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Self-Perceived Communication Competence Questionnaire (SPSS)

Discuss about the Communication Apprehension in Accounting Majors.

This reflective report presents my communication skills by using five diagnostic techniques. There are two kinds of communication issues that are addressed by using diagnostic techniques such as lower tolerance level and public speaking anxiety (Austin and Pinkleton, 2015).  Moreover, this essay could also discuss the literature review section that supports to discuss approaches of communication issues. This reflection report could support to present my experience, knowledge towards the communication. It also discusses the tools, methods, and approaches as it could be effective for communication skills improvement.    

I used five diagnostic tools for examining my communication skills and how I react to a different condition of communication. These five tools are self-perceived communication competence scale (SPCC), Personal report of intercultural communication apprehension, nonverbal immediacy scale self-report, talkaholic scale, and tolerance for disagreement (Cardon and Marshall, 2015).  These are discussed as below:

Self-Perceived Communication Competence Questionnaire (SPSS) is significant for examining communication abilities of people. It could also be effective to identify how individual face issues at the time of communicating with others. Moreover, it is also illustrated that self- perceived ability scale could also be imperative for collecting the data towards communication issues (Drucker, 2017).  The self-report could be imperative to show the ability of an individual with respect to the communication tools. By using this scale, an individual could be able to determine their capability of communication to interact with one and more individuals. Moreover, it is also evaluated that higher score of SPCC means the individual is capable to perform many activities such as meeting, public, and group communication. It is addressed that higher score of SPCC shows the capability of an individual towards friends, family, and stranger for effective communication. It could also be imperative for getting a valid and reliable result with respect to making an effective relationship (Evans, Hearn, Uhlemann, and Ivey, 2017).

Personal report of intercultural communication apprehension support to examine how individuals interact with others and their feelings at the time of communicating with the different circumstance of communication. It could enable an individual to understand, which kind of behavior could be more appropriate for behaving with others (Felicetti, Femminella, Reali, and Liò, 2016).  This method considers more than twenty-two statement that considers feelings about the individual communication. In addition, it is also analyzed that the individual obtained score among 24 to 120. It is also evaluated that when an individual obtained more than 120 and less than 24 score means there is a major mistake in secure computing. But, at the same time, it is also evaluated that if the obtained score comes amongst 83 to 120 as it could show appreciate communication ability of an individual. It is also found that if obtained data is coming from amongst 55 to 83 as it demonstrates communication apprehension. It can also be found that if an individual gets score comes amongst 24 to 55 as it demonstrates the lower phase of communication (Fleisher and Bensoussan, 2015).

Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA)

Nonverbal Immediacy is used to evaluate favorable feelings of an individual about others. It is also evaluated that this types of behavior were established by Albert Mehrabian in 1970s. Moreover, it is also evaluated that individual is used 97% of communication in the non-verbal (Gao, Cecati, and Ding, 2015). Furthermore, it is also examined that the nonverbal imminence scale could be imperative to examine the thoughts differences. In addition, it could be determined by James McCroskey and Aaron Johnson in 2003 and Virginia Richmond. This method could be imperative for examining non-verbal imminence. Moreover, it can also be illustrated that the alpha reliability could be 0.90. Moreover, it is also illustrated that if a person practices instrument then it would be imperative for research scholar to determine the difference between males and females. It could directly impact on the performance of outcome. Furthermore, it is also examined that researcher has not found the difference between thinking of women and men that their thinking is desirable, actual, and real (Goetz, Drew, and Houchins, 2016). 

The talkaholic scale could support to determine the communication compulsive as it could supportive to determine the personal characteristics of individuals. Talkative individuals may be unable to silent themselves in front of others persons. It demonstrates their talkative behavior. It could be habit of an individual as it demonstrates the talkaholics nature. In this, people are habitual for taking with others known as talkaholic (Johnston, et al., 2015). In addition, it is also analyzed that this term is defined as a person who is confident to talk with a large number of person in same time. It is also examined that an individual who has skill to easily talk with others as it could positively inspire other people. It is also examined that a leader of company could be more competent and positive than team member perception. If obtained score is come amongst 10 to 50 means individuals are less talkative (Kernbach, Eppler, and Bresciani, 2015). Moreover, when an individual obtained score between 30 to 90 means individual comes in borderline of talkaholics scale. In this, people could be capable to control themselves for reacting on others. Sometimes people are failed to control themselves for interacting with others. Furthermore, when the obtained score of individuals are more than 40 means they are talkholics. It could demonstrate the compulsive communicators (Mangione-Smith, et al., 2015).

TFD (Tolerance for Disagreement Scale) could be effective for examining the tolerance for disagreement measurement as it would enable to measure tolerance level of individuals. It could also be effective for determining the tolerance level of people for another person along with individual belief. A person who has higher argumentativeness can be more likely to control the disagreement than the person who has hos lower argumentativeness capability. It could also be effective for controlling the communication issues (Mickle, Smith, and Chilton, 2016).  It is also evaluated that the conflict could be effective for analyzing the disagreement tolerance. It is also evaluated that the conflict management could be imperative for an individual to control the tolerance level of the person. If the obtained score is higher than the 46 as it shows a high level of TFA. If the collected data is less than or equal it could demonstrate the lower TFD. If the collected information is coming amongst 32 and 46 as it shows the moderate level of TFD (Mohn, et al., 2017).

Nonverbal Immediacy

The gathered outcome could support me for successfully identify my communication style and preference for any activity. From the application of Self-Perceived Communication Competence method, I obtained 62.5 it means I am not able to effectively speak with friends, stranger, and colleagues. I observed that if I talk with stranger, group, and friends then I could not be capable to express my thoughts and views on the front of their party (Shi-Yong and Ali, 2015). It is also analyzed that I get 22 scores by the application Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRICA) as it shows my anxiety level at the time of the meeting and public speaking. Thus, it is discovered that I need to focus on strategies, which could support to improve my communication way. From the use of talkaholic scale, I obtained 20 scores that demonstrate that my personality is fall in borderline. It shows my talkativeness level with others. From the use of tolerance for disagreement technique, I got 3 score that is lowest as it could show that I do not have the capability to tolerant for disagreement. Hence, I need to concentrate on the tolerant for disagreement as it could support to effectively deal with different situation (Simons and Riley, 2014).

From the examination of the gathered score, I addressed two types of my communication issues by using communication techniques like public speaking anxiety and tolerance disagreement. 

I observed that I requisite to enhance my skills of communication due to effectively dealing with different nature of people. It could facilitate me to improve my speech anxiety issue effectively.   

I observed that my tolerance level is low hence I need to focus on approaches that support to deal with tolerance issue. I will have to concentrate on my communication skills and interpersonal skills to effectively manage the conflict. It could also enable the individual to make a reliable decision towards the specified situation. Thus, an individual could concentrate on communication methods for making an effective decision (Perrault and Silk, 2015).   

Reflecting on the fear for public speaking and offering a presentation in the meeting, I would like to share my experience when I was worked as a legal manager in one business law organization, Australia before six months. I was allocated to show findings of what could be increased in the procedure of sending a reaction, claims, appeals to judges on the estimated data. I represented survey findings from the associate meeting. Before the meeting, I was not aware of articulating my findings and I was also not aware of actual lawyers. I was also not capable to manage the task. From the help of my superiors, I make an effective presentation speech for interacting with others. I also found that tolerance for disagreement could also be major issue for an individual. It could directly influence the outcome of specified goal. When I worked in last organization, then I believe to work properly rather than tolerant for disagreement. I believed in opinions and thoughts of superiors because of having lack of tolerant for disagreement. After the completion of six months course, I realised that I capable to tolerant for disagreement. It could support to make reliable result in context of current research concern.

Talkaholic Scale

According to Rimkeeratikul, Zentz, Yuangsri, Uttamayodhin, Pongpermpruek, and Smith (2016) communication apprehension can be defined as the apprehension or fright regarding expected and unexpected communication condition about a set of person and individual. An individual who has elevated phase of CA will give up from eagerly engaging themselves in the verbal communication. In addition, it is evaluated that there is a certain type of CA that is related to nervousness like context, audience, situation, and trait. Trait-related nervousness refers to an individual who is avoiding public speaking because of poor appreciative and experience. But, practices should be competent to perform the public speaking conditions.

In contrast to this, McCroskey,(2015) assessed that audience nervousness is to perform with a person causing the apprehension of speaker whereas context nervousness is caused by vagueness and novelty of the condition. Moreover, the situation apprehension is built by integration of factor such as social, cultural and psychological factors. The ability for interacting conceptually differ from the communication apprehension. However, there is a strong unfavorable link between the two and the reason for the happening is believed to the competency of a person to provisionally avoid the anxiety and continue to perform in disagreeable continue in which unfavorable relations exist.       

According to Munz and Colvin, (2018) managers who have a high level of CA are less probably to entail others in the decision making. Furthermore, a person can less likely to recommend the group communication with their subordinates. By using this investigation, it is assessed that the extent by which communication apprehension may affect the performance of an individual is significant. Consequently, lower level of communication apprehension depicts the unfavorable inference for professional ability of a person at the workplace.


In contrast to this, Neuliep (2017) the tolerance for disagreement incorporates the group communication in the organizational development. Disagreeing is circumstantially depending on the meaning that the way one opposes could be different however it is depending on the opponent individual in the divergence. For instance, colleagues and family member makes disagreement as this disagreeing behavior could be face to face and online. The setting of participants, their function in a company and their interaction style is the element, which impacts the development of disagreement.   

In opposed to this, LaRochelle, and Karpinski, (2016) discussed that the theoretical framework of interpersonal communication and, disagreement and conflict could not be clear as there are certain factors that affect the conditions and there is also complexity to understand whether an interpretation evolves two disagreement and conflicts. It is also identified that there are certain interpersonal communication factors that impact the origin of prospect disagreement and conflicts at the workplace. These factors could be verbal communication, non-verbal communication, emotions and listening in the communication (Kim, 2015).  

Tolerance for Disagreement Scale (TFD)

According to Lie, (2018), there is certain verbal communication style which is influenced by certain factors such as supportiveness, expressiveness, assuredness, argumentativeness, preciseness, supportiveness, and verbal aggressiveness. These factors can have affected the interaction and specifically in the business manner. The elements demonstrate how employees perceive their top authority. Team commitment and knowledge sharing are highly influenced by the style of communication of the managers within an organization (Kim, Hwang, and Cho, 2018).  

In support of this, Hashemi, Hadavi, and Valinejad, (2016) stated that the significant communication includes certain skills that a company looks in the superior and it is directly linked with the team efficiency and also increases the opportunity for encouragement. When communicating in a different type of condition then a person should identify the need of the audience and adjust the communication style accordingly.

The favorable non-verbal communication like nonverbal immediacy may eliminate the disagreement due to its effect of bringing forward to positive attitudes with signals. Nonverbal immediacy can be demonstrated as a favorable performance of symbols and signs such as nodding and smiling whereas listening or talking (Amiri and Puteh, 2018). Another component of interpersonal interaction may influence the origin of disagreement in the negotiation through emotions. Under the negotiation condition, that individual who expressed the disappointment in the interpersonal interaction may affect the opponent to execute the opposing perception. It is also evaluated that competency of a person to listen is one of the key elements that incorporate the interpersonal communication. There is the individual difference in the competencies of people to listen and to the extent, a person can encourage the effect of subconsciously listening (Hsu and Huang, 2017).

The action plan is essential for enhancing my communication skills in six months. Under this, i will be capable to make a personal journal where i could record my each activity that is completed by me. It could support to examine my personal characteristics. Furthermore, it can also be illustrated that journal could be effective for significantly identify the areas that are compulsory to alteration (Bertsch, 2016). It could also support to make a suitable plan for effective business procedure. I increased my professional capabilities by considering the journal articles as it would support make effective framework for future. I talked with my tutors and understand speech anxiety problems effectively. I hired an expertise that has more than 20 years of experience in the teaching. Further, she has positive experience in overcoming the communication issues. Moreover, it is also evaluated that I participate in many coaching classes wherein I would be able to improve my confidence and communication skills. It could also support to make a reliable relationship with group members. It is also examined that mental strategies and practices might be imperative for improving the individual performance. Moreover, it can also be illustrated that I increased my knowledge about anxiety and interpersonal skills. Consequently, it could be imperative for improving my communication capabilities in least time. It would also enable to control the conflict issues in the working place (Coetzee, Schmulian, and Kotze, 2014). Furthermore, it is also examined that I used interpersonal communication classes to improve my communication problem as it would lead to enhance my personal and professional skills in the organization. Moreover, the communication skills could be imperative for increasing the capability of an individual as it would directly influence the productive (Aeni, Jabu, Rahman, and Strid, 2017).

  Gantt Chart showing Action Plan

Jun-18

Jul-18

Aug-18

Sep-18

Oct-18

Nov-18

Reading Journal articles

Developing Memo

     

Discussing with Mentor

going on crowd

       

Participating in Cultural Fest

     

Weekly communication with strangers

Conclusion

With respect to the above discussion, it can be concluded that five diagnostic tools could be imperative for improving communication skills in the least time and cost. Further, there are certain types of communication issues that are found by using five diagnostic tools like tolerance for disagreement and speaking anxiety. There are two approaches that could be used by an individual to improve their communication issues such as communication apprehension and interpersonal communication disagreement. In the communication style, internal conversation should consider many factors like non-verbal communication and verbal, and listen. Public speaking capabilities and tolerance for disagreement skills should also involve in the communication apprehension. In last, it can also be examined that action plan could support to identify the time for an individual activity improvement. 

References

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Amiri, F., & Puteh, M. (2018). Oral Communication Apprehension among International Doctoral Students. English Language Teaching, 11(2), 164-171.

Austin, E. W., & Pinkleton, B. E. (2015). Strategic public relations management: Planning and managing effective communication campaigns (Vol. 10). UK: Routledge.

Bertsch, K. R. (2016). Digitally Mediated: Exploring the Correlation Between Hyper-reliance on Electronically-Mediated Communication, Verbal Communication Apprehension, and Interpersonal Relationship Skills. UK: Gonzaga University.

Cardon, P. W., & Marshall, B. (2015). The hype and reality of social media use for work collaboration and team communication. International Journal of Business Communication, 52(3), 273-293.

Coetzee, S. A., Schmulian, A., & Kotze, L. (2014). Communication apprehension of South African accounting students: The effect of culture and language. Issues in Accounting Education, 29(4), 505-525.

Drucker, P. F. (2017). What Makes an Effective Executive (Harvard Business Review Classics). USA: Harvard Business Review Press.

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Felicetti, L., Femminella, M., Reali, G., & Liò, P. (2016). Applications of molecular communications to medicine: A survey. Nano Communication Networks, 7, 27-45.

Fleisher, C. S., & Bensoussan, B. E. (2015). Business and competitive analysis: effective application of new and classic methods. FT Press.

Gao, Z., Cecati, C., & Ding, S. X. (2015). A survey of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant techniques—Part I: Fault diagnosis with model-based and signal-based approaches. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 62(6), 3757-3767.

Goetz, S. M., Drew, T. A., & Houchins, A. H. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,471,752. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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Hashemi, Z., Hadavi, M., & Valinejad, M. (2016). Communication Apprehension and Fear of Physician in the Patients Referring to the Clinics of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Medical Ethics Journal, 10(37), 37-47.

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Rimkeeratikul, S., Zentz, M., Yuangsri, N., Uttamayodhin, P., Pongpermpruek, S., & Smith, S. (2016). Communication apprehension in L1 and L2 among first-year students of a graduate program for executives in a public university. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 9(1), 1-10.

Shi-Yong, P., & Ali, M. S. B. S. (2015). Communication Apprehension: A Comparison between English Majors and Non-majors in China. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 4(6), 190-195.

Simons, K. A., & Riley, T. J. (2014). Communication apprehension in accounting majors: Synthesis of relevant studies, intervention techniques, and directions for future research. In Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations (pp. 1-32). USA: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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