all around in all circumstances.

The hypothesis created when managers connected standards of management to various critical thinking circumstances and reasoned that these standards couldn't be all around connected to every one of the circumstances (Shtub, 2016, p. 78). With expanding unpredictability of organizations where management has turned into a multi-disciplinary zone which considers the effect of mental, sociological, conduct, specialized and different sciences, no single arrangement exists to a wide range of issues (Smith & Hinze, 2010, p. 159). They rely upon the specific circumstance. A worldwide financial analyst, Charles Kindle Berger said that response to any issue in Economics would never be given decidedly, rather the appropriate response was 'It depends'.

This theory is an augmentation of system hypothesis. It trusts that association is an open framework which constantly communicates with external conditions/ environment. While the inward condition comprises of sub-frameworks or divisions of the association, external condition comprises of social, political, financial, legitimate and innovative variables that influence it’s working (The Development of Project Management: Summary, 2013, p. 6).

The contingency approach considers three vital imperatives that influence choices within organizations:

  1. Technological requirements:

Distinctive associations require diverse innovation. A few associations (like iron and steel fabricating units) require costly innovation which can't be effortlessly changed to meet the changing requests and to that degree, have constrained ability to adjust to the external environment ("University of Arkansas at Little Rock", p. 8).

These requirements emerge from the idea of work performed by staff. On the off chance that the staff perform straightforward, precise, monotonous assignments, management style is objective in nature, which, depends on approaches, rules and standards. Where specialists perform complex and non-redundant errands, administration style is demonstrative in nature, which, depends on judgment, instinct and inventiveness. Managers should realize variety in errands (pretty much) while applying the contingency theory.

Capability of laborers and variables that rouse them to work additionally influence the management style. In the event that laborers are spurred just by monetary prizes, their lower-order needs are solid. Managers for the most part receive definitive style of authority, vertical chain of correspondence and no contribution of workers in the basic leadership process.

If higher-order necessities of laborers are solid, management consider participative style of administration. Workers take an interest in the basic leadership process and correspondence is both vertical and level. Remembering these requirements, contingency approach relates organization's internal condition/ environment with the external/outer environment. It surveys the effect of environmental factors on the organization and the other way around and lands at the best answer for the issue in the common circumstance.

Consequently, this methodology does not advocate 'all-inclusiveness of management standards'. Management ideas, standards and hypotheses depend simply on the circumstance. There is no best style of administration. Management style changes with changes in environmental elements. Managers examine external environment, strengths and shortcomings, organizational ideas in the light of natural factors and pick an idea or theory that best fits the circumstance.

"The operational way to deal with administration theory and science brings together the appropriate learning of administration by relating it to the managerial tasks. It attempts to coordinate the ideas, standards, and methods that underlie the assignment of management." Since managerial ideas apply at all levels of administration in a wide range of associations, business or non-business, operational theory manages diverse circumstances by adopting the superlative from theories (quantitative, classical, systems, behavioural and so on.) in various schools of thought and binds together them into one model (PROJECT MANAGEMENT, 2017). Instead of applying one methodology, it grabs the best and pertinent parts of various theories that can for all intents and purposes apply to a given circumstance.

Operational theory is additionally viewed as the management technique school of thought where management progression is well-thought-out as an arrangement of management capacities which recognize managers from non-managers ("Project Management Methodologies: 1.0 versus 2.0", 2015). The accentuation on these capacities changes with the real circumstance. Managers look for learning of different hypotheses with process system as focal management capacities to be performed.


A Peek into the Future of Project Management, 2015. Project Management 2.0, 25–35.

Arditi, D., 2012. Construction Quality Management: Principles and Practice. Construction Management and Economics, 30 (6), 500–501.

Brockmann, C., 2013. Construction Management: New Directions. Construction Management and Economics, 31 (10), 1084–1089.

Construction Management and Economics, 2014. Construction Management and Economics, 32 (12).

Developing Project Management, 2013. Reconstructing Project Management, 75–98.

Halpin, D.W., Lucko, G., and Senior, B.A., 2017. Construction management. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Hobbs, P., 2015. Project management. 2nd ed. London: DK.

Huang, M.L., Xu, F., and Wu, Z.Y., 2011. The Monitoring and Analysis of the Peripheral Environment Influence by TBM Construction in Chongqing Rail Transit Line 6. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 94-96, 1171–1175.

Hughes, W., 2015. Construction management. 1st ed. London: Routledge.

Kerzner, H., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Klakegg, O.J., 2013. Modern Construction Management. Construction Management and Economics, 31 (12), 1215–1217.

March, C., 2017. Construction management: theory and practice. 2nd ed. Oxfordshire, Routledge.

Meredith, J.R., Mantel, S.J., and Shafer, S.M., 2016. Project management: a managerial approach. Singapore: Wiley.

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Project Management, Publicity and Awareness, 2013. Mena Report, 14 Nov.

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Li, M., Wang, F., and Wang, D., 2015. Empirical Study on the Effect of Servant Leadership on Employee Performance: The Mediating Effect of Employee Needs. Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Industrial Technology and Management Science.

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Smith, J.G. and Hinze, J., 2010. Construction management: subcontractor scopes of work. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

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