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Historical Background of India

Discuss about the Imagination in Human and Cultural Development.

The social transformation process in India has been noticed through the transition phase of different societal aspects, such as structure institution ideology and culture. According to Hopkins (2017), the main objective of such social transformation observed in India is ideological envisage, which could be characterized as ‘evolutionary’ in strategy and ‘revolutionary’ in content. During the freedom movement, The Indian leader in researched how the history, social structure, and tradition that formulated the societal condition, set the limited strategies, methods, and goals for future social transformation (Cohn 2017). It was recognised that the revolutionary changes brought to the social structure, institution, and societal values were quite necessary in terms of developing the democratic participation.

It can be indicated that the traditional culture sometimes is compared to the modern culture. Sorokin (2017) define that any culture is a process of learning and sharing meanings. Similarly, the Indian culture also has transformed from a traditional country to a more than one. The Indus Valley Civilization changed the name to India and later suggested many eventual transformations. The study will develop a critical understanding of such transformation of India from the traditional passed to modernity. Furthermore, the study will also discuss the socio-cultural factors that have been highly influenced through the historical background. In addition to this, the study will concentrate on identifying the economic disparity between the rich and the poor population that has the significant influential aspects in society culture of India.

Historical background of India reflects the varied heritage, which is deep rooted in traditional structure of the society. The current Indian society is characterized by the caste-ridden perspective, inward looking, and worn-out the social system completely. However, Hutchins (2015) implied that in today's world, India has become much perceptible strides to become immortalized Nation. It is noticed that, after independence, the strategy of developing the modernized India became the integral part of the initiatives formulated for the national development. Chen, Chittoor and Vissa (2015) observed that there is the sustained and conscious efforts are made to improve the economy, politics, culture, and social framework of India. On the other hand, Heimsath (2015) observed that the transition of India towards modernization has been a continuous yet a slow process. During the initial time of 19th century, the changes in the social structure of India were clearly observable. There were significant attempts made to describe such initial changes in the societal aspects by developing the concepts like westernization and Sanskritization.

Sanskritization

Kidambi (2016) explained that Sanskritization is one of the cultural mobility processes that is associated with the Indian social structure in the traditional field. It is conceptualized as a process by which the tribal or low caste group changes the rituals, cast, and ideology into the higher caste. In this process, the mobility results the changes only in positional system. It does not lead to any particular structural atmosphere of the society. Therefore, the concept does not the huge purpose of defining the contemporary and societal changes in India.

The impact of the western philosophy and science started during the British rule in India. This impact of the Western atmosphere is generally referred to and westernization that introduced the transformation of daily habits. The Indians realised the ineffectiveness of some ancient customs and prejudices that changed their views towards the society. According to Desai and Desai (2016), westernization is one of the ways of changing the life patterns and establishing new values among the Indians. The closed unconfined vision of average Indian transformed into liberalized and enlarged to some extent. Exposure to history, English literature, and political institution make them to promote the active concerns regarding the human welfare and outlook the humanitarian values (Beteille 2018). Suggestively, it brought recognizable changes in the Indian society ranging from the loading speech and food habits to the values of equalitarianism, humanitarianism, and secularism. Westernization discusses the contribution to the growth of diverse forms of cultural structures that are extending over the entire country. In fact, it has cards across even the regional boundaries as well (Hettne 2017). This type of cultural structure is the evident of industrialization, urban urbanization, legal system, new politicization, science and technology, educational system, and.  Hence, it can be implied that the Western influence was one of the significant source of observable social change in India.

In spite of bringing such changes in the Indian society, it is noticeable that the process failed to bring changes among the masses. Chandra (2015) identified that the process did not develop any considerable changes in the attitudes and value orientation of the broader societal Strata. Therefore, the significant changes of the institute by westernization had failed to touch the people route levels of the people and created the biasness. Moreover, the changes suggested as the result of westernization had severe limitation between the technical fields and the administrative aspects (Verma 2017). This was against of the cultural sphere and deeper social atmosphere of life. This signifies that the westernization concept is narrow and it generally stands for Complex modernization process in the developing countries.

Westernization

Unlike the above concepts of Sanskritization and westernization, modernization is signifying more comprehensive and commendable explanatory power associated with well composed diagnostic insight into the contemporary societal changes taking place in the Indian society. The modernization process describes profound quantitative and qualitative changes that are taking place in the contemporary world of human. A series of interdependent and interpenetrating transformation are quite inherent in the modernization segment. This modernization process works both internally and externally. According to Binoy et al. (2016), modernization process does not only involve the various institution building in the economic, political, social, and others societal spheres, but it brings basic changes in the personality of the individual. It is important to state that the two changes are but complementary and rightly remarkable. It ensures that the nation and institution building need to collaborate with the capacities and attitudes of the people buy concentrating on the other developmental forms (Kaviraj 2017). Hence, modernization defines the positive and global attitudes as well as a value orientation of the individuals. It also defines the achievers in the society in terms of maintaining roles and relationships, rational outlook, secularism, and efficacy of the human efforts towards achieving goals.

Jodhka (2017)  observed that modernization movement signifies the transformation from the traditional values to modern rationalist values.  On the other hand, Cohn (2017) explained that modernization has its roots in positivist and rationalist spirit. Hence, modernization can be considered as a growth of secularism as well as the rationality whereas it is also conceptualized as the means by which people broke away from diverse constraints of tyrannical regimes as well as the constant associated with the superstitious values. Banik, Gupta and Bhaumik (2016) explained it as a process of bringing the deep rooted, fundamental, and widespread changes in values, attitudes, behaviours, and motivations of people. In fact, it is leading the people towards leaving in a better condition (Komarova and Velthuis 2018). The principles of inequality based on birth, cast, sex, and religion that were considered as the normative sense. The policy of change started showing immediate results in some of the cases. For example, in the industrial, electoral politics, and economic expansion, these changes became much prominent. Even in the urban centers, the societal changes were observed.

On the contrary, Bendix (2017) argued that even though the modernization process is quite pervasive, desirable, and transformative, it sometimes feel to reach each societal section due to the various structural obstructions. The caste stratification as well as the negative elements of tradition is the major obstruction of developing modernization process. These obstructions are influencing the individuals in the society. However, in order to make it more effective, this process should be reached to a larger population of the society. There are many denotation observed in the terms like modernity, modern, and modernization. The space this specific three terms are both different and similar to each other. According to Khan (2016), modernity cannot be conceptualized as a process, but as an end state. However, it is noticed that both the process and end are analytically diverse concepts. The inequality of becoming modern is clearly denoted by the modernity where process is denoted by modernization.

Modernization

Considering the earliest human group, it was noticed that and the main source of food Wars to be gathered together. Eventually, people acquired skills and knowledge in agricultural process. The development of the agriculture helped people to live a better life and make the human communities more stationery (Ranade, Londhe and Mishra 2015). The villages started emerging to signify that man has passed from nomadic life to collective situation. India is conceptualized as the land of villages. Majority of The villages include around five hundred populations. Heimsath (2015) stated that the social life in villages has some different characteristics. It is important to state that the social life in villages strengthens the hierarchical and authoritarian administrative norms. The hierarchal exchange of relationships is highly visible in the village social life. These relations are even influenced by the civil servants and public organisations.

Many of the sociologists perceive that the Indian villages are characterized by the population, modes of production, structure, and physical attributes.  In usual cases, it has been observed that the villages have less than five thousands individuals. India is considered as the ‘country of villages’, where agriculture is the main source of income (Migdal 2018). The villagers help in strengthening the social bonds as well as bringing the stability to the societal system in different ways. However, it has been observed that the rural society has undergone some of the recognizable changes in the recent past. Especially, after independence, the land Reform legislations have accelerated these identifiable changes (Mohapatra, Khadanga and Majhi 2018). It was noticed that India has a rich cultural heritage and it is considered as a land of diversity. It is reflected in the multilingual, multi-social, multi-cast, and multi religious society. One of the most important features of Indian society is the predominant rural habitation, multicast socialization, and my really attribute observed in the social life (Deshpande, Sen and Vaidya 2017). Currently, several communal organisations have become much active due to which the communal clashes between different parties have emerged significantly.

At the initial stage of the restructure of the Indian society has been set into motion under some of the historical context of national ideology and public policy. The historical sources define the social conditions at the initial level. Parasuraman (2016) implied that the method of social transformation we can in India from these conditions. One of the main features of the social conditions is the internal structural autonomy underline the social system. On the other hand, Zittoun and Gillespie (2015) describe that the major structures are generally concerned with the social stratification, cultural ideology, and political system. It is noticeable that cast comprises the central principle of observable social transformation and it experienced the great deal of internal autonomy. The social change was influenced by the British rule that set into motion cultural dynamics and social aspects.  It brought changes to the social and structural pattern of Indian society.

Positive Impacts of Modernization

It is noticeable that the inter-structural autonomy associated with the social components of Indian tradition has influenced the direction of social change in a significant manner. It suggests the various stages of historical transformation (Jain 2016). The first stage was observed at the beginning of Western contact to the development of British rule. it set the place for cultural renaissance. Moreover the, it influenced the initial growth and industrialization of the new political consciousness. It is quite observable that these forces brought huge changes in the Indian society Carley and Christie (2017). Especially, in the modern education as well as the judicial Administrative structure, these changes hold the most significance in such context. In fact, it was conceptualized as the emergence of colonial autonomy associated with the industrialization and modernization of the society. Such innovations influenced the traditional social structure. It also led to downward mobility of the privilege classes Wheeler and Beatley (2014). On the contrary these innovations led to some of the selective upward mobility of traditional business classes. The development of such mobility brought changes to the educationist at administrative levels. These classes availed the opportunities available in the initial phase of colonial transformation.

After independence, the Indian society had undergone some underwent fundamental changes. The state took the responsibility of bringing social transformation by creating the democratic political participation, cultural and religious pluralism, and social justice framework of a secular state. It brought inter-structural autonomy in the Indian society (Solt 2016). The principles of inequality based on birth, cast, sex, and religion that were considered as the normative sense (Park and Mercado 2015). The policy of change started showing immediate results in some of the cases. For example, in the industrial, electoral politics, and economic expansion, these changes became much prominent. Even in the urban centers, the societal changes were observed. India is the second most populous democracy in the world and it is divided into thousands of socially exclusive religious and cars that introduced the cultural diversification. It is a country where almost 70% of the people live in villages and remaining 30% leaves in urban areas (Dabla-Norris et al. 2015). The traditional Indian culture was quite unique and prominent for defining the unity in diversity. The cultural and artistic tradition suggests the rich cultural value.

The linking of India with the Western culture creates the connection the pre-modern and modernized cultural systems. It is noticeable that by the time, the western tradition created high influences on the diverse aspects of the Indian society. Especially, social, political, and cultural lives of India has transformed from the traditional past to modernized values. According to Jaikumar and Sarin (2015) the traditional holistic and hierarchal character had broken down much recognizably. Therefore, the significant changes of the institute by westernization had failed to touch the people route levels of the people and created the biasness. Moreover, the changes suggested as the result of westernization had severe limitation between the technical fields and the administrative aspects. The value structure was rendering more liberal, open, humanistic, and equalitarian aspects. Moreover, the traditional aspects transformed into the modernized effects with the development of technological worldview based on equality, rationalism, and freedom. Mukhopadhaya (2017) argued that some of the western intellectuals did not accept such changed values in a positive way. It was noticed that these intellectuals perceive the negative orientation of the culture in India. However, the historical importance created the stabilized era of transforming the Indian culture. Gornick and Jäntti (2014) implied that the Indian traditional culture was highly influenced by the western cultures since the British Rules. In the fifteenth and sixteenth century, Portuguese came to India that created marginal impact die to the religious prejudices and pre-modern values (Piketty 2014). On the other hand, in the 17th and 18th century, the French and Dutch also visited India that influenced the political and commercial goals much respectively. The British wielded power in India during the initial stage of seventeenth century consolidated the position towards the end of the 19th century.

Negative Impacts of Modernization

Rani, Krishnakumar and Bigotta (2017) opined that the political power of the British Empire was mainly based on the cultural tradition comprised of experimentation, rationality, verification, codification, and rational-utilitarian. In a dispersed form, the oriental civilization of China and India had some of these traits. However, these countries could not systematically develop such specific cultural aspects due to the essential structural elements. Some of the fundamental differences were visible in the cultural pattern, ethos, and structure of Islam and Hinduism as well as the west. By this time, the Indian tradition met the Western tradition that had the form of legal rationalism in terms of understanding the contractual individualistic unity between the society and the people. It was noticeable that the Western legal system repudiated hierarchy and status and promoted to universalism as well as equality (Chauhan, et al. 2016). The western culture introduced the achievement pattern, which was perceived as new criteria for social stratification. This type of recognition and orientation of the individual achievement attributed the holistic and hierarchical attributes.

The cultural changes in India can be explained by developing different views. First is the western impact on Indian cultural tradition.  According to Park and Mercado (2015), it was designated as the primary westernization that shifted its focus to cultural modernization. The primary westernization is segregated into two different types.  First, was the emergence of subcultures and the second suggested the process of general diffusion associated with the western cultural traits (Park and Mercado 2015). It was noticeable that the primary westernization formulated the sub cultural pattern, we with a minority of intellectual and Scholars from India (Chen, Chittoor and Vissa 2015). Secondly the general diffusion process of Western cultural traits suggests the adoption of new food habits, technology, and dress pattern. Modernization is generally considered as a growth of secularism as well as the rationality whereas it is also conceptualized as the means by which people broke away from diverse constraints of tyrannical regimes as well as the constant associated with the superstitious values (Hopkins 2017). It is important to state that the two changes are but complementary and rightly remarkable. It ensures that the nation and institution building need to collaborate with the capacities and attitudes of the people buy concentrating on the other developmental forms.

Another form of westernization discusses the contribution to the growth of diverse forms of cultural structures that are extending over the entire country. In fact, it has cards across even the regional boundaries as well. This type of cultural structure is the evident of industrialization, urban urbanization, legal system, new politicization, science and technology, educational system, and. These factors transmit through development of communication and transport. The new great tradition of modernization in India developed the aforesaid institutions. It was noticed that the sub cultural forms of westernization manifested in the emergence of commercialized middle class during the 18th century (Heimsath 2015). It ensures that the nation and institution building need to collaborate with the capacities and attitudes of the people buy concentrating on the other developmental forms. Hence, modernization defines the positive and global attitudes as well as a value orientation of the individuals (Park and Mercado 2015). The closed unconfined vision of average Indian transformed into liberalized and enlarged to some extent. Exposure to history, English literature, and political institution make them to promote the active concerns regarding the human welfare and outlook the humanitarian values. With the help of the regional variation in the social composition, these changes became much prominent. Heimsath (2015) observed that the middle class provided the middle men to the British for threading purposes. These commercial middle men where the first group that came in contact with the western culture. The current generation of middle class professional groups as well as the group of social reformers emerged much significantly.

The economic transformation in India was also highly influenced by the modernization. The major focus of this modernization was to reduce poverty and improve the living standards of the population. Beteille (2018) stated that the economy has been one of the largest contributor to the entire Global growth that accounted for 10% of the entire economic activity of the world since 2005. In today's date, the GDP per capita is three times higher than it was in the year of 2000. However this modernization period also witnessed a rise in inequality. This inequality has been driven by several income gaps between the states of India as well as a growing Urban and rural divide. Even today, India continues to have largest number of poor than the other countries in the world (Hettne 2017). In recent years, the growth has slowed down and many of the underlined challenges have been remaining unsolved. It is to be indicated that's gathering more people into the process will help in generating growth and sharing the games much widely that can make India more resilient for the future.

India has the largest and youngest populations among all other countries in the world. Therefore, it needs to create millions of high standard jobs in the near future for ensuring decent living conditions for the citizens. In many of the cases the country is used as an example of the economy that is modernized by jumping directly into the services instead of passing through the manufacturing process. It has been observed that the manufacturing weight in India has been much stabilizing over last few decades. In fact, the business services in India have a high value added segment that represents a larger share of the economic activities even more than Europe.

In today's date, agricultural accounts for only 16% of total value added businesses. However, this sector employs about half of the Indian population (Weforum.org 2018). It has been observed that this sector did not achieve a high productivity level in past decades. Even it limited the improvements in rural living standards.

The competitiveness in India improved after 5 years of decline. The report was measured and presented by Global Competitiveness Report in 2015 to 2016. It shows that the country has improved the rank in the economic parameters.

The inequality income in emerging and developing economies like India is also one of the most considerable factors. Since the late 1990s, it has been observed that the world economy moved from well the countries to developing emerging economies as well. In India, it has been observed that the economies have slowed down by reducing the piece of shifts towards Global wealth. There is the profound impact found in search shifting scenario. It is also noticed that a huge number of people has been escaping poverty that signifies emergence of the new middle class fragile financial footing.  However, Ranade, Londhe and Mishra (2015) argued that the income inequality is not always same in the developing countries like the developed countries. While cities of India have been increasingly plug into the globalizing economy, many changes is noticed in the rural areas. Such differences between the urban and rural areas are considering the spatial inequalities.

The income rate in this country explains some of the regional inequalities, which suggest significant rising in incomes faster than the rural areas.  However, Migdal (2018) opined that there is the inequality observed in the opportunity distribution as well. Especially, in terms of accessing the services of Healthcare, job, an education; the unequal opportunistic scenario is much observable. For example, it was noticed that the enrollment in Secondary Education is lower in the rural areas than in the urban areas (Park and Mercado 2015). In fact, the access to the basic Healthcare also depends on the people and their location. In many parts of the country, it has been observed that women are facing many barriers that are depriving their families and communities of significant economic contributions. There are many other factors observable in such context. it is not able that many of the poor countries what in an informal way that does not signify any written contract and a very little way of terms and conditions associated with the employment process. Almost 80% cases are recognised in India that contributes to inequality much significantly (Jain 2016). Therefore, the poor citizens receive laser pay then the formal jobs. They are even really offered opportunities for the promotion or training process. Their working schedule is unpredictable or they might find themselves without an income at any point of time. The villagers help in strengthening the social bonds as well as bringing the stability to the societal system in different ways. However, they still receive the lesser wages than the urbanized people.

According to Carley and Christie (2017), there is almost 1% rise observable in the face of income inequality. One of the major reasons for such inequality rise was the impact of globalization.  It is a process through which the global economy becomes more integrated with the help of advanced technology, trade, in investment, and information. The emerging Technologies have been destroying the old jobs and creating the opportunities for the new ones. The high skilled workers are becoming more valuable.  On the other hand some of the middle and low skilled workers are losing their jobs (Park and Mercado 2015). It is even shifting the balance between the labour and the capital that delivers a largest share of income to the entrepreneurs. The closed unconfined vision of average Indian transformed into liberalized and enlarged to some extent that led towards the insignificant approaches towards the income rate of the people from diverse background. Exposure to history, English literature, and political institution make them to promote the active concerns regarding the human welfare and outlook the humanitarian values. The inequality has been affected by the societal changes and the workplace development. (Dabla-Norris et al. 2015) identified that the collected taxes and benefits are also one of the major reasons for increasing inequality date. On the contrary, Mukhopadhaya (2017) argued that the role of the state has been evolving that creates the general trend towards policies for redistribution. In addition to this some of the other economic policies for reducing regulation are also increasing the inequality rate. Other different of factors have been contributing to boost up the top incomes. The emergence of the super labour market and financialization of Economics are also responsible for it.

The impact of the emerging Technologies adopted by the developing countries like India is March considerable factor for the inequality income. In the post globalization era, India started adopting them highly advanced Technologies that are replacing the work forces much noticeably. Therefore, people with low income rate cannot afford special training program to use these advanced Technologies that are making them less skilled than those who are investing to learn the new technologies through such technologies (Piketty 2014). The closed unconfined vision of average Indian transformed into liberalized and enlarged to some extent. Exposure to history, English literature, and political institution make them to promote the active concerns regarding the human welfare and outlook the humanitarian values. It is noticeable that Technology has a clear impact on the livelihood of the people. The technological change is thus creating the unequal distribution of power among the rich and poor.

In case of income inequality, there is a clear relationship between labour and capital has been found (Park and Mercado 2015). Labour is paid to carry out their duties and capital is put to economic uses. The economic activities are supposedly generating income, but, historically, a proportion of this income is divided among rich and poor in an unequal way. The economies have slowed down by reducing the piece of shifts towards Global wealth. There is the profound impact found in search shifting scenario (Rani, Krishnakumar and Bigotta 2017). It is also noticed that a huge number of people has been escaping poverty that signifies emergence of the new middle class. In the last few decades, it has been observed that the shifts towards the capital have lost its balance. The label shares can be one of those reasons for such shifting focus. In India, these issues are prominently visible. In fact the changing world of work places is also contributed into the unequal distribution of income among the rich and poor in India.

Conclusion

The study is widely focusing on the transformation of India from the traditional passed to modernity. The obtained ideas from the study reflect that India has become much perceptible strides to become immortalized Nation. Even after independence, the strategy of developing the modernized India became the integral part of the initiatives formulated for the national development.  It is conceptualized as a process by which the tribal or low caste group changes the rituals, cast, and ideology into the higher caste. In this process, the mobility results the changes only in positional system. It brought recognizable changes in the Indian society ranging from the loading speech and food habits to the values of equalitarianism, humanitarianism, and secularism. The modernization process describes profound quantitative and qualitative changes that are taking place in the contemporary world of human. Furthermore, the study discusses that the modernization can be considered as a growth of secularism as well as the rationality whereas it is also conceptualized as the means by which people broke away from diverse constraints of tyrannical regimes as well as the constant associated with the superstitious values. The development of the agriculture helped people to live a better life and make the human communities more stationery. Many scholar put forwarded the idea that the land Reform legislations have accelerated these identifiable changes. It was noticed that India has a rich cultural heritage and it is considered as a land of diversity. The changes suggested as the result of westernization had severe limitation between the technical fields and the administrative aspects. The value structure was rendering more liberal, open, humanistic, and equalitarian aspects. The income inequality is another discussed area in this study. The world economy moved from well the countries to developing emerging economies as well. In India, it has been observed that the economies have slowed down by reducing the piece of shifts towards Global wealth. There is the profound impact found in search shifting scenario. Other different of factors have been contributing to the inequality income rates among the rich and poor.

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