The Evolution of Work-Life Balance (WLB) and Its Importance
Describe the current academic and professional literature may suggest that WLB is “a new area of concern, or at worst, a passing fad”, however WLB is a social focus in a period of time where it is directly affected making it of great interest and a contextual topic. The term ‘Work-Family balance’ was generated in the early 1990’s on the increased interest and discussion around the balance of work and family life, mainly associated with female employees. Originating from the Netherlands, government interest in WLB grew after record levels of sickness and absence were seen across the country (Lewis, Gambles, & Rapoport, 2007).
Work-family balance could be defined as “the shared assumptions, beliefs and values regarding the extent to which an organisation supports and values the integration of employees work and family lives” (Lewis, Gambles, & Rapoport, 2007). As time moves forward and a more gender-neutral stance is adopted through the 2000’s by organisations, the term has developed to be recognised as WLB affecting all employees regardless of gender (Maund, 2001). The same however cannot be said regarding culture; according to research by Suzan Lewis et al, in Japan “men are seen as the breadwinners”, as research goes further to highlight that men will not be expected to get more involved in domestic tasks as it is their role to generate the whole household income (Lewis, Gambles, et al, 2007).
As a practice WLB, which is now a highly discussed topic was once overlooked, and in the process failed to consider factors such as what employees need and want which could result in increased job satisfaction and productivity in and out of the workplace. By bringing this attention to the employee’s, morale can be boosted naturally by organisations demonstrating an interest into the employee’s personal life and circumstances. However some employees felt that by adopting a WLB policy provided by their organisation, that it can pose a negative effect on their progression and other career opportunities; this may result in employees seeking management whom can ‘buffer’ this factor and favour towards WLB opportunities while restricting negative connotations around flexible working (Van Villet, 2014).
A topic that was once focused around women who had children or individuals who had caring responsibilities, WLB now considers a wide spectrum of factors such as family, friends, children, communities, professions and leisure activities. To date research has been dominated by two key factors: Firstly Balance, harmony and equilibrium between work and life focuses on how an individual gains a sense of identity through the career in which they are focused, and how work and personal life are balanced focusing on the positives that are generated through such a balance. Secondly conflict or ‘interface’ focuses on the negative implications and outcomes of combining work and non-work related activities (Hill, Miller, et al, 1998).
While moving away from an individuals career providing a sense of identity and life’s meaning, work is becoming less and less central to an individuals life. Economic shifts and globalisation has resulted in employees feeling decreasingly connected or unable to directly relate to the organisation in which they work; this suggests that the search for ones identity and life’s meaning is sought after through quality of life outside of the workplace. The fact that this quality of life is usually determined by the career they have, can remain a tie (Knight, Kim, et al, 2007).
There are various factors, which create the profile of a successful retail manager however many of these are often un-noted due to the nature of the work. Many retail managers may say it takes ‘hard work and determination’ (Lusch, Dunne, & Carver, 2011); however there are many factors such as flexibility, working hours and time management which all have main connections to WLB and can be considered as direct attributes for success. Technology will ‘”alter the knowledge, skills and values we need to be capable workers and citizens” (Dede, 1989).
The retail environment can often be fast paced and stressful where organisation is a key element of daily practice. By organising daily work activities it is easier to control the balance of work and personal life which in turn can allow for managers to bare the stress load and constantly increasing pressure the retail environment provides; however with increasing expectations, pressure can eventually make balancing work and personal life difficult, usually resulting in one intruding on the other (Broadbridge, 2002). WLB is relevant as it directly reflects, “changes in the nature of work and work places that are related to global competition and trends” (Lewis, Gambles, & Rapoport, 2007).
The objective of the research is to determine how the employee engagement makes animpact on theorganizational performance of Tesco Plc. As opined by Sonis and Kodali (2012), employee engagement is an important strategy in the present competitive market. Tesco is renowned retailing organization operating from United Kingdom, having both online as well as physical stores (Tesco.com, 2017).
With the rise of the demand of consumers for the company’s products, the sales of the organization would be increased. It is known that Tesco Plc. is at the third position within the retailing industry in terms of profitability earning and in the fifth position in terms of revenue earning. The researcher has aimed to identify how the employee engagement of Tesco Plc to observe the impact of employee engagement on the organizational performance,. has improved. Research aim and research rationale are clearly described in this context. This study would focus on the employee’s engagement on Tesco’s performance. The research objectives and research questions will help in understanding the same.
As per the statement of Sorenson (2013), employee engagement is a specific organizational approach, which leads the employees of an organization to improve the performance. Employee engagement depends upon the greater communication between the employees and the managers and this greater communication skill aids in meeting the business objectives of the organization. Employee engagement can be increased with improvement ininteraction between the employees and the management. After identifying the importance of the employee engagement, the researcher has implemented the research objectives and framed the research questions.
constructs research questions.
There are a number of studies, which have highlighted the effect of employee engagement on the organization. Abraham (2012) carried out the study on employee engagement of Dell, but very few researchers have highlighted the employee engagement of Tesco Plc. and the impact on organizational performance. In this connection, this study has highlighted how the employee engagement influences the performance of the company. In addition, the role of the management of Tesco Plc. Has discussed in this research to identify how the managers of the organization would be able to increase the individual performance of the company.
According to AbuKhalifehand Som (2013), it can be mentioned that employee engagement is the key factor for the workers, which want to recruit staffs for enhancing the organizational productivity and the performance. Tesco is the largest private sector of United Kingdom and have 295000 workers. The main objective of the company is to reach at a better position through more workforce engagement and achieve a greater understanding. Tesco Plc. has planned to introduce a new initiative plan for increasing the consumer sales.
Factors of Success for Retail Managers and Their Connection to WLB
1.2 Aims of the study
The aim of the study is to recognize the importance of employee engagement to increase the performance of Tesco Plc. In this context, the researcher would try to estimate the essential factors, which are important to raise the employee engagement of Tesco Plc. According to Albdourand Altarawneh (2014), with the help of the importance of employee engagement, this study would be beneficial to the policy makers as well as for the future researchers. On the other hand, it can be mentioned that this study would also aim to meet the research gap between the previous researches to discuss new findings for the present research.
1.3 Rationale of the study
It is known that there are a large number of problems, which have been facing by the employees of Tesco Plc. Sometimes, they are suffering from the problem of organizational behavior. Therefore, it can be mentioned that an interaction gap between the employees and the management would increase this gap and thus, the organizational performance would be decreased. To mitigate the gap this has tried to discuss the necessary techniques and methods, which are used by the company to identify the problems. However, if the gap would not mitigate, then there may arise a gap between the predictions of the employees and the service, what they received. This would in turn reflect a negative impact on the employee engagement of the organization. Therefore, this study would be helpful to identify the loopholes within the organization, which has made adverse impact on the employees of the company.
The research objectives of this study are stated below:
- To critically estimate the impact of employee engagement on the organizational performance.
- To critically identify the essential factors in order to increase the employee engagement
- To critically estimate the performance of the employees, which is required to influence the employee engagement program
- To critically evaluate the issues, which are faced by employee engagement
1.5 Research questions
The research questions of this dissertation are described in the following:
- What is the impact of employee engagement in organizational performance?
- What are the essential factors, which can improve the employee engagement?
- How can employee engagement program aid in influencing the the performance level of Tesco Plc.
- What are the issues, which are faced by Tesco Plc. for the employment engagement?
1.6 Research hypothesis
Suppose, H0 is the null hypothesis and H1 is the alternative hypothesis of the study:
H0: There is a negative effect of employee engagement on the organizational performance of Tesco Plc.
H1: There is a positive effect of employee engagement on the organizational performance of Tesco Plc.
1.7 Structure of the dissertation
The current study is constructed depending on the six chapters and they are elucidated as below . The formation of the dissertation can be discussed briefly in the following way:
This section of this research discusses a brief preface of this dissertation. The background of the dissertation has been described in this section. The study has considered the notion of the previous literature and issues related with research. According to Ahmed, Rasheedand Jehanzeb (2012), the objective of the study is to evaluate the development of Tesco Pie related to its employee engagement. The researcher also highlighted the research aim in this section. Research hypothesis has developed depending on the objective of the research.
The Relevance of WLB in the Retail Industry
In this chapter, the researcher takes the help of different models and theories to identify the impact of employee engagement in the organizational performance. On the other hand, the conceptual framework is helpful to understand the approach and flow of the dissertation.In this purpose, the researcher would take the help of several scholarly journals.
This chapter highlighted the research approaches and methods, followed in this dissertation to identify the impact of employee engagement. In this context, the researcher also includes data collection procedure, sampling size. The researcher has planned to follow primary research to carry out the research.
In this section, the researcher discusses the outcome based on the collected information. Therefore, it can be mentioned that the conclusion would be inferred after the data analysisprocess. In addition, the researcher would aim to conduct both quantitative and the qualitative analysis. Moreover, the researcher needs to set a dependent variable and independent variable to infer the conclusion.
In this chapter of dissertation, the effect of the study would be discussed and this would be benefitted to identify the reliability of the research hypothesis. The outcome would be inferred depending upon the quantitative process. Thus, it can be stated that the outcome of the study will be based on related theories and models.
This is the last section of the study and in this chapter; the researcher would conclude the overall analysis of this research. Moreover, the researcher also tries to link the objectives of this study with the result.The researcher also provides the recommendation, which would be beneficial for the further research. As a result, the recommendations would be helpful to mitigate the organizational challenges. Lastly, the researcher discusses the limitations and the future scope of the dissertation in this context.
In this section, the researcher of the dissertation has concerned employee engagement as the independent factor and organizational performance is considered as the dependent factor. The researcher has followed different studies, models as well as technologies depending on the dependent and the independent variable, which would be beneficial for the study in this chapter. Hence, Albrecht (2012) mentioned that literature review is the reflection of the dissertation, which is helpful to gain a higher skill and knowledge connected with this topic. The theories and the techniques are connected with the employee engagement as well as with the organizational performance and these would be beneficial to measure the impact of employee engagement on the organizational performance of Tesco Plc.
Research Objectives and Research Questions
2.1 Conceptual framework
According to Allen and Rogelberg (2013), conceptual framework helps the researcher to identify the overall approach of the study. This framework reflects and incorporates the flow and the approaches of the dissertation study. With the help of the conceptual framework, the researcher can identify the association between the dependent variables and the independent variables. This present research aims to recognize the impact of the independent variables on the dependent factors. The conceptual framework of this study has described in the below:
The theory X and theory Y is helpful to highlight the importance of the employee encouragement, organizational management and theircommitmentin the organization. According to the theory X, it can be stated that the employees of a company can be impartially motivated and are not willing to work. This theory focuses that the employees tries to avoid their functions. As per the statement of Ariani (2013), it can be stated that Douglas McGregor theory focuses on the growth of positive management approaches. On the other hand, it can be stated that McGregor theory can control the operations and their behavior of the employees of Tesco. In this context, this theory is helpful to manage and encourage the subordinates to work under the huge organizational pressure.
McGregor’s theory recommended that there are two reliable theories, which would control the behavior of the workers of an organization. In addition, if the management of the organization would follow the strategy of theory X, then it can be observed that the business strategy would not be ideal. If the managers would follow the alternative theory such as theory Y, then it can be expected that the organizationalpresentation would be improved.Therefore, it can be interpreted that the performance of the employees would be improved. However, Barricket al. (2015) argued that McGregor’s theory could effectively connect the approach of psychological contact. Theory Y is the indirect approach of theory X. As per the theory Y, the organization would reward their labors, which would in turn motivate the employees for better performance. Therefore, in a synopsis, it can be mentioned that leadership behavior of X theory is not so helpful whereas Y theory is assumed as the essential constructive leadership.
Theory X (Authoritarian Management technique):
In the opinion of Batista-Taranet al. (2013), most of the workers are feeling reluctant to work in the existing organizational environment. The reason has been described in the following through the assumptions of X theory:
- According to Bauer (2014), it can be mentioned that most of the employees are unwilling to work, as all of the employees are not hard workers. They are not willing to take business challenges or risks.
- In addition, some of the employees are not willing to take organizational responsibilities. Therefore, the organizational may suffer from the security issues.
- Theory X refers that the communication between the management of an organization and the employees is not strong, as the management would not provide opportunity to the employees. Therefore, the employees are not interested to work with this type of organization.
Theory Y (Participative management approach):
- As opined by Bedarkar and Pandita(2014), it can be mentioned that this theory has considered the use of both mental and physical effort as leisure.
- According to this theory, if the workers are unable to perform efficiently, then organize must boost their motivation instead of penalize them.
- Billigand Waterman (2014) cited that if the working environment, organizational culture and job role, satisfy the employees, then the workers would like to increase their individual performance.
- Theory Y also highlighted that imagination, creativity can motivate the employees, and this strategy can reduce the work problems and the employees would be able to take new challenges and the risks within the organizationwould be reduced.
- Lastly, theory Y highlights that the employees of an organization are considered as the most valuable assets. Therefore, the employees also feel safe within the organizational culture and this would increase the satisfaction level of the employees.
Explanation about the Theory Y and theory X:
From the above discussion, it can be observed that Theory Y is highly beneficial compared to theory X. With the help of the assumptions, the employees can increase their individual performance; hence, the objectives of the organizationswould be met. Therefore, Booth, Sutton and Papaioannou (2016) mentioned that self-direction and self-control is helpful to increase the level of performance of the employees.
According to Bormanand Motowidlo (2014), it can be mentioned that with the help of theory Y, the employees would develop their level of maturity. This would in turn encourage the employees to increase their level of capacity. In addition, organizational culture is required to be flexible, so that the workers would be able to meet their own place within the management hierarchy. On the other hand, the managers of the company would follow the participative approach to raise the employee involvement in the organizational process.
This would be able to solve the organizational difficulties. In this connection, Breevaartet al. (2014) added that participative approach is more productive approach than the authoritarian approach. Participative approach is also useful to improve the organizational performance. McGregor suggested that if these approaches would be followed by the organizations, then the employees would like to contribute more to the production process. As a result, this proves that the satisfaction level of the employees would be increased and they would like to work with the organization. This would in turn increase the employee engagement towards the company.
2.2.2 Herzberg’s Two factor theory
According to the Herzberg’s two factors theory, it can be stated that there are a number of factors, which would be beneficial to increase the satisfaction level of the employees. If the level of satisfaction of the employees would be increased, then it can be mentioned that the workers of a company would like to increase their involvement towards the organizational performance. On the other hand, it can be observed that there are two variables; these factors would decrease the satisfactory level of the subordinates. In the opinion of Catlette and Hadden (2012), organizations require to increase the satisfaction level of the employees.
if the management would like to increase the individual performance of the workers. In addition, it can be stated that, it is necessary to increase the responsibilities and the self-realization of the workers to increase the status of the business. Therefore, in this purpose, Caunhye, Nieand and Pokharel (2012) opined that to improve the employee engagement of Tesco Plc., the organization requires to follow several strategies and processes. On the other hand, this theory would be beneficial to recognize the major areas such as the organizational strategies, strategies, working culture and the management’s administration. Moreover, this theory suggested that the manager of a company need to pay additional attention to maintain the satisfaction level of the employees.
2.3 Models on employee engagement
This X model employee engagement process has highlighted the behavior and satisfaction level of the employees within an organization. This model also focuses on the business goals and aspiration of the employees, which would be attainable through sustainable worker engagement. In the words of Clarke and Fujimura (2014), this model mainly aims to the perception of full level of employee engagement, which describes the state where the employees receive the maximum level of job satisfaction. With the help of this model, the level of employee engagement would be measured. Furthermore, it can be inferred that with the rise in the satisfaction level of the workers, the employee engagement would be increased. On the other hand, higher the employee engagement, greater would be the organizational performance. X model is benefitted to the managers of the organization to increase the performance level of the individual workers and the executive level of the company.
2.4 Theories on organizational performance
There are several theories on organizational performance that would be beneficial to the managers to control the performance of the workersas well as the company. This theory is connected with the organizational performance, which is explained in the following paragraphs:
Expectancy theory analyses that every worker of the company must behave in such a way that they would be motivated to opt a specific behavior. In this context, Connollyet al. (2012) mentioned that the employee engagement behavior could be explained with the aid of desirability outcomes. Expectancy theory is helpful to identify the mental process of the employees, which is connected to the choices of the workers. In addition, expectancy is helpful to motivate the skills and knowledge of the employees, which would in turn increase the organizational behavior.
Victor Vroom has highlighted in the year of 1964 that employee encouragement is an approach, which would help to the management of an organization in case of the decision-making procedure. Motivation is a perception of the individual employee’s expectancy. This would in turn reflect the individual performance of the workers. This concept can be described with the help of Valence theory. According to Crawfordet al. (2014), this theory has expressed that each of the employee must work hard to achieve the organizational goal.
Expectancy is related with the working effort of the workers. Expectancy can be explaineddescribed by using three concepts that is self-efficacy, perceived control and goal difficulty. Self-efficacy refers that the employees would be able to perform the organizational operation efficiently. In this connection, it is necessary to identify that to achieve the business goals, whether the employees require additional training or skill development program or not.
Goal difficulty notion analyzes that if the management of the company determines superior business goals, then it would be difficult to meet the organizational expectancy. Hence, du Plessisand Van Niekerk (2014) opined thatit is highly feasible if the management of a company would like to lead the lower expectancy. This scenario rises when the workers have faith that this organizational performance is not attainable.
On the other hand, with the help of perceived control concept, the workers need to have some definite degree of control regarding the expected outcome. Nevertheless, Farringtonet al. (2012) argued that if the performance of the employees is beyond the expectation level, then it could be expected that the motivation of the employees would be lower.
With the help of the concept of instrumentality, it can be statedthat ifthe workers would meet the business objectives, then the employees would be able to receive prize. Therefore, in this relation, it can be mentioned that by increasing the individual performance level of the workers, the understanding and the trust between the employees and the management would be developed more from the previous. As a result, the willingness of the employees to work with the would be increased. This would increase the organizational performance.
In the words of Flick (2015), the value of the workers is depending upon the necessities. This is connected withthe business goals and with the source of motivation. As a result, it can be inferred that organizational motivational force is equivalent to expectancy, the valence ad the instrumentality.
Goal setting theory:
As per the theory of Edwin Locke, it can be mentioned that goal setting theory is connected with the performance of the tasks. In the year of 1960, Fu (2013) opined that the goal setting theory is the greatest factor, which would be helpful tomeet the business goal. In this connection, it can be stated that, to meet the organizational objectives, the company needs to have clear goal. This also increases the level of performance of the business. On the other hand, Galati and Moessner (2013) added that the business goals are required to be realistic and also required to be challenging. Greater the challenging goal, larger would be the passion of the workers, which would be attainable.
Goal setting theory has some definite benefits, which are assumed as the goal commitment. Moreover, as per the concept of self-efficiency, it can be mentioned that higher the level of self-efficiency, the employees would be capable to control the organizational challenges. Therefore, after making the commitment, one cannot leave their job without accomplish the business objectives.
In the opinion of Galeet al. (2013), goal-setting theory is helpful to improve the quantityof incentives of the employees.Therefore, the performance of the organization would be improved by increasing the individual performance. This would also improve the satisfaction level of the workers. Therefore, employee engagement has improved. Goal setting theory is helpful to develop the level of motivation of the employees. Therefore, the long-term relationship with the organization would be maintained. The productivity of the company would be increasedwith the engagement of skilled employees.
2.5 Models on organizational performance
2.5.1 The Burke and the Litwin Model
The Burke and the Litwin model highlights that organizational performance also depends upon the internal and the external factors. Therefore, this model is important to estimate the effect of employee engagement on the organizational performance. In order to encourage the employees towards their jobs, the managers are required to make a business plan, which can manage the organizational environment. In the points of Gastand Ledford (2014), it can be mentioned that this model is benefitted for the employee engagement within an organization. This wouldin turn reflect a direct impact to the organizational performance.
It is known that there are 12 several dimensions, which would be followed by the above mentionedBurke and the Litwin model. Taylor, Bogdanand DeVault (2015) opined that these 12 factors are such as leadership, external environment, organizational environment, mission and strategy, organizational management behavior, structure and the system, skills and knowledge, work unit culture, level of encouragement, employees’ values, performance level of the workers, lastly, the organizational performance. This model reflects the types of skills and knowledge, which is necessary for performance. In addition, the level of motivation f the subordinates would be benefitted to recognize the workers’ willingness for their jobs. Therefore, depending on this organizational strategy, the company would be able to estimate the motivational triggers. Groenewoldand Lessard-Phillips (2012) pointed that management practices is able to measure the organizational practices.
This second chapter of this study has reflected on the impact of employee engagement on the organizational performance.With the help of several theories and models it can be identified that how employee engagement of a company influences organizational performance. the researcher has described different theories and models, which are relevant to understand the effect of employee engagement on the organizational performance to recognize this connection. The theories and the models are such as theory X, theory Y, the employee engagement, the model X and these can recognize the connection in a detailed manner.
Moreover, the theories related to the organizational behavior, the expectancy theory as well as the goal setting theory is relevant to measure the effect of the employee engagement on the organizational performance. On the other hand, the Burke and the Litwin model are essential to describe the importance of 12 important determinants for increasing the level of performance of a company.
This chapter of this dissertation describes the techniques and approaches, whichwould be followed to accomplish the study. In this section, the analyst would identify the problem statement. This section will help to complete the research. In this chapter, the researcher would focus to address the topic of the current study. According to Hallet al. (2012s), problem statement is helpful for identifying the organizational challenges, which would be faced by the researcher during conducting the research. On the other hand, research objectives would emphasize the purpose of the dissertation. More precisely, it can be mentioned that research objectives would help the researcher to arrange the investigation for identifying the problems of the research.
Among the discussed research objectives, it can be observed that some of the objectives are necessary to make a connection between the dependent and the independent variables. Nonetheless, Hamari, Koivistoand Sarsa (2014) argued that these objectives are essential to be considered to address the problem statement. Moreover, the researcher also aimed to collect the relevant information, which is essential for this study. On the other hand, the researcher also aimed to highlight the characteristics of the necessary data. To accomplish the research, the researcher would require taking some reliable academic theories for analyzing the collected information. In this study, the researcher would describe the data collection procedure. The researcher would discuss the sampling procedure for accomplishing the research. Sample data present the nature of the entire collected sample population.
3.1 Problem statement
However, Handaand Gulati (2014) criticized that sometimes the management of Tesco Plc. did not describe regarding the organizational policies with the workers. The organization used to maintain privacy and the workers would not be capable to get the data from the management. As a result, the workers sometimes would not like to work with the organization. Moreover, sometimes it can be observed that there is a difference between the decision of employees and management. This would make a negative impact on the organizational performance. In the point of Harteret al. (2013), it can be stated that the employees of a company would not like to work with the organization.
In addition, it can be added that sometimes it can be observed that workers may leak the organizational information to the other sources. It will harm the organizational privacy. This would increase the organizational risks of an organization. As a result, in this point it can be stated that employee engagement is not always good for the organizational performance. On the other hand, the organization requires to provide a training program for the employees for increasing the organizational performance of Tesco Plc., this would effectively increase the skills of the workers. As a result, the organizational performance would be increased. However, it is known that to improve the employee engagement program, the organization requires to bear a greater amount of cost for organizing training for the workers.
3.2Scope of the research
On the contrary, Hassini, Surtiand Searcy (2012) argued that Tesco Plc. has been suffering the perceived threat and the position to the small businesses. It is acted in the market as the monopolist and therefore, sometimes the organization faced the problem of over production. In addition, Tesco Plc. sometimes faced the several problems such as bad treatment with the organizational staffs. Therefore, it may reduce the individual performance of the employees and the overall performance of the organization. Tesco Plc. requires taking some essential business strategies to improve the organizational performance. In this context, He, Zhu and Zheng (2014) mentions that the organization needs to motivate each of the workers.
This would in turn increase the willing power of the employees to work with the organization. Therefore, it can be expected that by doing this the scope of increasing the level of organizational performance would be improved. In the points of Iyer and Israel (2012), higher the rate of involvement of the employees in the organizational performance, the rate of output of the company would be increased. As a result, it can be inferred that the revenue earning of the organization would be increased, which would increase the profitability statement of the company. However, it is noted that the organization would not require to produce additional quantity, so that the organization would not suffer from the problem of over production.
On the other hand, Jaggar(2015) opined that if the workers participate in the decision-making procedure, the employees would get additional power to express their thoughts regarding the business. This proves that the workers would get value added power and the organizational valuation would rise. As a result, consequently the working capacity of the employees would be increased. Moreover, it can be observed that the responsibility of the employees would be risen and therefore, this would rise the organizational performance of TescoPlc.
3.4 Significance of the study
According to Lloret and Palomar (2012), it can be stated that employee engagement would be increased with the improvement of the satisfaction level of the employees. As a result, it is noticed that an organizational performance would be increased if the level of commitment and the loyalty of the employees would be increased. In this connection, it can be mentioned that loyal workers are capable to achieve the organizational mission and vision. Moreover, the employees’ commitment would be benefitted to enhance the performance of Tesco Plc. This would be helpful to meet the goal of the business. Lowe (2012) cited that employees’ motivation is able to improve the overall productivity. In addition, it can be mentioned that business collaboration between the management and the employees would increase the understanding and the communication level. Therefore, this would also increase the employee engagement and the organizational performance would be increased.
3.5.1 Research approach
To accomplish the dissertation, this study has performed the deductive approach, which would be benefitted to interpret the conclusion. As per the statement of Machiand McEvoy (2016), there are three kinds of research approaches. They are the deductive approach, inductive approach and the additive approach.
In case of deductive approach, the researcher does not require to apply any new theory or technique. However, the researcher would not require to consider any research hypothesis in case of inductive approach. The researcher of this dissertation would follow the observations over the given problems.
This study would mainly focus to the research questions and then aim to the research objectives. In the points of Mackenzieet al. (2012), the researcher would aim to the pattern of the dissertation. After that the researcher would verify the discussed theories as based on the concepts of these theories and then the study would be carried out. In this purpose, it is noted that if the outcome of the study would not achieve the existing theories, then the conclusion would be inferred. As a result, it is possible to generate new theories; however, the researcher of this research would not incorporate any new theory. The current research is illustrated based on the hypothesis testing. The researcher would try to present a technique, which would be followed in the following:
The researcher has established some definite theories as well as literatures, which have discussed in the literature review chapter. Research hypothesis has developed, which has framed based on the conceptual framework of the study. In this context, it can be said that dependent variable and the independent variable are considered to identify the importance of employee engagement. Moreover, the researcher has conducted research survey and followed the primary research to complete the dissertation. Therefore, it can be interpreted that the researcher would need to take decision whether the null hypothesis would be rejected or not.
3.5.2 Research philosophy
As opined by Mackey and Gass (2015), the approach of research philosophy is depending upon the natures of data collection. It is known that there are four types of research philosophy, and the researcher has chosen the positivism approach. Positivism approach considered the highly structured research philosophy. In this context, it can be mentioned that quantitative procedure is the major characteristics of positivism research approach. Nonetheless, Mamanet al. (2014) argued that to complete this research, the researcher would follow the qualitative as well as quantitative approach. The researcher needs to collect realistic and the accurate information to meet the research objectives.
In order to accomplish the study the researcher would follow the positivism approach. However, inductive approach is necessary to develop the research statement. On the other hand, the researcher of this study has followed the mechanistic positivism approach to develop the research hypothesis. This would in turn help to demonstrate the research application of the dissertation. As per the statement of Meeus et al. (2012), it can be stated that qualitative approach is conducted to make the criticism of the quantitativeanalysis stronger.
3.5.3 Research design
It is known that there are two types of research design and they are exploratory research and the conclusive research. The researcher of this dissertation would follow the conclusive research approach for completing the study. The characteristic of conclusive research approach is helpful for this study to recognize the insights of the dissertation. Moreover, it can be stated that the data sources are well explained if the size of the sample is larger. It is known that the data collection technique is rigid. Nonetheless, Menguc et al. (2013) criticized that the conclusive research approach is appropriate for this dissertation. The reason can be explained as the researcher requires to derive the conclusion, hence, conclusive research approach will be appropriable. This would be beneficial for taking decisions. Quantitative approach would be useful to make the dissertation highly deterministic.
3.6.1 Data collection method
In the opinion of Moneand London (2014), data collection is a technique, which would be collected from different sources. On the other hand, the researcher would not consider the likelihood of the respondents. Nadeemet al. (2013s) proposed a counter argument and he highlighted that the observation approach is quite expensive and time consuming. However, the researcher would conduct the interview method as well as the observation method to carry out the dissertation.
Primary data collection:
Information would be gathered by following the primary and the secondary research approach. As per the statement of Neumanand Robson (2012), it can be mentioned that to conduct the primary data collection approach, the researcher requires to accumulate data from the field survey. In this connection, the researcher would collect information from the field to generate the survey; therefore, the researcher would be capable to conduct a direct measurement process. Moreover, the researcher would accumulate the information depend on the independent variables such as the importance of the worker engagement, towards the organizational performance of Tesco Plc.
In the points of Panneerselvam (2014), primary data for the study would be accumulatedthrough a survey. In this connection, the researcher requires to set out a bunch of questions and these questions would be sent to the employees of the organization. As a result, a bunch of close-ended questions would be developed to record the response of the subordinates. With the help of these questions, researcher would be capable to identify the reflection of independent factor on the dependent factor. On the other hand, a set of open-ended questions would also develop to make an interview on the managers of the organization. The open ended would be developed to conduct qualitative research. The interview would be conducted with the assist of official websites, official mails and through telephone due to the shortage of time.
Secondary data collection:
In case of secondary research, the researcher does not require to collect information from the field. In this connection, the researcher would accumulate information from differentsources such as newspaper articles, journals or from literatures. In addition, the researcher would collect information from any previous researches. As a result, Park and Shaw (2013) opined that the researcher would get the help from the data analysis from the former research.
In addition, secondary research is appropriate to evaluate the importance of employee engagement regarding the organizational performance. The previous research papers are also helpful to the researcher, as they would get the idea to identify the impact of employee engagement on the organizational performance of Tesco Plc. However, Pickard (2012) supported that secondary researcher make stronger the primary research and the researcher would infer the impact of independent variable on the dependent variable.
3.6.2 Sampling technique
Sampling technique is the essential technique to collect information for conducting the primary research. To derive conclusion of the study and in case of the selection of respondents for sample survey, the researcher has considered the simple random sampling technique. In this context, it can be stated that in case of simple random sampling technique the characteristics and data of entire population would be collected. However, Pulitiet al. (2012)questioned that sometimes-simplerandom sampling technique is suffering from certain errors during the selection of short size of sample. Therefore, the researcher would make the interview on the 80 employees of Tesco Plc.
3.7 Ethical consideration
The researcher has planned to collect data from the primary sources to carry out the dissertation and therefore, the researcher chose data from the open sources. During the time of data collection, the researcher does not needto hurt the emotions of the respondents. In addition, the researcher also requires maintaining the privacy. On the other hand, it can be added that the researcher needs to take permission of the managers before conducting the interview. The researcher also requires giving equal chances to all of the employees, so that they do not feel deprived.
3.8 Limitation of the study
To perform the research testing, the positivism philosophy would not consist of the smaller size of sample. Nonetheless, it can be argued that the time of the research is limited, thus, the researcher has collected smaller size of sample. On the other hand, as the size of the sample is smaller, therefore, there is a superior probability of occurrence of sampling error. Moreover, the positivism approach would not be able to complete the dissertation in an in-depth manner. The researcher has also chosen the exploratory process.
This section of this dissertation has described several methods and approaches in a detailed approach. The researcher has also discussed the shortcomings of this research. In this connection, the researcher has explained the purpose of the research and mention why the researcher has chosen this topic. Therefore, it would be beneficial to identify the effect of employee engagement on the organizational performance of Tesco Plc. Therefore, with the help of this study, the researcher has effectively established the impact of independent factor on the dependent factor.
The researcher has set a bunch of questions to accomplish the study. These questions would be developed depending on the literature review. The dependence among the dependent factor and the independent variable has developed based on the conceptual framework. For analysis the study, the researcher has considered to collect primary data. In this purpose, the researcher has chosen 60 employees, on which the research survey would be conducted. Moreover, the researcher has also made an interview on the managers of Tesco Plc. To derive the conclusion and identify the impact of independent variable on the dependent variable, the researcher would follow the simple random sampling technique.
This section of this research is significant to identify the outcome of the research. Accumulated data would be characterized by using the statistical measurement. Therefore, the researcher would use statistical tools to derive the impact of employee engagement on the organizational performance. The outcome would be derived based on the accumulated information. On the other hand, the researcher would frame the questions in such a manner that all of the workers would be equally accepted for the survey methods. Total size of the sample is 100. Nonetheless, only 80 employees have respond in this survey due to lack of time. This chapter has highlighted the outcomes of primary research survey. Therefore, question 4 to 10 has framed to evaluate the effect of the employee engagement on the organizational performance of Tesco Plc with the help of statistical tools.
4.1 Empirical results
From the above table and figure, it can be observed that most of the workers are belonging from 20 years to 36 years. This proves that Tesco Plc. aimed to recruit those employees, who are eligible to take challenges. On the other hand, these workers are able to increase their performance to achieve awards from the organization. On the other hand, the young employees are willing to increase their level of skills and knowledge. This would improve the overall performance of Tesco Plc.
From the above figure and table, it can be noticed that proportion of male is more compared to the female. This shows that Tesco recruits more male candidates compared to the female candidates. On the contrary, it can be argued that this does not refer that the female candidates are not less efficient compared to the male employees.
The above table and figure depicted that most of the employees have identified that there are 800 to 1000 employees in each of the outlets. This proves that the total number of employees ishigher and this in turn proves that most of the employees are willing to work with the organization. However, due to limited workspace, Tesco Plc. would not able to recruit a large number of employees in each of the outlets.
The above figure and table depicted that comparatively most of the staffs are willing to work with this organization. On the other hand, 18% employees did not make any review regarding their willingnessto work. In this connection, it can be mentioned that 18% employees do not want to be biased towards the work force of the organization.
The management of an organization requires motivating the workers for improving the performance of the employees. In this association, it can be observed that most of the workers of Tesco have identified that the company has tried to motivate the employees. Therefore, in this purpose, it can be stated that with the help of training development program, the employees of Tesco Plc. can increase their skills and knowledge. Motivational skills would be benefitted to increase the individual performance of the workers and the overall performance of the organization would be improved. As a result, the output of the organization would also increase. The revenue earning of the organization would be raised and this would alsoraise the profitability statement of the organization.
From the above bar graph and the above table, it can be noticed that most of the employees are willing to adapt the changing organizational behavior. This proves that more the employees would like to adapt the organizational challenges, the organizational risks would be mitigated. This would in turn increase the organizational performance of Tesco Plc. The employees would be able tocontrol the organizational challenges efficiently. Therefore, it can be mentioned that apart from the personal skill development, the employees would be able to increase their knowledge and they can learn how to manage the situation.
The above line graph depicted that most of the employees have identified that Tesco Plc. has aimed to increase the labor productivity. In this purpose, the management of the organization has focused to increase the labor productivity by increasing the remuneration. This rate of increment is depending upon the individual performance of the labors. The employees would increase their level of performance for receiving more remuneration. Therefore, employee engagement would be increased, which would in turn increase the overall performance of the organization. Therefore, organizational performance of Tesco would be increased.
It can be observed that most of the employees have recognized that employment-training program is helpful to increase the skills and knowledge of the employees. In addition, Tesco Plc. organized a training program once in a year. This would be beneficial to improve the knowledge of the employees. The management arranges this training program to increase the productivity of the organization. Therefore, this is one of the strategies of employee engagement, which would increase the organizational performance.
This chapter of this dissertation evaluates the outcomes of the study. The outcomes of the previous chapter have measured in this chapter. On the other hand, it can be stated that the inference of graphical presentation has been described in this research. On the other hand, it can be mentioned that quantitative analysis as well as the qualitative analysis have been performed in this dissertation.
In this context, it can be stated that the employee engagement is an essential determinant, which can significantly enhance the organizational performance. This would improve the connection among the employees and the company. After derive the outcome from the previous chapter, it can conclude that the employee engagement can increase the productivity of Tesco Plc. Therefore, overall revenue earning by the organization would be increased. The profitability statement of Tesco Plc. would be improved.
After the analysis, it can be inferred that employee engagement has a directreflection on the organizational performance of Tesco Plc. Therefore, it can be inferred that the null hypothesis has rejected and the alternative hypothesis has accepted. In the opinion of Racineet al. (2012), it can be mentioned that employee engagement is based on the working environment as well as on the workers’ reward program. This would positively highlight the employee engagement of Tesco Plc. In addition, to increase the organizational performance, the management of Tesco Plc. Requires providing training program to the employees to improve their individual performance. This also improves the organizational performance of Tesco Plc.
Responses from the manager of Tesco Plc.
Open ended questions:
- What are the probable business strategies, which are used to increase the employment engagement program?
According to Rayton, Dodge and D'Analeze (2012), it can be mentioned that Tesco Plc. has initiated employee reward program. In this context, the management of Tesco Plc. has tried to monitor the performance of the staffs. The organization would reward to the best employee and it is depending upon the level of performance of the employees. As a result, it can be predicted that the employees would like to develop their performance to receive the award. This would increase the satisfaction level of the workers. Hence, the overall performance level of the employees would be increased and the organizational performance would also increase.
As it is known that Tesco Plc. has aimed to increase the organizational performance, the company has provided a training program to the employees to boost the skills and knowledge of them. Therefore, the efficiency level of the employees of Tesco Plc. would be increased. Therefore, the productivity of manufacturing process of the organization would be increased.
In addition, it can be mentioned that the administration of Tesco Plc. has focused to the organizational surroundings. In this connection, it can be added that Tesco Plc. has planned to generate a friendly atmosphere and thus, the employees would feel safe and would be encouraged by the organization. This also increases the satisfaction level of the employees.
- What changes the Company want to incorporate to increase the level of productivity?
Tesco Plc. has planned to initiate a loyalty scheme for the workers to increase the productivity and performance of the company. In this connection, it can be stated that Tesco Plc. needs to provide incentives to the workers. As per the loyalty scheme, the employees would receive the incentives based on the additional working hours. On the other hand, if the employees would work in the holidays, then they would be able to earn additional expenses. This would also increase the satisfaction level of the workers, they would like to show their interest towards the jobs, and thus, employee engagement would be increased.
In addition, the management of Tesco Plc. has planned to reflect the decision of the employees during the decision making process. In this context, the organizational communication between the employees and the management would be increased. According to Reiset al. (2012), higher the negotiation, greater would be satisfaction level of the employees. This would in turn also increase the organizational performance of Tesco Plc. The productivity of the organization would be raised.
- What are the problems suffered by Tesco Plc. regarding employee engagement of the organization?
During the employee engagement program, Tesco Plc. has faced different problems. Therefore, the organization would arrangetraining program for the subordinates and thus, the organization would bear a higher amount of money. Moreover, it is known that Tesco Plc. treated badly with the employees, therefore, organizational performance would be decreased and Tesco Plc. would suffer from several business risks. The decisions between the employees and the management would not match sometimes. Therefore, it would be difficult to the management to take decisions. However, the employees felt reluctant to improve their performance. Therefore, it would be difficult to achieve the objective of the business. Hence, it would make a negative reflectionon the organizational performance. The overall productivity of the company would be decreased.
To improve the organizational performance of Tesco Plc., the organization has planned to follow a reward program for the employees. This would increase the willingness of the employees to improve their individual performance. On the other hand, training program would be helpful to increase their skills and knowledge and this would reflect the employee engagement of Tesco Plc. Moreover, in this chapter the researcher has explained several strategies, which would be incorporated by the company for the employee engagement.
Furthermore, the researcher would try to identify the issues, which are faced by the employees of Tesco Plc. Therefore, in this point, primary research is helpful to identify the views of the employees. On the other hand, the researcher also conducts an interview to the managers, so that the researcher would be able to know what the managers’ view regarding the employee engagement. Based on the analysis, the researcher would interpret an appropriate conclusion.
This chapter is helpful to interpret the findings and conclusions of the study and estimate the hypothesis of the research. All of the findings are linkedwith the objectives, which are explained in the research methodology section. Based on the findings, several recommendations have developed, which would improve the organizational performance. This chapter also highlights the scope of the further research associated with this study, which would be discussed.
6.1 Linking with the objectives
Linking with the first objective
It can be noticed that the initial objective of Tesco Plc. is to understand the necessity of employee award program. It is depending on the performance of the workers. Employee award program has a direct impact on the entire organizational performance. The employee reward program of a company motivates the morale of the workers to provide additional effort toward the work. Teamwork can increase the productivity of the organization. The sales figure would be improved. Therefore, it can be inferred that employment reward program is helpful to increase the opportunities to improve the personal development.
Linking with second objective
The second objective was to measure the necessity of the employee motivation at the working place. This would create a positive organizational culture where each of the employees would be motivated and would like to give maximum effort within the organizational growth. Training and development would be also helpful to recognize the weak points. It would be helpful to eliminate the weakness of the employees. Therefore, with the help of the motivation skills, the employees would be boost up.
Linking with the third objective
The third objective was to evaluate the organizationalculture within the company. It is known that Tesco Plc. has a greater brand value, which influences to develop the positive working environment. On the other hand, a healthy organizational culture motivates the workers to enhance their willingness to work with the company. Therefore, greater organizational working culture is beneficial for the management to recruit the skilled employees. On the other hand, it can mentioned that within the organization, all of the employees are treated equally. Otherwise, they would feel deprive and the employee engagement towards the company would be decreased.
After analyzing the study, it can be supported that they could initiate a monthly reward program for the employees and the employees’ participation would be increased. In this connection, the organization could award the employees for their extraordinary performance. Tesco Plc. has followed one organizational principle such as “praise in the public, and correct in the private”. In addition, to increase the communication between the employees and the management, the managers tried to make a candid conversation. This type of conversation is helpful to improve the personal development skills of the employees. After identifying the mistakes, the mistakes would be eliminated and the individual performance would be improves, which would increase the organizational productivity.
6.3 Limitation of the study
During conducting the study, the researcher had faced some several limitations, which may affect the quality of work and therefore, the results would be affected. Due to lack of time, the researcher would not perform the statistical tools. The researcher would not perform regression analysis. On the other hand, if the researcher would have enough money, the researcher would use the statistical tools such as SPSS or SAS. In addition, the researcher has also faced some legal issues and has also suffered from confidentiality issues.
6.4 Future scope
After analyzing the study, it can be stated that this dissertation would be helpful for the further studies. The researchers would be capable to accomplish the studies with thehelp of useful information of the previous studies. This would be helpful to serve the supplementary book of references. Therefore, this would be benefitted for the purpose of further use. As a result, the future researchers would be able to improve the quality of final work.
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