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What objects do you find beyond the fence? are there any houses and animals?

A group of 4 year olds playing Hide & Seek: We’re hiding!   

How much are you enjoying the game?

What strategies can the educator offer James and Max for completing the puzzle?

Wow, how did you prepare it?

What is the educator doing to participate in Coopers play?

How does the educator promote Cooper to share his ideas about the operation?

How does the educator role model appropriate interactions?

Strategies for Effective Communication

The assessment tasks within this unit provide you with the opportunity to demonstrate evidence of the required knowledge and skills to ensure they can develop and maintain effective relationships and promote positive behaviour. 

  • 1: Effective Interactions with Children
  • 2: Engaging Positively with Children
  • 3: Supporting Positive and Respectful Relationships
  • 4: Positive Behaviour Guidance and Management

Assessment Instructions

Students are required to provide appropriate responses to the indicated questions.

The Early Childhood Education and Care training packages are vocational qualifications that are competency based. For each assessment undertaken you will be assessed as Satisfactory, Not Yet Satisfactory or Incomplete. Where students are assessed as ‘Not Yet Satisfactory’ or ‘Incomplete’ the trainer/assessor will provide the student with feedback and guidance regarding what needs to be completed for resubmission.

Students have the right to appeal an unfavourable decision or finding during assessment. All students appeals must be made in writing using the Appeals Form and specify the particulars of the decision or finding in dispute. Appeals must be lodged within 28 days of the decision or finding

  • Communicating with Children.

Responding sensitively and appropriately to all children’s efforts to communicate is an important part of the educator role. Remember that children will notice both your verbal and non-verbal communication, so you need to be aware of both when you are guiding and interacting with children.

a)According to the reading what are five considerations you should consider when interacting with children verbally and non-verbally?

  • Using smiles and nod to show assurance
  • Using appropriate hand gestures
  • Speaking in gentle tones
  • Talking in their native language
  • Displaying images or visuals in their room

b)According to the reading what are three things you should avoid when interacting with children verbally and non-verbally?

  • Criticising,blaming or being judgemental  
  • Lecturing, or threatening children
  • Talking with back turned while walking away  
  • Using sarcasm, name-calling, or being angry

To complete this task refer to (pp. 312-313) of your textbook ‘The Big Picture’.  Children need warm, caring and nurturing environments where trusted adults treat them with respect. To build a trusting relationship with children educators can use a range of strategies.

a)Describe thefour strategies for interacting positively with children.

Get down to the children’s level.Sitting on low height chairs to maintain an eye contact

Maximise the time available for interactions.

Communicating with them while playing and having meals

Be a genuine partner in communication. Engaging in effective discussions during their classes

Encourage conversation. Calling them by welcoming words and asking questions that help them share their ideas (Kearns, 2017)

b)When engaging in conversations with children there are key strategies around talking and listening. Describe each of these:

Talking and Listening strategies

Talk to children about their interests and concerns.Asking them if they are disturbed by any event or behaviour. Discussing about their hobbies.

Be an attentive listener.

Paying attention to what they say and showing immediate responses

Promoting Positive Behaviour

Talk to the child about their family.

Asking them about the number of members in their house, their parents, grandparents and others, and by what name does the child call each one of them

Talk about yourself.

Encouraging the child to tell his/her name, place of residence, favourite colours, stories, cartoons and games

To complete this task refer to (pp. 336-337) of your textbook ‘Birth to Big School’.

c)Write what you could say in response to the following children’s attempts to communicate with you.

What the child said What would you say?

“Guess what. My mum got a new car.”‘’Wow, that is a great news! Congratulations! What colour is it?”

“I’m looking for a big piece of blue paper.” “Okay, let me see if I can arrange one for you. By the way, what will you do with the paper? Will you draw a picture?”

“Do you think there are fairies in our garden? My dad says there’s no such thing as fairies.” “Have you seen these fairies? How do they look?”

“Look what I’ve made with the playdough. It goes round and round.” “Wow, it looks good. Is it some ball?”

Question 3

Reflect and draw on the knowledge you have acquired from the text and readings in this unit to answer the following questions.

Scenario: Lunch Time

The educator had transitioned the children to the table where she assisted the children to sit at the table. Each child was given their own bowl of soup and a spoon. The educator sat down alongside the children with her own bowl of lunch, and the children and educator were talking to one another as they ate their lunch.

a)From the picture identify how has the educator created a relaxed and unhurried routine.

By making helping them to talk to each other and to her, while having their lunch

b)List two questions or discussion points you could ask at mealtimes to engage and promote further conversation.

“What does your soup contain?”

“Would you like to share your soup with others?”

To complete this task refer to (pp. 245-254)of your textbook ‘Birth to Big School’.

a)Adults working directly with children in a play-based curriculum are likely to take on many different roles. Read the following examples and state which role the educator is taking on within the children’s play and learning.

Examples of children’s play and learning Educator Role

Educator is wearing their hat during outdoor play.

Assessment and Feedback

Educator is placing the toys back into their containers when packing away.

  • Educator is a role model.

The educator and children were all wearing hard hats and carrying pieces of hose, the educator was running alongside the children as they were ‘putting the fire out’. ·A play partner – playing alongside children.

The educator noticed a child using the scissors at the drawing table was becoming frustrated as they were trying to hold the paper and cut. The educator sat alongside the child, offering verbal encouragement and helping the child with holding the scissors.

  • A supported and encourager

Three children were playing a game of dominoes; one of the children became upset as one of the children took their turn out of order. The educator approached the children and assisted them to decide whose turn it was and how they could continue to turn take effectively. 

  • A mediator

A group of two children approached the educator as they had found a spider in the garden. They wanted to know what sort of spider it was. The educator spoke to the children about safety and went with the children so they could take a photo of the spider. The educator then assisted the children to find further information by offering them factual books and using the internet together.

Two of the educators were discussing the play experience that had taken place earlier that day. The educators were reflecting on their roles within the experience using open ended questioning within the discussion. This led to the educators deciding how they would extend the children’s play. ·Self-reflectioner

The educator noticed the children were interested in bugs. The educator set up an exploration table with woodchips, leaves, plastic bugs, magnifying glasses and factual bug books.

b)The following photographs show children engaged in typical play experiences.

For each experience write one open-ended question that the educator could ask to encourage conversation for children to share their ideas and stories.

The educator holds the ladder while Cory (5 years) looks over the fence.

Reflect and draw on the knowledge you have acquired from the text and readings in this unit to answer the following questions.

James has started putting together a puzzle at the table. James is trying to make a puzzle piece fit into one spot, when it doesn’t fit he becomes frustrated banging on the table. He calls out in a quiet voice ‘help’, another child Max walks over to the table and an educator sits down alongside James “I heard you ask for help James, how can we help you?”

Interacting with Children Verbally and Non-verbally

The educator can help them understand how to fit the pieces in a person accurately. she can complete it halfway, and ask both of them to try if they can finish the entire picture. she should use encouraging words to improve their confidence.

Reflect and draw on the knowledge you have acquired from the text and readings in this unit to answer the following questions.

The educator is playing alongside Cooper. The educator has taken on the role of doctor and is examining the doll who Cooper says needs an operation on her head.  

Educator: “I’ll just listen to her heartbeat with the stethoscope. Mmm, not sounding too good. I think you may be right Cooper. She may need an operation. What do we need to do to prepare? Have you taken her temperature?”

The educated is responding to the idea of the child and adorning the role of a play partner. Engaging in an effective conversation with the child regarding the play will help in boosting his confidence. The educator is also supporting the child's play by scaffolding.

The educated is promoting Cooper to share his opinions by initially using a stethoscope to measure the Heartbeat of the doll, followed by initiating a conversation where she encourages Cooper to talk about The operation that he feels is necessary in this context.

This is accomplished by directly engaging the child in the play and exchanging ideas about the steps that will follow.

Read the following scenarios and for each one describe how you could support the child and respond in way that acknowledges the child’s skills and abilities whilst, at the same time, promoting or protecting their self-esteem. E.g. talking quietly, giving positive feedback.

Group Time each day in the pre-school room includes a ‘News Time’ when individual children are asked to come to the front of the group and show or tell their ‘news’. Steven (5 years 4months) refuses to have his turn when asked though he is happy to talk individually to the educator about his exciting weekend activities. ·Encourage him to talk to the other children by sharing means and toys

  • Appreciate his thoughts when he talks individually
  • Make him observe how others present their thoughts or tell their news

Every day before lunch the educator gathers the children together in the 3’s room to read stories and sing songs/rhymes. The educator knows that this has a calming effect on the children and allows them to settle down for the afternoon period. Before she begins her story the educator comments about the morning program.

Interacting Positively with Children

“We’ve had a very busy morning. I saw Jonty and Ellam and Cooper, building roads in the sandpit. I saw Nell and Maisy climbing to the top of the climbing frame.” (The educator continues until each child has been mentioned).

Today the educator reads a favourite, “Where’s the green sheep?” The children happily join in the story.

Next the educator uses a range of picture props for the monkey rhyme which the children also love – they shout out the repetitious section of the rhyme on cue.

As the educator is working with the children she uses a range of tones in her voice and uses a number of different facial expressions.

The educator also makes eye contact with the children as she scans the group.

When Milly stands and moves closer to the lounge the educator simply continues with the story. Milly has just moved up to the 3’s room from the 2’s group.

When children make comments or talk to others the educator continues as she knows the children will return their attention to her.

To conclude the session the educator asks Callum to nominate a song to sing. “Callum, it’s your turn today to pick a song for us to sing. Can you think of what song you would like?”

Callum does not immediately so other children begin to make suggestions.

Educator: “Thank you for all your good ideas. That might help Callum as he’s thinking.” Callum then says, “Let’s sing the cowboy song!”

Educator: “Great choice Callum!”

a)What does the educator do to make every child feel ‘special’ and included?

She talks about the tasks that each of the child performed before the session. this will make the children feel valued.

b)How does the educator engage the children in the story time session?

She engages the children by using a wide range of facial expressions and voice modulation while singing the rhymes.

c)Explain why the educator does not ask Milly to sit down but allows her to stand nearby?

Milly is allowed to stand because she has been successful in the transition to a higher group. this would improve her self confidence. It would also improve her balance.

d)The educator has a system which allows each child in turn to suggest a song/rhyme for the group to sing. How does this support the children’s sense of belonging?

The children's sense of belonging is supported by the fact that one of them is being asked to nominate a song that can be sung. This will make the children feel important and they will be able to experience the belonging to the class.

Engaging Children in Mealtime Conversations

To complete this task refer to (pp. 364-367) of your textbook ‘The Big Picture’.

Supportive physical and social environments are important for the development of positive relationships and the building of a child’s positive self-esteem.

a)List five considerations educators should make when organising the environment and resources in a manner which will reduce children’s stress and frustration?

  • Offer materials that are related to the special interest of each child
  • Take the child age into consideration
  • Introduce changes in the lessons and classes at a slow pace
  • Arrange for range of activities based on the abilities and skills of the children
  • Have more than one search for a particular activity to avoid crowding or conflict (Kearns, 2017)

b)List five daily management strategies educators can use to support pro-social behaviour and help prevent children’s stress and frustration.

  • Meditation
  • Calm music
  • Positive gestures
  • Smiles and nods
  • Encouraging words (Kearns, 2017)

To complete this task refer to (p. 362-364) of your textbook ‘The Big Picture’ and refer to your reading:

  • Guiding Children’s Behaviour in Positive Ways.

a)The strategies listed below are some of the ways we can guide children’s behaviour positively. For each strategy briefly explain, in your own words, what each one means.

Children are able to learn more from behaviour displayed by educators then instructions on how they should behave

Words are sometimes not enough as children show lack of will power. Physically assisting them to stop performing a task and ensuring that all physical contact conveys forms of respect is essential (Kearns, 2017)

Children required help to understand tasks that are acceptable. they  may fail to understand reasons why they should not throw objects or wait before crossing a street. Explaining the actual reason will help  their understanding (Kearns, 2017)

Be firm when you need to be.

Being firm provides children the security that they know their limits and instances when they require help. It helps in sending clear message about acceptable behaviour.

Give choices and empower children appropriately.

Children get support while making decisions related to their own experience, thereby preventing frustrations (Kearns, 2017)

Avoid encouraging ‘hollow’ gestures.

Children are able to appreciate effect of their behaviour on other people and understand when they should feel genuinely sorry

Children get the assistance to act in ways that help them realize that they are receiving the support of all. It also helps in bringing negotiation during conflicts (Kearns, 2017)

Acknowledge desirable behaviour.

It lets the children know when they should perform things that are approved and what is expected of them

Educators can implement a range of strategies to support and encourage pro-social behaviour. By actively encouraging age-appropriate pro-social behaviours, educators can reduce the occurrence of unacceptable behaviours in the early childhood environment.

b)Describe the age appropriate strategies that educators can use to promote self-regulation and support the development of pro-social skills.

Age-appropriate strategies Description

Collaborative work with families are needed for addressing persistently inappropriate behaviour Teaching new skills.Incapability to complete task set by themselves often make the children frustrated

Roles of Educators in Play-Based Learning

Setting clear limits and standards for behaviour.

All children should understand limits and be aware of appropriate behaviour

Assisting children to understand the consequences of their behaviour.Children who do not want to engage in sharing our collaborative play should understand that this can make others exclude them from the play (Kearns, 2017)

Redirecting, and offering alternatives. It is effective for toddlers who do not actively participate in  playful activities that requires sharing on collaboration

Ignoring behaviours.Ignoring wrong behaviour such as wearing results in a decrease in manufacturing of that behaviour (Kearns, 2017)

Engaging the child in conflict resolution or problem solving to resolve conflicts. It helps in resolving disputes

Following through.Makes children understand that an appropriate behaviour may lead to severe consequences (Kearns, 2017)

  • To complete this task refer to (pp. 218 - 222) of your textbook ‘Birth to Big School’ and refer to your  reading
  • Guiding Children’s Behaviour in Positive Ways.

Carrie (3 years) has been asked twice by the educator not to throw sand. On this occasion the educator says “Carrie I have reminded you not to throw sand. You need to leave the sand pit and go find something else to do.” Carrie yells at the educator “I hate you.” Educator strategy: Ignore outburst

Reason for response: Ignoring the outburst will make prevent reinforcing attention to Carrie and make her decrease speaking such words

When Pedra (18 months) is playing outside in the toddler area he gets upset and begins to cry if he sees his older sister in the preschool play area. Educator strategy: Distract and Comfort, Ask questions

Reason for response: Asking questions on what makes her upset will help in identifying her mental state. Distracting her by making her play a game will also help in comforting her.

Educators need to be careful not to ‘reward’ inappropriate behaviour. Sometimes, our responses to a behaviour do, in fact, allow the child to achieve their goal, which may be to avoid something or to get extra attention.

Read the following scenarios and use the table to document your responses to the following questions:

a)Why is the educator strategy effective or ineffective?

b)Is it rewarding the child’s inappropriate behaviour?

c)Give a reason for your answer.

Why is the educator strategy effective or ineffective? Offer a reason for your response.

Every time Yohan (18months) attempted to bite another child the educators scolded him and told him not to bite the other children. He was removed from the activity he was playing with, and sat on one of the educator's knee for five minutes and talked to about how he must not bite his friends. This educator strategy is ineffective as the educator is rewarding the behaviour as the child would enjoy sitting with the educator and getting that attention. Talking about being nice to his friends is not age appropriate for a child with his understanding.

Open-Ended Questions for Encouraging Conversation

At story time Anna (4years) pinched the child sitting next to her. The child let out a huge wail and Steve, her educator, told her firmly that as she was hurting and disturbing the other children she wouldn't be able to stay and listen to the story. He told her to go with Nessa, the other educator. Nessa took Anna into the kitchen to get the cutlery and to lay the table for lunch. Ineffective educator strategy: The strategy is ineffective as taking her to the kitchen to lay out a table for lunch makes her feel that she is receiving the attention. Moreover, an age appropriate strategy would be to make her understand that such behavior as disturbing other children is not acceptable.


Leo (3years) packed away all the sand toys outside and helped put the cover on the sandpit. When he came inside, Jenni, his educator, thanked him for helping and asked him if he would like to choose the story for story time. Effective educator strategy: Encouraging words and the tank from the educator will reinforce his self confidence. Selecting him to choose a story for the story time will also enhance his sense of belonging to the class.

Nikita (3years 5 months) held the door open as the children came inside. As the last child came through the door Naomi, her educator, smiled and thanked her. The educator then asked her where she would like to sit. Effective educator strategy: This is appropriate strategy is effective because thanking Nikita will make her understand that she displayed an appropriate behavior by assisting other children. Asking her where she would like to sit will make her feel cared for.

Reflect and draw on the knowledge you have acquired from the text and readings in this unit to answer the following question.

Thomas (22 months) has been playing with some farm animals and blocks on the verandah. He decides to relocate to the garden and attempts to carry all of the animals and blocks at the same time. His attempts to pick up and hold on to all of these materials fails, he keeps dropping things and becoming increasingly frustrated.

Kael (18 months) picks up the horse dropped by Thomas and begins to walk away with it in his hand. Thomas throws down the materials he is holding and begins to scream. He then drops to the ground sobbing and kicking his legs.

Case Study 1: Helping Children with Puzzles

a)How could the educator in the scenario respond to help Thomas manage their emotions?

The educator should say Thomas that he cannot carry two things simultaneously. If at all he wants to move the choice to the other region, he for help from his friends to move the toys. He should also share his toys with his friends.

Reflect and draw on the knowledge you have acquired from the text and readings in this unit to answer the following questions.

Scenario: Well. It’s not me!

It is mid-October and the 4 – 5 year old group at Blue Bay Childcare Centre are all moving on to ‘big school’ next year. Recently, the educators have struggled with a rise in the amount of unacceptable and very challenging behaviours. The issue is raised at a staff meeting and several suggestions are made about how the children’s behaviour could be managed and what should be the consequences for unacceptable behaviour. Then, it is suggested that the children be consulted and involved in the process. Lisa, the Room Leader, is excited by this idea and decides to implement it straight away!

The next day, Lisa introduces a discussion with the children at Group Time. She begins by saying “You know, lately there has been lots of behaviour that is against our rules. We have seen children hurting each other and making other children get upset.” Several of the children call out things like “Yeah. Well it’s not me!” or “Max is the one who does it all!”

Lisa says “Well, Sophie (the other educator in the room) and I have decided that we are going to ask for your help to fix the problem. Do you think you can do that?” The children agree so Lisa moves on. “Good. The first thing we need to decide is what behaviour is not allowed here. You tell me what you think and I’ll write it on this big piece of paper I have here. Then we’ll have a list of ‘rules’, ok?”

a)Identify the quality practices being used by Lisa and the staff at this centre?

The educators engage in equality practice that focuses on forming effective relationship with every child. They are creating provisions for every child to engage in an open and meaningful interaction that will support skills acquisition for lifelong learning

b)What do you think Lisa would do next in this discussion?

She would probably discuss with the children about behaviours that are unacceptable, note it down and read it aloud to the children

c)Identify the benefits from this type of approach to behaviour management.

This constructive and positive approach will help in Guiding their behaviour by teaching them about the appropriate ways that they should behave, rather than simply punishing

To complete this task refer to your reading:

  • Identifying Emotional and Behavioural Problems.

Young children may display behaviours that may not be acceptable in older children, examples of these behaviours can include, tantrums, biting, hitting and disruptive behaviour. Behaviours of concern may be raised by families or educators.

a)List the eight signs of emotional or behavioural difficulties.

  • Changes in feeding patterns
  • Out of step behaviour with same aged bears
  • Being fearful, upset, withdrawn or anxious
  • Difficulty in managing frustration and anger
  • Difficulty to pay attention
  • Frequent defiance
  • Poor quality play that is repetitive
  • Persistent attachment problems with family members or separation difficultie

b)When you are concerned about children’s emotions and behaviour it is important to first consider your expectations of children and if these are age and developmentally appropriate. If your concerns are still valid what are the four steps that you should consider.

  • Observing the child during different activities at separate times of the day
  • Writing down particular examples related to the behaviour or problem and the time when it occurs
  • Noting down additional information about family situation and health of the child
  • Speaking with the coordinator,  supervisor or service directo

References

Kearns, K. (2017). Birth to Big School: Working in Early Childhood Education and Care Series (4th ed.). Victoria: Cengage Learning Australia.

Kearns, K. (2017). The Big Picture: Working in Early Childhood Education and Care Series (4th). Victoria: Cengage Learning Australia.

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