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The main purpose of this research is to establish the difference in adoption rate of BIM between developed and developing countries. These two groups of countries have varied characteristics that affect adoption of BIM, such as awareness about BIM, BIM knowledge, BIM policies, BIM professionals, culture and beliefs, etc. Findings from the study will help relevant stakeholders to identify approaches necessary to enhance adoption of BIM especially in both developed and developing countries.  

What are the main benefits and challenges of BIM adoption in developed and developing countries?
Why is BIM adoption higher in developed countries than developing countries?
What needs to be done so as to increase BIM adoption in developed and developing countries?

The main methodology chosen for the study is qualitative approach. Data will be collected mainly from secondary sources, such as published books, peer reviewed journal articles, reports, conference papers, websites, theses and dissertations, etc. that are relevant to the topic. Many researchers have conducted studies about BIM adoption in various countries hence there is adequate sources of data available for this study. Data analysis will be done using qualitative methods, particularly case study.

Introduction to BIM and its application

Differences of BIM Adoption between Developed and Developing Countries Case study of Australia and Libya

This chapter essentially introduces the concept and the overall view on the research topic.  In essence, it tries to make the reader understands the whole concept and the background regarding the study (Ghaffarianhoseini et al. 2017 p.1046). Furthermore, the chapter analyses the overall literature as well as the references used in the BIM analysis and drawing comparison based on the published reports of the Australia Construction firms. Thus, the chapter not only acts as the base for the discussion and evaluation but also forms part and parcel of the key parameters pivotal drivers in line with the research. Both the objectives as well as the aims of the studies mainly appraised in this chapter. Moreover, the justifications on the importance of studying the concept between the developed and the developing countries mainly outlined in this chapter  (Kjartansdóttir et al.  2017).

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is also known as the overall virtual prototyping and this aspect is imminently growing and expanding in line with the sustainable designs and construction works as a whole  (Alwan, Jones and Holgate  2017 p.354). BIM mainly encompasses the application of the digital criteria in the appraisal, the design as well as in the execution of the project. In essence, the process is not only important but also fundamental in the various project design stages (Aziz, Nawawi and Ariff 2016). The using of the BIM systems enables the process of involving different stages in the project initiation project and in developing the various approaches of incorporating there ideas and concerns in the construction works. This is beneficial since it assist in ensuring that the designed and build structure often accepted by all the stakeholders. The figure below shows the overall analysis and illustrations for the BIM concept (Chong, Lee and Wang 2017 p.4117).

Figure showing the BIM Interlocking Concept (Pärn, Edwards and Sing 2017 p.48).

This research project aims at evaluating the BIM concept and its overall comparison adoptions in both developed and developing country.  The evaluation mainly grounded on the case study between the Australia and Libya States. The best initiatives, the structure implementations and the overall practices in the Australia mainly assessed and used as the basis referencing grounds for the study.

The key and critical objectives for the study mainly summarized and indicated as follows

Objectives and justification of the study

The objectives of this research are to

  • Assess and identify different factors in the BIM Construction Industry as well as issues which affects the construction industry in Australia
  • Assess the Libyan Construction industry as well as establish how the sector differs with the Australia BIM system
  • Establish and  identify  both the pros and cons of the BIM system as well as the related  factors in the both the Libya  and  the Australia state
  • Establish different areas which requires future  research as well as recommendations on the concept of improving  the overall BIM integration in Libya

The use of Building information modeling is a very important step in the growth in engineering and construction sector. The improvement of the virtual models can lead to more accurate design phase of the project development hence improves the construction efficiencies. Building Information Modeling has a number of benefits which include the increased efficiency in procurement; procurement may be a delay which relates to communication and leads to legal issues and unexpected cost. These can be reduced by considering them in the design phase by using Building Information Modeling. BIM also is known particularly for reducing overall project cost, project time and reducing the amount of waste (Arayici et al. 2017).

Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors indicated that the technology of BIM now uses the object based representation (Aziz, Nawawi and Ariff 2016 p.357). This is the use of 4-Dimensional object based representation as opposed to 3-Dimensional geometric data. This is because geometry alone is not able to represent the project for needed for entire BIM. BIM is not just a planning tool but a process that should be understood. It can be used for a resolution of a range of conflicts resolution that commonly arises in the engineering and construction basically from materials issues and construction safety. The analysis of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors for the 3-dimensison analysis and model mainly illustrated as indicated in the figure below (Tender et al. 2018).

Figure showing the illustration for Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors for the 3-dimensison analysis (Shafiq et al. 2015 p.158).

Building Information Modelling is a relatively new concept whereby the initial scoping, design and construction are what the research and applications has put in more effort. The next step in the evolution process of the BIM as suggested by the data recorded is the development of building knowledge modelling. Thus, it is also evidential BIM could also be effective in the planning, building and operational maintenance of the building (Zhang, Seet and Lie 2015 p.115).

Building Information Modelling application has been considered significant particular in cost reduction that associated with the procurements; ordering of materials and equipment, identification of labour trade and scheduling hence reduces the delays in construction. Though the application of BIM in early design stage which include the collection all the necessary data and information from the construction sites, owners or architect is time consuming but, once all the necessary data have been acquired, the information can be easily manipulated to develop a project (Logothetis, Delinasiou and Stylianidis 2015 p.177).

Benefits of using BIM in construction

According to Abanda et al. (2015 p.184) noted that pre-implementation readiness phase, operational implementation building capacity phase and post implementation maturity phase are the three distinct phases in the adoption of Building Information Modelling. They also stated the maturity level where BIM is use, adopted, managed, integrated, and demonstrated how it can be estimated.

Despite the importance of BIM, the rate of adoption in countries appears lower than expected in different levels. The need for BIM in Australia has emerged from a number of various issues identified by Engineers which include; the lack of integration within the linking parties among others(Santos, Costa and Grilo 2017 p.119). The Australian construction sector has greatly increase the use of BIM for the purpose of improving efficiencies and create the savings of materials, costs and other resources as far as construction activity is concerned. The Australian National BIM Initiative Blueprint has been formed to develop the education and knowledge among the Australian Architect, Engineering and construction sector. The initiative has facilitated the full adoption of BIM in the country for most building procurement. The research reveal the slight lack of enough experience in BIM is a main factor delaying the adoption of BIM within the Australian construction sector, but the Government has focused on the aim of implementing the adoption of BIM. This is because of the importance of using the BIM in Architect Engineering and construction sector (Dore and Murphy 2017).

The findings of the studies about the state of BIM within the Australia are approximately 42%. The study reports that different individuals in the construction industry have involved in the BIM as the number has increased from 25%. The gap from 25% to 42% indicates how fast-moving (Hainsworth, Logan and Jackson 2014 p.58). BIM is within Australia construction industry hence indicates the success of BIM adoption in the country. The Australia Government has become the driving force to promote the implementation of the BIM within the construction industry.

According to Volk, Stengel and Schultmann (2014 p.111)The Australian Department of Defence has contributed so much to in the efforts of incorporating BIM at Federal procurement level by using it to enhance the development and operation.

Lack of knowledge and awareness of BIM in Australia is not the main influential barrier adoption of BIM Australia anymore due to support received by the Government. However, the main barriers experienced in the adoption of BIM is the lack of interest from the parties involved in construction supply chain due to negative perception of the more efforts and the large amount of expenses that should be allocated for the adoption of Building Information Modelling within any construction project  (Abubakar et al. 2014 p. 169).

Phases of adoption of BIM

The wide use of BIM internationally is generally illustrated in a range of large building which includes the public building projects ranging from hospitals, stadiums, local schools and other institutional buildings (Demian and Walters  2014 p.1158). There is need for the demonstration of BIM effectiveness for the procurement so as to encourage the owner with projects and the local contractors in the developing countries the importance of adopting the BIM in construction projects (Travaglini, Radujkovi?  and Mancini  2014 p.1008).

According to Baik  (2014, May) Ownership of the BIM data and resource are the are reported to be a challenge in some countries in developing countries such as Kenya and South Africa due to lack of familiarity with the process hence creating conflicts across legal issues. Also the cost of implementation of the BIM software and resources are reported to be higher in developing countries.

Architect and Engineering in Libya

Libya is one of the developing countries and its built environment is composed of a balance between the traditional buildings, colonial building and the modern buildings. there is a gap between the development requirements in the country and the sense of place, identity of the principles and values of the conflicts of the population in Libya. There are wide demands on the construction sectors in the Libyan common cities example Tripoli, whereby the demands ranges from the restoration and protection of the historical buildings to the coming of functional housing and infrastructure to the public regardless of both the physical and social constraints of the country (Bruno, De Fino and Fatiguso 2018 p.264).

Libya has gradually undergone the process of modernisation in the recent years. The Architects Engineering and construction sector have faced a lot of pressure to the development across the physical and socio-economics domains which is compose of energy efficiency, designs of the buildings, maintenance for to provide safety, educations and training of the individuals and giving the equal opportunities to all people.

The development of the total quality management is very important in Libyan construction sector because, will help to support the long term sustainability in the country. Also, the current political dynamic in Libya due evidenced by the competition from the neighbouring middle-east countries and other countries to engage with Libyan country mainly in relation to oil and oil products can be a key in facilitate modernisation and sustainable development in the country (Rodríguez-Moreno et al. 2018 p.222).

BIM adoption in Australia

The practical development of Building Information Modelling technology began in 2000 with internet access at only 5.4% by 2011. The significant inadequate access to internet, specialised databases and low level of English language skills that is needed for the learning of internet in educational sector is a number of various barriers to the development in research involving the critical parts of construction.

There is need for the improving the historical housing to support the traditions of the area in the country as far as the climatic conditions of the region is concerned.  Traditional values of design features provide comfortable conditions in variable climates.

Construction Industry in Libya

Construction industry in Libya has transformed significantly from an indigenous construction to a cement based industry with more than 97% of the buildings are cement based materials regardless of the cost, environment or location. Since 2000 the exploitation of oil has made the construction industry to be lively. The emergence of construction sector in Libya has called the need for modernisation within the industry especially in policies, regulation and management systems. The rapid growth of construction sector in Libya also results from Chinese construction companies in the country which are aid investment by International Monetary Funds. The rapid external investment has resulted to the need of adopting of quality standards which shows the significance of the BIM. This has raised concern for the need of internal leadership in the Libyan constructional sector to enable sustainable development. The Libyan construction sector needs to emphasize the research that identifies the conflicts and regulating it so as to utilise development fund to increase the rate of construction and above all ensuring safety  (Langdon 2012 p. 22).

Survey of construction supervising engineers and build client in Libya reveals a recognised skill deficit particularly in communication, lack of knowledge of dealing with claims, lack of technical knowledge, lack of experience and lack of knowledge of modern construction techniques. The Government need to enforce regulations that will increase the confidence throughout the delivery system to enable the sector to be more competitive in both local and international level.

The attainment of the stated objectives as well as the aims of the project was not only important but also fundamental. The success of the project mainly attained via the application of the data gathered in the secondary sources as well as the past analysis on the primary data available.  The research strategy for the project firstly stated and outlined.  Subsequently, data discussion of the gathered information conducted decisively as well as the analysis. Therefore, this section focused on the data collection tools, the pilot studies analysis as well as the selected questionnaires and interviews applied.  

BIM adoption in developing countries

First and foremost, it is essential that the research methodology applied have comparative case analysis between the quantitative and qualitative method in line with the further research.   

It is important that the methodology in this research is comparative to other research in the same BIM context in order for qualitative and quantitative methods to be assessed for further research.

On the other hand, the overall literature review completion mainly conducted based on the secondary data findings.  Furthermore, different evaluations on the best practices as well as conclusive analysis were established based on the findings.

Various methods were used in evaluating and appraising the concepts.  First and foremost, Delphi method mainly identified for the purposes of this study and this method used in the process of gathering the overall data for the study. This method utilizes the concept of the perception convergence and group communications and it is applied in appraising the actual-world problems. The extension for the method essentially based on the assumption since the method was long and to take longer durations and the overall time for the examinations was limited.

The risks assessments were also conducted in line with this project.  The analysis reported that the risks associated with the dissertation completion in this research are fewer. In fact, the primary data in the analysis were not used and thus, the secondary data for the basis for the examinations. There could be risks involved in the identifications of the literature reviews and thus, at least a makeable number of materials were gathered and used in the evaluation and the overall activities associated with this project.

In essence, different literature reviews were drawn and used in the evaluation. Some of the essential sources used were both the non-peer and peer reviewed journals.  Also, the sources mainly used via the application of the online resources.  

From the study, it is evidential that there are limited accesses to the BIM utilization in Libya construction industry. Moreover, there are still speculations and debates regarding the application of the potential adoption and the overall construction industry management in line with the BIM systems. In fact, the country focuses much on the conference proceedings rather than the BIM systems and adoption in the construction areas. Moreover, the analysis and  research conducted  in the country between  2000 and  2016 only showed that there was only 1% development in terms of the sources reviewed  which indicated the reports and the designs in  the BIM systems. However, the number is progressively increasing with the analysis grounded on 2016.  Thus, the overall evaluation on the state mainly illustrated as indicated in the figure below

Challenges faced in BIM adoption

Figure Showing the Analysis for the Libya State

Thus, it evidential from the graph above that the relevance and the information on the BIM system and the adoption are growing progressively in Libya. Additionally, the analysis also indicates that BIM system continuous to gain momentum across the board not only in Libya but in even the developed countries like Australia. For the case of Libya, it is clear and evidential that construction technology value and the engineering processes currently manifested at 45% in line the information and knowledge exchange approach. The information shared in the industry conferences on the BIM established at 18% whereas the current provisions on the potential viability of the application of the BIM systems in the mainly established at 73%.

Although, Australia have advanced in the application of the BIM technology in construction and the Libya is steering and pooling its resources towards full adoption of the process, it is important for the both countries to focus on the action plan. The action plan will not only helped in ensuring that both countries achieved the set goals towards realizing the full access to the process but will also attain decisive concept and roadmap for the overall process. Thus, the action plan indicated below can for part and parcel of the whole process and help in achieving the systematic approach (Azhar, Khalfan and Maqsood 2015 p.16).

Figure indicating action plan for both Libya and Australia (Logothetis, Delinasiou and Stylianidis 2015 p.177)

The adoptions of the BIM system in the Australia have continued to grow and expand in various regions.  However, the system tend to be facing some challenges more so the inconstancies which have been reported in various regions. It is therefore   important that the government takes a need  in ensuring they have an action plan for handling this mess in ensuring that there proper channel and approach for handling the  challenge in the country as a whole.  The essential roadmap implementaions which both the countries should adopt in advancing in the utilization of the BIM technology mainly summarized as indicated in the diagram below

Figure Showing Various Concepts and Roadmaps Implementations (Wang and Chong 2015 p.2).

Moreover, the set criteria currently established by the United Kingdom can be by both countries in hastening the concept. In essence, the United Kingdom developed the digital frame illustrated below (Cao et al. 2015 p.114).

Figure Indicating Digital Built Model


BIM effectiveness for procurement

In summary, it is evident from the research that there is advancement in the application of the BIM systems in both the developing and developed countries.  Although most of the developing country has less percentage and still records low percentage in line with the application of BIM technology, most of the developed countries have adopted the mechanism in greater level. Moreover, from the report and the literature reviews it is evident that the concept of the BIM systems and the utilization Libya mainly introduced by the various international constructions currently undertaking projects in the county. Furthermore, the mainly focused of Libya is on the redeveloping of the public infrastructure and housing in the country.  In essence, the country mainly uses the oil as well as the industry revenue and the parametric international investments in conducting and carrying out the building projects in the country.  Moreover, the various issues affecting the implementations of the BIM technology mechanism in Libya also affects the operations of the constructions in the developed countries such as Australia and United Kingdom. Thus, the addressing of the related issues affecting the processes involved in the construction is not only important but also essential across the developed and developing countries as this will help in hastening the BIM systems worldwide.  


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