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Features of the Semantic Web

Discuss about the Comparative Study on Ontology Management Approach.

The research proposal is based on “computer ethics in semantic web age”. In the year 1940, computer ethics was being established by Norbert Weiner as educational fields. The individuals are no longer secured that the confidentiality is being continued on the web. Casanovas (2015) stated that the hackers threaten the privacy of people since units restrict the confidential information. As compared to past, people are sharing personal information at superior scale. The computer hackers contact the information.

In the year 1989, Tim Berner suggested such a system which could facilitate people to distribute information using the hypertext system. Next year, he wrote down his first document by use of HTML. Tim Berner introduced semantic web in the year 2000. The semantic web is an expansion of current web where the information is offered well, enabled the computers along with people to work in cooperation (Jain, Duhan and Sharma 2018). The term was being coined by Tim Berners for the web of data which can process by the machines. It was being discovered that web 2.0 was not machine comprehensible. The semantic web is also termed as web 3.0 which expansion of World Wide Web allows for sharing of data (Sahu, Mohapatra and Balabantaray 2016). The semantic web of Tim Berner is an association from a web of credentials towards a web of information.

Based on the following research questions, the entire research proposal is carried out:

  1. What are the ethical issues due to introducing of Semantic Web?
  2. What are solutions provided to overcome the ethical issues?

Casanovas et al. (2016) discussed that Semantic web gains powers and collaborates with other research areas such as e-commerce, e-government as well as the social web. There is a requirement of a combination of information into a proper way for creating possible and command for research into a Semantic web.

Taddeo and Buchanan (2015) stated that most people attended that World Wide Web (WWW) is not booming as there are many troubles regarding who will upload the data, direct the data, and fix the issues and others. The structure of the web is distributed network, which interlinks the WebPages with exclusive resource locators. It helps to classify web of function as well as identify them. The semantic web is used to drive the infrastructure, wherever the links of reasons are on the information level. Kasemsap (2017) argued that it is mainly based on the design of smart data. Smart data is being interlinked the data which permits human and machines to not to apply the information. According to Tim Berner, the interlinked data has the property of self-description, it leads to the semantic web. Features of the semantic web are as follows:

Challenges and Ethical Issues in the Semantic Web Environment

Voice: the Semantic web is allowed to a similar heterogeneity of the data, but at an equivalent time it has a small model to initiate off discussion on a few of the topic (Wilson, Scalise and Gochyyev 2015). For this reason, Resource Description Framework (RDF) was being created that helps for linking the data.

Content creators: The main question behind proposition of web was who is going to create the web page. Every one should able to create the content of the semantic web. Due to the network effect, the web grows (North, Richardson and North 2017). The sourced contents are Wikipedia, IMDB which made the entry as well as grew into huge sources of information.

Users: The web page is for the humans for sharing of information with one another. The semantic web consists of another user such as machines. It is one of the reasons why semantic web is important to increase evolution of pervasive computing (Vigo and Harper 2017). When all data are linked with one another, then the potential of data becomes massive.

Figure 1: From web to semantic web

(Source: Vigo and Harper 2017, pp-5)

The semantic web is an effort for making web intelligent by doing modifications into a structure of data on the web such that it is linked, developed as well as carried to the users (Antunes, Freire and Costa 2016). The data on the web is unstructured (text or images or HTML)/ semi-structured (XML). The web converts the data into the web of data, which is built upon RDF data modelling. The RDF classes are being stored which describe entities and its relationships. It is considered as a new standard for exchanging of data into the web (Kenneth McBride 2014). It is used of URL for linking the data such as to describe the relationships among the entities.

Universal Resource Identifier (URI): It is termed as the formatted string, which is used for identification of physical resources. URI identifies of real objects, which are distinguished from HTTP URI identifies the documents related to HTML (Smith 2016). It is one of the methods to differentiate data at the human end (HTML) from the data at the machines.

Unicode: It offers a unique number for each character, independent to underlay the platform and program along with the platform. ASCII code is used before developing the Unicode. Diverse encoding makes manipulation of the data critical (Jamoulle et al. 2017). There are also risks of conflicts among various encoding schemes. Unicode is used for solving issues for being universal.

Solutions for Preventing Ethical Issues

eXtensible markup language (XML): It is a resource description framework to represent information related to resources into a graphical format (Sahu, Mohapatra and Balabantaray 2016).

RDF scheme: It is defined as a vocabulary of the RDF model. It offers a mechanism for describing domain-specific properties along with classes of resources (Campbell and Cowan 2016). RDFS is simple, and it is not providing the exact semantics of the domain.

Ontology: It is comprised of a set of knowledge terms includes of vocabulary, semantic interconnections as well as logic for a specific topic (Keshavarz 2014). It is applied to the web for creating a semantic web.

Logic, proof and trust: The logical layer is used for enhancing ontology language and permit to write application specific to the declarative knowledge (Jovanovic and Bagheri 2016). The proof layer includes an actual deductive process in the form of web languages. The trust layer emerges throughout the use of digital languages based on recommendations.

Figure 2: Architecture of semantic web

(Source: Jovanovic and Bagheri 2016, pp-59)

Gudivada, Rao and Paris (2015) discussed that computer principles are a division of practical viewpoint with how the computing specialized make choices regarding the professionals as well as community conduct. The aim of the semantic web is to expand the website where the data are obtainable and visible to the users as it is available to the website. Kerne et al. (2017) illustrated that when the data are available at the traditional website, and then there are high chances of hacking of data. The information, which is provided from the user’s end, becomes available into the source code of the web pages into such technique that it is effortlessly crumbed by the crawlers (Wankel and StachowiczStanusch 2015). The information is also provided into URL of WebPages of the website. Sharma and Jindal (2016) stated that the users provide the sensitive information so that it is accessible on the websites. The combination of individual information into a semantic website is significant. It is done in such technique that the private information that is presented by the users is not available via search engines. The user is provided to make information private as well as the public on the website. Punagin and Arya (2015) analyzed that the information, which is declared as public, is accessible by the search engines while the private information is not accessible by other websites. The developers of such website take concern of the fact that the private data which are afforded by users are not accessible into any data feed offered by the website (Kreps and Kimppa 2015). The information is not integrated into URL of WebPages into the website. The ethical issues are raised due to the evolution of the semantic web. The ethical issues are mainly related to personal information, data as well as trust into social web data. Following are the ethical issues that are raised by semantic web environment such as:

Conclusion

Interconnection: The ethical issue is related to accessibility of the online interaction. It is identified from larger emerge starting the implementation of semantic web 2.0. It rose due to the dissimilarity between offline academic writing, prescribed issuing along with online community drafting (Antunes, Freire and Costa 2016). Interconnection issues cause natural barriers to production, movement as well as a standard of knowledge into the academic contexts.

Content creation: At the time of online interaction, various content is created which raises problems regarding managing of a public environment of the content formation into online academic networks. The confidential information is not shared with any other website without giving prior authentication and authorization to the data and information. It leads to manipulation of both public as well as private boundaries (Sahu, Mohapatra and Balabantaray 2016). It is critical to secure the data when they are integrated from various sources. Therefore, informed consent is one of the ways to ensure the user that the data are being secured.

The ethical decisions are taking regarding the computer technology along with usage of the primary influences such as the personal code of an individual along with informal code for conducting ethical work, which enters into the workplaces, and experience towards the formal code of ethics (Allison and Kendrick 2015). Following are some the solutions should be considered for preventing the ethical issues in the semantic web environment such as:

Education of developers: The developers of a semantic website are knowledgeable from the point of outlook before the information is made accessible. It is understood that situation as well as nature of the information is provided by users (Baun, Cocos and Spanou 2017). The responsibilities are understood before the data are made public afforded by the customer on the websites.

Education of the users: The users are knowledgeable as of the point of view of learned consent. It is sophisticated to read the written text into an agreement ahead of clicking on “I agree” button (Wilson, Scalise and Gochyyev 2015). They are educated about declaration of the information private as well as public on the website. The users should also be aware about the ethical issues which are mainly raised. If the users are aware of those, the next time these types of issues are not occurred in the future.

This section is found to articulate reasons behind the selection of data analysis and collection techniques. The researcher requires taking proper data analysis methods to collect data for this research proposal. Selected research methods are selected with regards to the research question, and issues of data collection and analysis. Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015) stated that research methodology addresses the issues and gaps in the research study. Use of accurate methods helps to comprehend the strategies adopted to investigate the computer-related ethical issues in semantic web (Punagin and Arya 2015). The researcher tries to examine the research approaches for analysing and investigating the ethical issues.

References

Flick (2015) discussed that research philosophy is related to develop the nature of knowledge. According to Silverman (2016), many assumptions are taken to conduct the study so that proper search outcomes are being achieved. The philosophy adopts to influence different practical considerations. Critical thinking is required to evaluate selected research topic. The selected research philosophy for this study is positivism, which helps to build logical statements on a selected research topic to analyze unknown factors. This particular philosophy is used of structured methods to assist the duplication. This study is also time limited which also limited the role of a researcher to assess the data leads to lessening of data errors (Antunes, Freire and Costa 2016). The role of the researcher is incomplete to only data collection throughout the use of aim approach. Athe part from all this, the errors in the analyzed data are to be mitigated properly.

Wilson, Scalise and Gochyyev (2015) defined that the approaches are required such that proper format is followed to carry out the study. The selected research approach for this particular study is an inductive approach. This approach is helpful to provide conclusions on the study from prepositions and test is conducted from the side of researcher’s observations. The researcher begins with observations that are used to create comprehensive theories along with summaries which are taken from this research study (North, Richardson and North 2017). The limitation of this inductive approach is that it is created of comprehensive theories along with summaries related to small observations; therefore reliability of the research is resulted in the selected research question. It is selected for analyzing investigations on ethical issues due to the adoption of the semantic web for minimizing the issues on the web. Different measurement analysis methods are used to better understand of the investigation topic (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). This topic is based on different theories. The researcher conducts of practical analysis the collected data for getting better results that help to understand the research question.

According to Kreps and Kimppa (2015), research design helps to conduct the study with examining control over different factors that obstacles strengths as well as weakness of the research findings. It is a plan help to illustrate procedures for data analysis and collection. The selected research design is descriptive which is used to provide a better image of the six situations that occur. It is utilizing and rationalising existing practices and creating accurate decisions on the selected research topic (Flick 2015). This design approach is also conducted a feasibility analysis to measure the effectiveness of investigating the ethical issues. Privacy and security procedures are used to minimize the ethical issues in the semantic web environment. Examination plan helps to enable selection of data for proper conducting of this study.  Proper research design method is used to design along with undertaking components which are reasonable (Silverman 2016). Use of descriptive design enables for gaining information and carrying out critical research work. Through this research design, various research factors are understandable.

The data collection method is considered as significant aspect for this particular research study. It is recognized as process to gather and measure information that is dependent on a selected research topic. Data collection is the process to collect information from various sources to search solutions to the identified research problems. Here, the problem is ethical issues, which are raised into the semantic web environment. It also evaluates the research outcomes. The data collection methods are categorized into two types such as data sources and data techniques.

In this particular study, secondary data is selected to collect data on the research topic. The data are mainly collected from the peer review journal articles, newspapers, books in addition to case studies. Antunes, Freire and Costa (2016) stated that secondary data are those data which are already available as well as collected by others from other sources. The data are quicker to obtain as compared to primary data collection method (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). With the help of this data collection method, the gaps into the researcher are analyzed along with deficiencies in the research study. It also helps to understand the research problems. The main advantage of secondary data methods is that it helps to provide comparison of data that are collected by the researcher (Flick 2015). The researcher observed that this method is accurate to provide better research outcomes. The submission of a proper set of criteria to choose the secondary data used acts a significant role to increase levels of authority as well as the reliability of the investigation management .

In order to meet with the research question, qualitative research is held which provides a complete description as well as investigation of the research subject without restraining the scope of this investigation along with the environment of the responses of participants. The usefulness of this qualitative research is based on abilities along with the capacity of the researchers while the ending is to be professed as dependable (Silverman 2016). It is recognized that data are related to the selected research topic of proper data set on computer ethics in a semantic web environment. It is observed that the main plan to use of the semantic web is to at the er the web such that the data will become smarter. Jamoulle et al. (2017) stated that qualitative techniques are dealt with quality such that it becomes descriptive rather than the numerical form. The data are only gained throughout the observation. This data technique explores of how in addition to why the things occur while collecting the data.

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Research plan on computer ethics on semantic web age

50 days

Mon 3/26/18

Fri 6/1/18

   Selection of the Research Topic

2 days

Mon 3/26/18

Tue 3/27/18

   Identifying the source of secondary data management

4 days

Wed 3/28/18

Mon 4/2/18

   Developing the layout of the research

5 days

Tue 4/3/18

Mon 4/9/18

   Conducting the detailed literature review

6 days

Tue 4/10/18

Tue 4/17/18

   Forming the appropriate research plan

4 days

Wed 4/18/18

Mon 4/23/18

   Selecting the Appropriate Research Techniques

5 days

Tue 4/24/18

Mon 4/30/18

   Collecting the secondary data and information

3 days

Tue 5/1/18

Thu 5/3/18

   Analysis and Interpretation of Data Collection

5 days

Fri 5/4/18

Thu 5/10/18

   Developing the data findings

6 days

Fri 5/11/18

Fri 5/18/18

   Concluding the Study

5 days

Mon 5/21/18

Fri 5/25/18

   Development of Rough Draft

4 days

Mon 5/28/18

Thu 5/31/18

   Submitting the final draft to the University

1 day

Fri 6/1/18

Fri 6/1/18

Table 1: Research plan for the proposal

Figure 3: Gantt chart

(Source: Created by author)

Conclusion

It is concluded that features of semantic web is ease with the PDA, laptop, server as well as desktop to communicate with each others. It is used for automation of corporate decisions which are hand processed. It has ability to assess trustworthiness of the document on web and it is remarkable ease with finding of answers to the questions. It is analyzed that semantic web is vision of the information which are understandable by the computers, such that it can perform works involved to find, share as well as combine of information on the web. The semantic web is vision of future.

References

Allison, M. and Kendrick, L.M., 2015. Toward Education 3.0: Pedagogical Affordances and Implications of Social Software and the Semantic Web. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2015(144), pp.109-119.

Antunes, F., Freire, M. and Costa, J.P., 2016. Semantic web and decision support systems. Journal of Decision management Systems, 25(1), pp.79-93.

Baun, C., Cocos, H.N. and Spanou, R.M., 2017. Performance Aspects of Object-based Storage Services on Single Board Computers. Open Journal of Cloud Computing (OJCC), 4(1), pp.1-16.

Campbell, D.G. and Cowan, S.R., 2016. The paradox of privacy: Revisiting a core library value in an age of big data and linked data. Library Trends, 64(3), pp.492-511.

Casanovas, P., 2015. Semantic web regulatory models: Why ethics matter. Philosophy & Technology, 28(1), pp.33-55.

Casanovas, P., Palmirani, M., Peroni, S., van Engers, T. and Vitali, F., 2016. Semantic web for the legal domain: the next step. Semantic Web, 7(3), pp.213-227.

Flick, U., 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Sage.

Gudivada, V.N., Rao, D. and Paris, J., 2015. Understanding search-engine optimization. Computer, 48(10), pp.43-52.

Jain, R., Duhan, N. and Sharma, A.K., 2018. Comparative Study on Ontology management Approaches in Semantic Web.

Jamoulle, M., Resnick, M., Ittoo, A., Vander Stichele, R., Cardillo, E., Grosjean, J., Darmoni, S. and Vanmeerbeek, M., 2017. Indexing grey multilingual literature in General Practice in the era of Semantic Web. The Grey Journal.

Jovanovic, J. and Bagheri, E., 2016. Electronic Commerce Meets the Semantic Web. IT Professional, 18(4), pp.56-65.

Kasemsap, K., 2017. Mastering web mining and information retrieval in the digital age. Web usage mining techniques and applications across industries, pp.1-28.

Kenneth McBride, N., 2014. ACTIVE ethics: an information systems ethics for the internet age. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, 12(1), pp.21-44.

Kerne, A., Lupfer, N., Linder, R., Qu, Y., Valdez, A., Jain, A., Keith, K., Carrasco, M., Vanegas, J. and Billingsley, A., 2017, June. Strategies of Free-Form Web Curation: Processes of Creative Engagement with Prior Work. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition(pp. 380-392). ACM.

Keshavarz, H., 2014. How credible is information on the Web: Reflections on misinformation and disinformation. Infopreneurship Journal, 1(2), pp.1-17.

Kreps, D. and Kimppa, K., 2015. Theorising Web 3.0: ICTs in a changing society. Information Technology & People, 28(4), pp.726-741.

North, M.M., Richardson, R. and North, S.M., 2017. Information Security and Ethics Awareness: A Concise Comparative Investigation. Calitatea, 18(160), p.141.

Punagin, S. and Arya, A., 2015. Privacy in the age of pervasive internet and big data analytics-Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, 7(7), p.36.

Sahu, S.K., Mohapatra, D.P. and Balabantaray, R.C., 2016. Information retrieval in the context of checking semantic similarity in web: Vision of future web. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(32).

Sharma, K. and Jindal, B., 2016, March. An improved online plagiarism detection approach for semantic analysis using custom search engine. a In Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2016 3rd International Conference on (pp. 764-768). IEEE.

Silverman, D. ed., 2016. Qualitative research. Sage.

Smith, J., 2016. Working with the Semantic Web. Doing Digital Humanities: Practice, Training, Research, p.273.

Taddeo, M. and Buchanan, E., 2015. Information societies, ethical enquiries.

Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

Vigo, M. and Harper, S., 2017. Real-time detection of navigation problems on the World ‘Wild’Web. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 101, pp.1-9.

Wankel, C. and StachowiczStanusch, A. eds., 2015. Emerging Web 3.0/semantic Web applications in higher education: growing personalization and wider interconnections in learning. IAP.

Wilson, M., Scalise, K. and Gochyyev, P., 2015. Rethinking ICT literacy: From computer skills to social network settings. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 18, pp.65-80.

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