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Assume that an Australian State Government has reviewed the Singapore Government’s Smart Nation Plan and has decided to implement their own Smart State Plan. This will initially consist of a network of smart sensors and cameras at traffic lights, bus stops, rubbish bins, etc. in their CBD to monitor citizens behaviour and address street crime.

1. Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart Sensor Network by looking at:
a. The types or categories of people affected by this proposal,

b. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens,

c. Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules, etc.

The next part of the Government’s plan is to deploy a Smart WiFi Network which will consist of a series of sensor boxes to act as WiFi hotspots throughout the city. This would allow the introduction of a heterogeneous network where smart phones and other devices could seamless switch between mobile data and WiFi.

2. Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart WiFi Network by looking at:
a. The types or categories of people affected by this proposal,

b. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens using their mobile devices in the CBD,

c. Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules, etc.

d. What are the implications for you If you had sensitive information on your mobile device that you did not want to share?

The Smart State Plan will also enrol all citizens with a Digital Identity to ensure that they can correctly be identified and access services provided by the state both electronically and physically.

3. If you were visiting the State Capital after the Smart State Plan has rolled out, do you think that the use of a digital identity would assist you to maintain your privacy while using your mobile phone or devices during your visit? Discuss the reasons for your answer.

4. What steps do you think that you could take to ensure the security and privacy of your digital identity while operating your mobile device(s) in this environment? Discuss each step that you would take along with its advantages and disadvantages. 

Task 1

The world is experiencing an evolution to the smart Nation plan (Cuzzocrea, 2014). These emerge from the innovation in the IT that has created new economic as well as social opportunities they could pose challenges to the security and expectations of privacy (Arpaci, Kilicer & Bardakci, 2015). The human they have already been interconnected through the smart gadgets. Smart energy meters, security devices as well as smart appliances are being implemented in many cities CBD. Some of these consist of network of smart sensors and cameras at the traffic lights, bus stops, rubbish bins, which are implemented in the CBD to monitor on the citizen behavior and address on the street crime. In this report, it is a reflection on security and privacy which would discuss various tasks and scenarios which are based on these aspects.

Task 1

  1. Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart Sensor Network by looking at:
  2. The type or categories of people affected by this proposal.

In Australia there are various ethical and personal implications for the privacy proposal by the government to different categories of individuals who are affected by this aspect. When this proposal would be implemented individual such the working class category would be affected (Cuzzocrea, 2014). This would be through electronic monitoring of the people in the workplace. This would relate to access of personal information through electronic eyes. This would occur where the government would use technology to spy of personal information of people (In Ko & Choo, 2015). The ethical implication in this case is the uses of these technologies since individual privacy in the workplace have been threatened. Another category of individual are technology experts. The implementation of this plan would lead the government to intercept and read the E mail messages (Sen, 2014). This poses ethical problems that relates to private communication of people. It is technically possible when it comes to intercepting Email messages and read and this is justified by the ideal that they will use this technology infrastructure (Sen, 2014). Professional are another category and the personal implication is categories of personal as well as private data the information professional is entitled to gather. Another category are the immigrant, these are the people who are not the nationality of this country. The personal implication from this proposal is that the government could access their personal information to identify their origin and identify what they are doing in the country.

  1. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens

Some of the behavioral changes which would be encountered by the normal citizens when the proposal has been implemented are there as follows; less interaction online. Individuals would less likely interact online since the information which they post or access would be monitored. Another behavior change would be on the speech patterns, which depend on the social situation. Some individuals would tend to change their language because they fear to be monitored on the way they use the language (Lau, 2015). When the proposal has been made normal citizen some would rejoice since the smart sensor network it would help monitor the citizen’s behavior and address on the crime rate. At some places in the CBD there are criminal activities, thus there are some people who would be happy that such issues are monitored and the crime rate would reduce. Moreover, the behaviors of people would change particularly to those who were engaged in the criminal activities since there are monitoring devices which are in place. Individuals are more attentive to details and those at default of not observing rules they begin to observe particular in the installation of the smart sensor network at the bus stops and rubbish bins. There are no overtaking cases and individuals observe tidiness.

Task 2

Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules?

When the proposed plan is implemented there are changes in activities amongst individuals. For example, there are those individuals who were involved in the criminal activities and they often escaped without getting caught. When the new smart sensors and cameras are implemented all the activities are captured and they could easily get caught. This also applies to those involved in the cyber crime or the internet, all the sites they access the government is able to monitor on their activities. Moreover, there are also changes in the time schedules of people due to the implementation of the new technology in the CBD.  With the new smart sensor network in place individuals can set schedule to work even at night since the aspect of security has been taken care of. There is someone who is always watching on any criminal activities from the system which are set in place. I think behaviors in individuals will change even on the way the people communicate in the social media, or the internet. Their privacy is no more thus the government monitors on what people do while they are online.

Task 2

Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart WiFi Network by looking at: 
a. The types or categories of people affected by this proposal, 

With the use of the smart WiFi Network which are installed across the city data there is transmission of the data to the city databases as well as operation centers in real time, cities are able to collect real time information related to traffic flows, pollution, water consumption and electrify usage (Singh et al 2015). With this kind of devices there are numerous categories of people that would be affected. First there are those working class groups, the government would have access to their information in case they use the Wi-Fi network, and this leads to exposing of the organization data since they could have used the devices to access crucial work data in case there is policy of Bring Your Device (Sen, 2014).  This is an ethical implication on the part of the company since their information has been accessed. Additionally, it is also a personal implication in case person information is accessed by another person who does not have permission to access it. Another category of individual are the learners. These are the students, who are within the city, more often they would wish to use this network to access the internet since it is free throughout the city. This can be a personal implication especially when one privacy on information has been accessed without their permission (Sun, Zhang, Xiong & Zhu, 2014). The smart WiFi network collect does not use notice and consent policies as well as back end dataset anonymization to protect personal privacy.

  1. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens using their mobile devices in the CBD.

Behavioral Changes with Smart Sensor Network Implementation

As more individuals become connected online through their mobile device, there is shift in their behavioral patterns which include the social interaction. This has been evident in the way the demarcation between the public and private space has been understood. With the use of the mobile devices in the CBD the normal citizen in Australia there is increase in the opportunities for them in the public space. Business, interpersonal as well as entertainment activities will move from the social as well as static to the personal and mobile (Mather, Kumaraswamy & Latif, 2009). There is greater choice in the normal citizen as to who they would meet and how. The physical society could, thus, become more hostile place via individual travel rather than in which they expect to interact. It would also be observed that in this environment, people could become less real to one another, and this leads to extreme reactions and interactions (In Ko & Choo, 2015). There will be a social change that is illustrated by the behaviour patterns that is associated to the mobile phone usage, whereby many individuals would conduct private conversations in the public places with little regard to their own privacy. It would also be observed that the mobile access to the internet could shape behavior in the public. The behavioral aspects of the smart WiFi network have consequences when it comes to criminal opportunities to exploit the security vulnerabilities which the mobile network entails (Jaiswal & Chandra, 2017). These opportunities could be understood in terms of the benefits as well as risk that are associated to this technology. Normal citizens would be having more mobility. Individuals could connect to the internet from various more places; this frees them from the necessity to bring physical location in the office as well as large amount of the data since they can now download onto the small devices.

  1. Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules, etc.
    I would definitely expect to see changes in individuals’ behaviours. When individual uses the Government’s Smart WiFi Network they could access it and use it the way they want, however, their behaviors would likely change such choice of activities. When a person is using a network that is not secured nor charged they can forget their routines and engage with other activities. This is applicable when a person is in the workplace(Krutz & Vines, 2010). They could be distracted and engages themselves in other activities rather than the tasks assigned since they can access free internet. This kind of behavior could lead to people to people become less productive in their workplace since they are engaging to other activities. There are also changes in individual behavior when it comes to changes in the time schedules. Individuals can change their work schedule or activities schedules since they are engaged to the other activities in the internet(Kalaiprasath, Elankavi & Udayakumar, 2017). Sometimes, people could be engaged to other activities and they forget they are supposed to go somewhere or do a certain task. Internet can sometimes be addictive and someone could be distracted in whatever they are doing. In the CBD the network is free and thus there could be change in behavior in some individual such as those who engages to criminal activities. The network might not be secure and this provides an opportunity to the hackers to steal other people person information who access the network and they have not secured their information (In Ko & Choo, 2015). Moreover, personal privacy may not be there since everyone could see information which is not encrypted. There are no anonymity policies which are in place to cater for such issues.
  2. What are the implications for you if you had sensitive information on your mobile device that you did not want to share?

One of the implications in case I had sensitive information on the mobile devices that I did not want to share would increase vulnerability. There is increases unwanted distribution of the sensitive or harmful information. When one access the WiFi this information which I did not want to share would be exposed to the other people. There is a selection of threats that I will be exposed in since criminals could leak the information or they could demand payment or they expose the information. There is implication of legal liability in case the information was sensitive in nature. In case the information is related to an organization or an individual I could risk legal action incase this information was to be exposed to the parties who are not supposed to see the information. This could be a form of negligent treatment on personal information, such as that of the employees or broader databases, and I could encounter huge fines, or even jail time. Another implication is that of the unintended data leakages.  This regards to the storage of the critical data on insecure locations on the mobile. When the data is accessed by the other users within the network it could lead to devastating effect since there is breach of the user privacy which leads to the unauthorized use of the data (Takabi, Joshi & Ahn, 2010). There is also the implication of negative perception. The explosion of the data mining and the cyber attack has made individuals to be paranoid in regards on the way sensitive information is handled. In the case of using the Smart WiFi network the network might not be secure and this is a vulnerability to threats since the sensitive data I did not want shared could be accessed especially when a hacker put a bug on the network to access sensitive information (Sen, 2014). This could lead to negative perception of brand in case it was related to the organization information. A single data attack such as breach of the sensitive information destroys on the users trust in the brand but could lead to hefty court cases as well as irreparable damage to the way in which individuals and business performs.

Types of People Affected by the Smart WiFi Network

Task 3

Question 3: do you think that the use of a digital identity would assist you to maintain your privacy while using your mobile phone or devices during your visit?

Yes I think it would assist maintain privacy when using mobile phone or other devices. Privacy is the human right. It is crucial since it pertain to our identity on who we are, what we do and what we would want to do. Digital identities are made up of all the new information for examples the phones pass codes, of which could be accessed by an individual just by picking out smartphones. Digital identity would help maintain privacy in a number of ways these are follows;

It builds privacy into the digital identity design:  this can be achieved through market model that has key stages such as ideation, experimentation, commercialization as well as optimization. This process ensures that there is value proposition for the digital identity and this is tested through viability. The privacy and the security principles are the key product development. The aspect of digital identity is the opt—in for the consumers who have the choice to verify their identity in case they interact online and then re-using that identity in various context later. This ensures that individuals are able to control their identity data and they would be able to reuse it for any other type of service online. Through digital identity individuals are able to maintain their privacy since the users are always asked for their consent to disclose specific information. All the other information is usually stored in ones digital identity, but it is not relevant to the service since it will not be exchanged. Digital identity is regarded as biometric as an identifier for the future (Wei et al 2014). The use of digital identity utilizes biometric such as matching facial features, for the purpose of authenticating identity, as well as protecting ones privacy. I have noticed that establishing references at time requires a stringent process since it could be subject to spoofing or perhaps compromise. Biometry has already been evolved and new functionalities would help us to overcome this challenge.

Task 4

Question 4: steps do you think that you could take to ensure the security and privacy of your s) in this environment? Discuss each step that you would take along with its advantages and disadvantages. 

  1. Practice good password hygiene. One should use strong unique passwords to all the accounts that are connected, along with the separate code to lock the mobile device itself. One could use a combination of upper and lower case letter, and use one number or a symbol. The advantage of this ensures that it becomes hard to crack the password. The disadvantage of this one could forget these passwords when combined all these letters and symbols.
  2. Review of the privacy settings often. It is important for one to keep tabs on all the apps which have permission to access your calendar, location and contact list. It is important for one to ensure everything that can be accessed on your private content really requires some kind of permission(Cuzzocrea, 2014).  The advantage of this ensures that only permission is granted when required and rather not all the application. This helps to ensures there is privacy and security of private data (Verginadis et al 2017). The disadvantage of this it could be difficult to update some of the application that is on the mobile device.
  3. Log out of your accounts: any time you log in to various account, it is important to log out to prevent unscrupulous individuals to access ones data. The advantage of this ensures that personal data has been kept secure(Yu et al 2017). The disadvantage when one log out of the accounts you can forget on the credentials to access the accounts again.
  4. Minimizing of the amount which is saved on your device:  when one saves a lot of data in ones phone increases on the likelihood that a hacker could piece together enough data and do some serious damage(Hoboken & Rubinstein, 2014). The advantage of this ensures only necessary data is saved in the phone and through digital identity they can keep only the necessary information on them phone and prevent others from accessing. The disadvantage to this almost all personal data would not be stored on the phone and this could be crucial personal information that should always be kept secured.

Conclusion

In this research it is a reflection on privacy and security tasks. Within this research it has discussed on various tasks which are related to how the Australian State Government in the implementation of the Smart State plan. There are issues related to personal and ethical implications in regards to my privacy have been discussed at length.

Behavioral Changes with Smart WiFi Network Implementation

References

Arpaci, I., Kilicer, K., & Bardakci, S. (2015). Effects of security and privacy concerns on educational use of cloud services. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 93-98.

Cuzzocrea, A. (2014, November). Privacy and security of big data: current challenges and future research perspectives. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Privacy and Secuirty of Big Data (pp. 45-47). ACM.

Hoboken, J., & Rubinstein, I. (2014). Privacy and Security in the Cloud. Maine Law Review, 66(2), 488-533.

In Ko, R., & Choo, K.(Eds.). (2015). The Cloud Security Ecosystem: Technical, Legal, Business and Management Issues. Waltham, MA: Syngress.

Jaiswal, S., & Chandra, M. B. (2017). A Survey: Privacy and Security to Internet of Things with Cloud Computing. International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, 10(1).

Kalaiprasath, R., Elankavi, R., & Udayakumar, D. R. (2017). Cloud. Security and Compliance-A Semantic Approach in End to End Security. International Journal Of Mechanical Engineering And Technology (Ijmet), 8(5).

Krutz, R. L., & Vines, R. D. (2010). Cloud security: A comprehensive guide to secure cloud computing. Wiley Publishing.

Lau, Y. (2015). Cybercrime in cloud: Risks and responses in Hong Kong, Singapore.

Mather, T., Kumaraswamy, S., & Latif, S. (2009). Cloud security and privacy: an enterprise perspective on risks and compliance. " O'Reilly Media, Inc.".

Sen, J. (2014). Security and privacy issues in cloud computing. In Architectures and protocols for secure information technology infrastructures (pp. 1-45). IGI Global.

Singh, I., Mishra, K. N., Alberti, A., Singh, D., & Jara, A. (2015, July). A novel privacy and security framework for the cloud network services. In Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), 2015 9th International Conference on (pp. 301-305). IEEE.

Sun, Y., Zhang, J., Xiong, Y., & Zhu, G. (2014). Data security and privacy in cloud computing. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 10(7), 190903.

Takabi, H., Joshi, J. B., & Ahn, G. J. (2010). Security and privacy challenges in cloud computing environments. IEEE Security & Privacy, (6), 24-31.

Tang, J., Cui, Y., Li, Q., Ren, K., Liu, J., & Buyya, R. (2016). Ensuring security and privacy preservation for cloud data services. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 49(1), 13.

Verginadis, Y., Michalas, A., Gouvas, P., Schiefer, G., Hübsch, G., & Paraskakis, I. (2017). Paasword: A holistic data privacy and security by design framework for cloud services. Journal of Grid Computing, 15(2), 219-234.

Wei, L., Zhu, H., Cao, Z., Dong, X., Jia, W., Chen, Y., & Vasilakos, A. V. (2014). Security and privacy for storage and computation in cloud computing. Information Sciences, 258, 371- 386.

Yu, Y., Au, M. H., Ateniese, G., Huang, X., Susilo, W., Dai, Y., & Min, G. (2017). Identity- based remote data integrity checking with perfect data privacy preserving for cloud storage. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 12(4), 767-778.

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