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The Johari Window

This model for diagnosing communication skills was devised by Luft and Ingham by combing their first names as the model (Montano and Kasprzyk, 2015).  The Johari window model is a helpful tool, which can be used to illustrate and develop understanding, communication and self-awareness among individuals of the group. This model can also be used to consider and improve relationships with others. By considering this model, I decided to choose blind self' or 'blind area' or 'blind spot', This tool suits my attitude and behaviour because although I am able to communicate with large numbers of friends and acquaintance;

I face difficulty in speaking to people who are strangers and I do not know about their mindset. I am very hesitant and lack confidence while presenting my thoughts to a group of strangers, so the selection of this quadrant is justifiable as per my personality. People who have established communication skills generally fall under the category of the open end. On the other hand, people who have newly developed communication skill falls under the second quadrant of a blind spot. The major characteristic of these kinds of people is that they are able to communicate only with the known factors and fail to communicate where the area of communication is not known. It is because these people lack the self confidence to present their ideas and are ignorant about them. These types of person deliberately avoid speaking in front of an unknown crowd.

 

This questionnaire helps in discovering an individual’s ideal style of communication. This will also assist in identifying the skills that most suits your personality (Berger and et.al. 2014). The major advantage of interpreting own and another communication style will increase the capability to promote other individuals in developing their potential.

I will not listen to a speaker who is disorganized

I am unwilling to listen to speaker with different views from mine

I am willing to listen to boring speakers about boring content

I dislike listening to boring speakers

Being preoccupied with other things makes me less willing to listen to a speaker

3

4

3

2

3

 The above questionnaire highlights my area of weakness which tends to be inactive listening. I tend to display features of biased listening; in which I listen through the filter of my personal prejudices. My attention tends to vary with the quality of the speaker; thus this can be said as casual listening. Critical listening is also my weak area as I refuse to listen to people whose views are different than mine. I listen only to the content which is of value to me and avoid the rest, which are symptoms of Discriminative listening.

Assertiveness Questionnaires will help in formulating and communicating thought, ideas and opinions in a clear picture. This questionnaire is totally based on self-awareness. It will assist in attaining the final outcome.

I express my feelings, even if others disagree with me

I speak up about things I really care about

Starting a conversation with a stranger

Speaking in large meeting of friends

Talking in a small group of acquaintances

5

5

1

5

5

Communication Styles Questionnaire

The assertive questionnaires reflect what the person is assertive about in various situations. Being assertive about ones’ thoughts is the main communication skill. Being assertive means that the speaker can express them effectively in front of others even when others tend to disagree and standing up for their point of view while respecting the beliefs of others. I have come to the conclusion that I strongly possess this quality of communication. Being assertive can also boost self-esteem and helps to earn the respect of others. This quality can also help in managing stress related to communicating in front of an unknown crowd.

This is a process that determines an individual’s strength, weakness, opportunities and threats. Particularly, it is a basic model that considered what an individual can perform or cannot perform, for aspects on both internal and external.

Strength

Starting conversations with people of acquaintance and being assertive of my thoughts.

Weakness

Active listening and lack of appreciating others’ point of views

Opportunities

Working on interpersonal skills through academic programs.

Threats

Fear of communicating to strangers

DISCO (Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorder) is a sophisticated measure for considering and improving qualitative and quantitative differences and fear in social communication and interaction inclusive of limited access and recurring behaviour (Neuliep, 2017). It will help in considering to a degree by which support is needed by a person. Further, this model concerns skills, behaviour and abilities of an individual.

I have realized that I fall into the category of blind area quadrant I take responsibility to reduce my blind area and increasing the open area by giving appraisals and feedback by encouraging disclosure. For this, I need to develop the characteristic of giving non-judgemental feedback and giving responses to individual disclosure, which may reduce by fear of unknown crowd. Moreover, I will also try to seek feedback for increasing my open area. The amount and issues of feedback which an individual seeks must always be at the individual's own choice. Some people are more flexible as compared to others and therefore care must be taken to avoid any type of emotional upset. The process of seeking genuine and deep feedback relates to ‘self-actualization' of development of need and motivation model given by Maslow. I have found that I do not fear social and professional interaction to people whom I know.

However, when it comes to interacting with strangers on the professional and social basis I do not find myself comfortable enough. Thus, I need to work on this area in order to improve my skills of communication. My listening also involves a lot of evaluation and judging others based on my perceptions. Judgemental Listening poses difficulty in understanding the speaker empathically. I sometimes also pretend to fake my process of listening since I am preoccupied with my other thoughts. Some people naturally possess the quality of being assertive. But if it is not present then one must learn to be assertive. Assertiveness is an effective and diplomatic style of communication, which has tended to gain popularity in the present day. Being assertive shows that the speaker respects his thoughts and is willing to stand up for their interests by expressing their thoughts and feelings. This style of communication demonstrates that an individual is aware of the other’s rights and is willing to resolve conflicts.

Assertiveness Questionnaires

Active listening refers to a proposed listening and reacting form that ultimately develops entire interpretation (Montanoand and Kasprzyk, 2015). The most helpful skill that can be brought up in the workplace is active listening. It can assist in conversations, communications, interviews and participation.

The requirement of communication skill is vital for booming future, especially for a student. In the present era of competitiveness, communication skills in a management are most required are the experience and education.

Recently I participated in a debate competition and also a seminar on management. Both of these interactions required to display effective communication skills on part of listeners as well as speakers. In both of these programmes, I found that I was unable to listen actively during the seminar and on the other hand during the debate I failed to put my thoughts in front of a huge crowd.

Attentiveness is inclusive of expressions, gestures, eye contact, body postures and vocal. Still, most of the conversations are visual. It is significant that the body language must be reliable along with the giving verbal conveys (Mohla & Schwartzberg, 2016). For instance, if an individual is involved in a conversation and checks time, again and again, looks around, lacks eye contact this will give a message that the individual is least interest in the conversation and other things matter more to him/her. Lack of presence avoids effectual communication and shows a disconnection between words as well as actions. Why it pulls attentiveness forward? It reduces behaviour intended to protect.

Active listening is the base of clear perspective and understanding. It gives clarity to the communication skills while making sure that the one understands the meaning another wants to convey. In accordance with the self-analysis undertaken with the above diagnostic tools, I have identified two key issues to be active listening and coordination.

Reflecting contains two set of skills which are repetition and paraphrasing. Repetition takes places when listener say exactly same what was cited by the speaker (Kurtz and et.al., 2016). While Paraphrasing places the message of the speaker in the words of the listener and exactly put that to the speaker. Paraphrasing is said to be an effective means of reflecting and allows the speaker that individual truly understand his or her main message. It allows listening to feelings.

In accordance with views of Manning and Bucher, (2013) there are essentially five aspects of active listening. First is to giving attention to non-verbal attitudes and behaviours, after that queries and questions will be asked and further reflective of the same will be provided. Next step is to do Paraphrasing and thus on the basis of this Summarizing will be done. In order to improve communication skills in the workplace firstly include communication skills in the training and guiding programs of employees (McQuail and Windahl, 2015). The best way is to promote effectual communicators in the position of the supervisor to determine the standards of the company. 

SWOT Analysis

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory states that people learn from one another, via observation and imitation. In accordance with the study of Henderson & Mathew, (2016) the theory has often been referred to as a link between the theory of behaviourist and cognitive learning as it encompasses characteristics of both the theories of attention, memory, and motivation. The theory aims at improving communication through practices in order to powerful communication (Hutchinson, 2017).

Listening, reading and writing must be considered carefully as they play a significant role in communication skills. In relation reading and writing, one thing one has to address is to adapt and amend with age and attentiveness. With the help of these qualities, one can be able to improve its verbal, reading and communicating and writing skills. People tend to learn through observing others and their attitudes and outcomes related to a certain issue. Social learning theory tends to explain human behaviour in terms of consistent reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioural, and environmental factors. 

An effective communication involves clarity of words and action (Bays and et.al.  2014). The speaker should never keep his thoughts within himself instead he should put his idea (Source) in a sensible and meaningful content (Message) with careful selection of words. Selection of words is very important as any right message put into wrong words can deform the message and alter the meaning of the sentence completely.

In accordance with the analysis of Derlaga & Berg, (2013) the speaker should avoid keeping half of the thoughts in mind and always try to speak clearly. For an effective communication, it is also important to consider the medium, pitch and tone of the communication (Channel). The unclear channel may result in confusion and misunderstandings and will distort the message that the other person wants to convey.

This theory states that the speaker must first try to understand the state of mind of the audience (Gallois & Giles,(2015). Thus, before any public speaking, it is important to understand the issues that are to be addressed to the crowd. The speaker must also evaluate the current mindset of the audience regarding the issue to be addressed. Then the preparation must be done on how to convey the original message to the public with the same intention without hurting their sentiments. People generally tend to avoid what they feel is disturbing to their existing set of values. Thus, the message and the mode of communication must be planned with utmost care so that the message reaches the receiver with a positive impact. 

DISCO Model of Diagnosis

Communication is that vital skill required conveying and presenting your ideas in front of other people. In accordance with the study of Arnold and Boggs, (2015) it is the most effective manner of conveying your feelings to your friends, partners, employees etc. Communication skills can be developed with efficiency if a proper action plan inclusive of monitoring and qualitative characteristics has been prepared. Pre-determined goals can be attained if plan it reconsidered or appropriate changes have been made within required time. The main variants which will be part of my action plan will be:

Making a habit of reading journals relating to communication interactions and other variants of communication, the same will let me know the appropriate manner of communication. It will also make me aware regarding other qualities and skills which are required to enhance the quality of effective communication. I will take part in seminars and other activities so that I can improve the quality of putting own viewpoint in front of strangers. Further, I will also take part in debates and another group discussion on a basis so that this quality can be enhanced to the required level and assure that I do not hesitate in keeping my own views. For making it a habit on daily basis I have started greeting strangers to whom I meet in my daily routine so that I could decrease the extent of hesitation while speaking to a stranger. Further, the other important quality of which I have to work comprises the ability to appreciate other. The other factors such as confidence, presentation, vocabulary will also be assessed in detail so that I could attain enhanced level of communication skills. 

Very uncomfortable 2- slightly uncomfortable 3- reasonably comfortable 4- very comfortable

Putting own viewpoint in large meeting of strangers

1

2

3

4

Presently, I hesitate is keeping my own opinion in front of a crowd of strangers or in a meeting. Due to this even though I am right, I have to suffer losses. For enhancing this communication quality, I will participate in seminars, group discussion and debates on a constant basis; so that it becomes a habit for me to keep my own point of view a habit and I do not hesitate anymore. I will also take part in activities so that I could get a chance to communicate with more no. of people and the same will assist me the manner I should behave in front of large crowd.

No specific time can be specified for being skilled in this quality. As the more of competitions and activities, I will be the part I will be able to enhance the same. However, it is necessary to be part of some kind of activity on a continuous basis else, developing this quality to a required extent will not be possible.

Failing to praise or appreciate other people

1

2

3

4

I am not able to appraise other people for their kindness or any other way they help me. Due to this kind of behaviour some people think I am rude. For improvising the same I will read books and journal relating to same for assessing the manner in which I should behave in this kind of situation. I will also work on other required factors such as confidence, body posture etc which will support me to develop this quality.

It will take around 3-4 months to develop the variants required for thanking or appreciating other people. After that, it is a habit and part of daily routine.

References

Books and Journal

Adler, R., Rodman, G.R. & DuPré, A. (2016).  Understanding human communication. Oxford University Press.

Arnold, E. C. & Boggs, K. U. (2015).   Interpersonal relationships: professional communication skills for nurses. Elsevier health sciences.

Austin, E.W. & Pinkleton, B.E., (2015).  Strategic public relations management: Planning and managing effective communication campaigns (Vol. 10). Routledge.

Bays, A. M., & et.al.  (2014).  Interprofessional communication skills training for serious illness: evaluation of a small-group, simulated patient intervention. Journal of palliative medicine. 17(2). Pp 159-166.

Berger, C. R. ed (2014).  Interpersonal communication. (vol. 6). Walter de Gruyter gmbh & co kg.

Derlaga, V. J., & Berg, J. H. (Eds.). (2013).  Self-disclosure: Theory, research, and therapy. Springer Science & Business Media.

Gallois, C., & Giles, H. (2015).  Communication accommodation theory. The international encyclopedia of language and social interaction.

Goetsch, D.L. & Davis, S.B., (2014).  Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Grunig, J.E. ed., (2013).  Excellence in public relations and communication management. Routledge.

Hackman, M.Z. & Johnson, C.E. (2013). Leadership: A communication perspective. Waveland Press.

Henderson, K., & Mathew Byrne, J. (2016). Developing communication and interviewing skills. Skills for social work practice, Pp 1-22.

Hutchinson, J., (2017). Introduction. In Cultural Intermediaries (pp. 1-30). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Kurtz, S., Silverman, J., & Draper, J. (2016). Teaching and learning communication skills in medicine. CRC press.

Manning, M.L. & Bucher, K.T. (2013). Classroom management: Models, applications, and cases. Pearson.

McQuail, D. & Windahl, S. (2015). Communication models for the study of mass communications. Routledge.

Mohla, R., & Schwartzberg, P. (2016). Improving Resident Communication Skills With Patients of Diverse Backgrounds. Academic Pediatrics, 16(6). e46.

Montano, D.E. and Kasprzyk, D. 2015. Theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behaviour, and the integrated behavioural model. Health behaviour: Theory, research and practice .

Neuliep, J.W. 2017. Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Sage Publications.

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