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Construction And Manufacturing Copyright

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Question:

Discuss About The Construction And Manufacturing Copyright?

 

Answer:

Introduction

In the present planning and completing a project within calculated time and budget has become a tough challenge. It is becoming harder for the engineers to complete their projects as per the calculated time.  As per the operations, there are few obstacles while planning and scheduling the construction of the Grand mosque. Hereby, this report has been prepared to discuss the problems that are creating the challenge to complete the project on calculated time and budget. Thereby, as per the complete analysis about the same, there are a few proposals which can help the team to complete the project in an exact way

 

Report

This report has been prepared to give the details about the scenario and the issues, which have been come up, while complete the task as per the planned task. However, with the complete analysis of the issues, there are some ways, which may help the team has also been discussed over.

As per the schedule and planning, the project needs to get completed within 9 days. However, on the last day of working the team has reached a 1.17m depth of excavation as planned. Therefore, an unexpected hard rock layer has been found by the team which has now created a challenge for the project.

Our consultant was then present at the site and he has advised that the team has to reach 1.5m depth as per the diagram.

The planned calculations for Activity B (Excavation) were;

 

Activity B

Soil type

Quantity

Rate per Day

Working days

Rent per Day

Total Cost

 

Sand

2500

200

9

200

2500

Table .1

The calculated working day was 9 within which the Excavation should be completed. Now the team has already completed 77 % of the work as per the schedule this activity.

Now as the Hard Rock layer has been found so now it is important to bring rock Breaker. This will not only increase the budget but also will exceed the time period of the project (Rees, 2003).

Now it is important to hire a breaker machine on rent to complete the task and the charges of excavation is 100 m3/ day

The cost of renting the machine 250 O.R / Day

Soil type

Quantity

Rate per Day

Working days

Rent per Day

Total Cost

Sand

1900

200

6

200

1500

Hard

600

100

6

250

2200

 

 

 Total

12

 Total

3700

Table.2

Hence, the schedule will exceed and the modified one will take 12 working days instead of 9 and this will make the project 9 days behind the planned period.

However, not merely the duration but this will also affect the cost and budget of the project (Nagarajan, 2004). The modified cost for the activity B will become 3700+ indirect costs for 3 days in spite of 2500, this will lead the project over budget.

 

The project had been planned by keeping factors in mind likewise:

  • Investment decision
  • Working Capital decision
  • Financing decision
  • Even, Financing decisions are influenced by the

Microeconomic factors:

  • Level of risk, liquidity position,
  • Macroeconomics factor:
  • The state of economy
  • Government policy

If we compare the previous excavation cost and time and modify cost and time it is creating a huge difference in the plan.

Thereafter, it has been assumed that the costs to exceed surface mining costs. Now it has become important to review that presumption to analyze the core elements of costs in every case and to compare the costs for the same (Chitkara, 2013).

There are few reasons that are nursing alleged cost effectiveness based on hard rock industry.

They contain labor intensity, equipment, higher energy efficiency and some operations like ground control, supplies etc.

Manpower need to be increased with arise the problem in order to complete the project on time (Dykstra, 2011). This will create over budget issues Indirect cost and direct both.

Equipment cost will also increase the rent of breaker will also include in the expenses. The increased days of working will definitely increase indirect costs for the project (Clough, 2015). The rent of the Breaker and if tried to hire more labor then also it will increase the cost as extra labor will be over budget as per the planned budget.

The processes employed in budgeting is contained to an understanding of cost control and cost estimation.

  • Purchasing of raw materials
  • Transportation cost
  • Tools of small values
  • Fuel oil
  • Machinery spares
  • Wages and salaries paid to production workers
  • Staff
  • Supervisor and other staff
  • Costs are given to the subcontractors regarding the orders that have been placed
  • Total Cost of production line rejections, wastages, breakdown and modify

The analysis has shown us various factors that are affecting the esteemed planned. 

Henceforth, the modification has become mandatory to find out any kind of solution for this.

So here are some of the ideas that may help to deal with the current scenario.

Particular

1st week

2nd week

3rd week

4th week

Problem Identification

 

 

 

 

Preparing the Literature Review 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of the gathered data

 

 

 

 

Research gap

 

 

 

 

Framing of the aims and objectives of the research

 

 

 

 

Primary data collection

 

 

 

 

Scrutiny of data

 

 

 

 

Explanation and interpretation

 

 

 

 

Finding valid conclusion

 

 

 

 

Submission

 

 

 

 

Figure .1

In order to bring out the appropriate solution, it was important to research accurately. The above-prepared chart has detailed the process of submission. As per the reviewed network and activities sequences, the solution that has been observed is overlap (Dou, 2016). The team can overlap 5 days between activity G and H in spite of working in a sequence. The description has been given below with the help of the table which will help understand the entire activity.

Activity

Description

Immediate Predecessors

Time Duration (Days)

A

Excavation

A

9

B

Install rough Plumbing

B

21

C

Cleaning and Securing of the site

-

3

D

Reinforced concrete for plinth Beams works AND Filling

C

25

E

Install Rough electrical wiring

D

7

F

Outside plaster

E

10

G

Wall Tiles For Toilets & Imam House Kitchen

F

15

H

Floor Ceramic Tiles

F

11

I

Waterproof and Roof Sloop concrete

G

8

J

Inside plaster

I, J

5

K

Inside painting

G

4

L

Outside Painting

H

10

M

External Works

M, K

25

N

Reinforced concrete for ground floor Columns And Slab

L

45

O

Doors and Windows

N

21

P

Install Plumbing Fixtures

O, Q

9

Q

Marking, Reinforced concrete works

O, Q

6

R

SRC solid blocks work for super structure works

L

10

S

Install Electric Fixyures

I,J

8

T

SRC Solid blocks work for periphery outside the building under the plinth beam

K

7

U

Handing Over of completed work Leave in a fit condition for occupation:

P,R,S

5

Table .3

Overlapping activity G and H can save the extra 3 days as well as will help the project to complete it as per the schedule but will add another critical path and this can increase the risk.

Then the modification will create 2 critical paths and there the team has to work with the new technique to reduce the risk.

Consisting of two critical paths will increase project risk but the help of this solution can be found for the problem of the team.

 

 

Original Planned

Modified

Activity Code

Immediate Predecessors

 Duration Days

Total Direct Cost

 Duration Days

Total Direct Cost

A

A

9

1500

12

1500

B

B

21

6950

21

6000

C

-

3

500

3

500

D

C

25

1700

25

2000

E

D

7

650

7

650

F

E

10

2500

10

2500

G

F

15

3000

15

3000

H

F

11

1800

11

2000

I

G

8

900

8

900

J

I,J

5

600

5

600

K

G

4

550

4

550

L

H

10

2000

10

2000

M

M,K

25

4040

25

4040

N

L

45

10,000

45

10,000

O

N

21

5050

21

5050

P

O,Q

9

3500

9

3500

Q

O,Q

6

750

6

750

R

L

10

2500

10

2500

S

I,J

8

1200

8

1200

T

K

7

900

5

900

U

P,R,S

5

800

4

800

 

 

Total

51390

Total

50940

Table .4

With the above classifications, it has been clearly analyzed that it is possible to maintain the budget as well as the duration of the project.  The modification brings out another critical path with which new calculation has been generated and that may help the team (Jha, 2011).

 

The estimation of Activity E

The cost of RCC foundation including labor = 80 O.R/m3, 38 x 80 = 3040 O.R.

Imported filling including machine + labor charge = 1.5 O.R / m3, 750x1.5=1125

As per this calculation, the solution which can be used to maintain our budget is using the selected excavated material after use screen

Estimated selected excavated material after use screen + labor charge = 0.5 O.R/m3, 750x0.5=375

This will help us to save 750 O.R. the project will be under budget

 

Working Days

Direct Cost

Indirect Cost/Day

Sum Indirect Cost

Total Cost

Planned Baseline

160

51390

100

16000

67390

Modified Baseline

160

50940

100

16000

66940

Table .5

With this modified baseline it is possible to control the budget and the time for the project. The construction is possible with the help of modification as per the analysis of the complete problem.

It is important to maintain the budget and time so if excavated materials are getting used and overlapping the G and H activity it will reduce the project risk (Munier, 2012). As per the modified base line, our direct cost will become 50940 that are even less than the previously planned baseline.

 

Conclusion

The entire problem of over budgeting and increase of planned duration while excavation because of the finding of Hard Rock layer while reaching 1.17 m deep has made the project has made challenging one.  In order to bring the appropriate solution, it was important to analyze and modify the entire calculation which has generated two critical paths. Two Critical paths may generate a bit of risk in the project.  

Although with the complete analysis the solution that has been understood is the overlapping of few business-law as well as the using the selected excavated materials instead of imported one may help reduce the risk of the project. Overlapping of two activities that are activity G and H has not only helped to maintain the duration of the budget but has also helped to maintain the budget. As shown in the table that the total cost of modified baseline is 66940 which obviously less than the previously planned base line.

 

References

Carmichael, D (2000) Contracts and International Project Management. CRC Press. copyright

Chitkara, K (2013) Construction Project Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Copyright

Clough, R (2015) Construction Project Management. John Willey & Sons. Copyright

Dou, R (2016) Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Industrial..Vol2. Springer. Copyright

Dykstra, A (2011) Construction Project Management. Kirshner Publishing Company

Jha, K (2011) Construction Project Management: Theory and Practice. SAGE Publication

Munier, N (2012) Project Management for Environmental, Construction and Manufacturing. psychology. Copyright 

Nagarajan, K (2004) Project Management. New Age International. Copyright

Ramakrishna, K (2010) Essentials of Project Management. PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Copyright

Rees, G (2003) Civil Engineering Project Management Fourth Edition. Elsevier. Copyright

OR

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