Big Data Applications and Sources
Discuss About The Data Refers Different Types Of Algorithms?
The case study has highlighted the issue related to big data security in the data storage systems. The term big data refers to different types of algorithms, technology and the infrastructure which can store and analyze massive amount of data. There are several and diversified sources of big data which are used for adoption and the development of big data applications. In the present times, big data applications are necessary to increase the efficiency and the effectiveness of the decision-making in large business organizations. In the present times, data and knowledge is considered as the most crucial asset for the business organizations. The applications of big data are ranging from the military, science and business intelligence (Lopez & Saleem, 2017).
Although big data has immense applications in different work and operations in business enterprises, it also bears several types of security and privacy risk for the users. Big data applications are becoming target of various threat agents and with time, several specialized attacks will also be devised to exploit the vulnerabilities and the threats of big data. It has been identified that the big data threat includes but is not limited to the theft of ordinary data and new breaches and degradation and threats have emerged which can impact the data which is collected with the help of big data collection method. The frequency of outsourcing in big data can introduce new type of breach, leakage and degradation threats. They can also impact on the privacy and data protection. In big data system, additional time is required for parallelization and ingestion; however, the requirement of additional time can increase the impact and frequency of data leakage and breach. In addition to it, several security challenges and issues are aligned with big data asset owners and the interest of different asset owners are not aligned together and might be in conflict. The security countermeasures may be in conflicts which can create a difficult big data security landscape. The report has highlighted the security issues with the big data. Moreover, the report has identified the gaps between big threat and countermeasures in the big data. If the business organizations adopt basic privacy and security practices, it can decrease the privacy and security risks in big data organizations. The initial security arrangements can be beneficial for the organization and it will reduce the cost and effort required to provide ad hoc solutions later on (Sharvari, Solanki, Kumar, & Nilanjan, 2017).
Security Risks and Threats in Big Data Applications
The current countermeasure technique should adapt the existing solutions against the traditional data threats in the big data environment. It should also focus on adaptation of the existing solutions to the big data challenges. The report has provided several recommendations such as departure from the traditional data security methods to big data specific solutions. The business organizations should also identify the gaps and needs in the current standardization activities and focus on training and specialization of the professionals. The organization should define the tools and techniques for the security and the privacy protection and simplify or customize the solutions for mitigating risk and threats in the business organizations (Mather, Kumaraswamy, & Latif, 2009).
With the advent of big data, several new security and privacy threats have arisen. The threats refer to any event which may provide unauthorized access, damage or denial of service to a third party organization. According to the personal perception, the information leakage due to human error or sharing is the primary threat to the business organizations. The threats refer to all those security breaches which are caused by human errors, misconfiguration or clerical errors. The human errors refer to the misconfiguration, slips or errors due to skill disadvantage or use of simple or easy to guess user names, and mistakes related to software upgrading or procedural flaws (Craig & Ludloff, 2011).
Information leakage due to misconfiguration can be a common problem. There are several setups for system administration such as Redis, MongoDB, Memcache and ElesticSearch. The default settings do not have any configuration for authentication, encryption or authorization of the data. It means that the data can be easily accessed by a third party. It can be critiqued that the data breach due to human error is the biggest threat to a business organization. The organization invests a large amount of money in training employees to operate organization’s device or equipment. However, still a large amount of employees make mistakes in operating it. The human error can be reduced by training; however, it cannot be completely vanished. Therefore, it is the most significant error in big data application. With negligence, the employees may reveal sensitive or confidential information of the organization (Katsikas, Lambrinoudakis & Furnell, 2016).
The threat agent is an entity which or who has the capabilities, intention or the past activities of threatening or causing damage to the data of an organization. The threat agents can be corporation, cyber criminals, cyber terrorists, social hackers or employees. The corporations refer to the organizations or entities which are engaged in offensive methods so that they can gain competitive advantage over their competitors or to obtain significant capabilities related to any specific area of expertise. The cyber criminals are hostile factors who want to obtain financial gain or any specific skill by breaching the security system of an organization. The cybercriminals operate in local, national or international level. On the other hand, cyber terrorists are engaged in numerous activities and the cybercrime or cyber-attacks are only a part of it. They are differentiated by their motivation which can be political or religious and their capability is usually high in nature. The cyber terrorists focus on the critical infrastructure of the location which is public health, energy production or the telecommunication infrastructure of the organization. The cyber terrorists cause severe impact on the society or the government. The online social hackers refers to the socially or the politically motivated individuals who are motivated to use online mediums to promote or protest for their cause. Along with it, the employee can also pose significant threat to a business organization. They can access a company’s resource and easily leak the sensitive information. The employees can be non-hostile threat agents or hostile threat agents. The non-hostile threat agents refers to the distracted employees whereas thee disgruntled employees are included in hostile threat agents (Wheeler & Winburn, 2015). The nation agents have also become another significant threat agent which may use online capabilities to use against an adversary. In the recent years, several nation states have deployed sophisticated cyber-attacks to secure highly-sensitive information related to intelligence, military and other technological developments.
Countermeasures for Big Data Security
There are several practices which can be adopted to secure the sensitive information of the organization to protect the big data assets of the organization. Cryptography can be used to protect the data from unintentional leakages and to prevent unauthorized access to the data and the system. However, encryption or cryptography can create additional complexity and require additional demand and requirement for the infrastructure. Other than that, information leakage due to incapability of the information system can be addressed by integrating the security features at the initial stage of development t lifecycle of the organization. The use of ad hoc key management tools can also be used to protect the data from eavesdropping, interception or hijacking of the information. In addition to it, the nefarious activities or abuse can be addressed by establishing access control in the organization. It means that the information should be provided an appropriate level of protection according to its importance to the organization. The security protocols should be implemented according to its importance to the organization. Several cyber-attackers attack other system prevent the owner’s access to the system. It is called denial of service and it can be mitigated with the help of network traffic monitoring, filtering, and rate limiting and general DNS services (Bunnik, Cawley, Lulqueen & Zwitter, 2016).
The major trends in cyber-security are due to threat to the privacy and the confidentiality of the data streams. The primary challenge for the business organizations is the issue of personal identification information and the confidentiality of the customers and the organization. The identity fraud can result due to traffic capture and data mining. The anonymity of the users is another issue for the organization. An organization can increase the privacy by the use of cryptography; however, there are several issues related to the cryptographic technique. It includes performance and scalability, protection of logical and physical fragments. Cryptography can increase the complexity of the system and negatively impacts on the performance. Several products and ad hoc solutions can be used instead of cryptography to increase the overall performance of the system. There are also several issues related to the computing infrastructure and storage models. There are several issues related to the lack of standardization and the portability of security controls which may arise due to the poor design of the security features of the system (Pearson & Yee, 2012).
ENISA Threat Landscape (ETL) is an organization which identifies the threats and other contemporary security issues with the digital system and new technologies. The organization conducts a survey with the business managers and IT professionals in different organizations posted at different levels. The organization can use other primary data collection methods to access more information related to the information security risk. In the personal perception, the organization should conduct interview with the industry experts. It will provide the customers with in-depth information related to the information security challenges and they can also identify solutions regarding how to address these challenges. The organization should also conduct research on different companies in other nations regarding the information security breach and the current breach of information. With this, the organization will have first-hand knowledge regarding different kinds of data breach. They will also be possessing knowledge regarding what to do in such situations (Hu, 2016).
Threat Agents in Big Data Security
The organization should also examine how other highly secure organizations are managing the security of their system. The organization should identify the issues specific to the business system and the operations of the organization. The report should also suggest the security measures and tactics which can be used by the organization to address the situation.
The ENISA (European Union Agency for Network and Information Security) is center for information security network which promoted information security in the private and the public sector organizations situated in EU and its member states. It provides recommendations and suggestions related to information security. It also assists the member states of the Union to develop legislations and policies to encourage information security of the business organizations. There are several public and private sector organizations which regularly deal with highly sensitive information; therefore, it is important that the organization have access to high level security arrangements. Currently, cloud and big data are frequently adopted by the business organizations as they are cost-effective method to store a large amount of information however, with emerging technologies, the security issues also evolve (ENISA, 2016).
ENISA should be satisfied with its current state of IT security. It has been identified that the business organizations in European Union have developed resilient methods to protect the identity of the organization. The organization tries to maintain maximum security in private and public organizations by implementing various security measures and other tactics. Firstly, the organization implements regular analysis of the contemporary issues in the technological system of the organization. The organization has implemented cloud services for the database infrastructure and for information storage. It is a cost-effective method for information storage; however, with its implementation several security issues have also arisen. ENISA has also examined various methods related to IT infrastructure so that it can also uplift its current status of security (Halpert, 2011). It is recommended that the organization should also focus on research and development so that they can develop methods which can address the recent or novel security breaches.
Bunnik, A., Cawley, A., Lulqueen, M., & Zwitter, A. (2016). Big Data Challenges: Society, Security, Innovation and Ethics. Springer.
Craig, T., & Ludloff, M. (2011). Privacy and Big Data. O'Reilly Media, Inc.
ENISA. (2016). Big Data Threat Landscape and Good Practice Guide. European Union Agency For Network And Information Security. Retrieved On 10 September 2017 from https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/bigdata-threat-landscape
Halpert, B. (2011). Auditing Cloud Computing: A Security and Privacy Guide. John Wiley & Sons.
Hu, F. (2016). Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security. CRC Press.
Katsikas, S., Lambrinoudakis, C., & Furnell, S. (2016). Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business: 13th International Conference, TrustBus 2016, Porto, Portugal, September 7-8, 2016, Proceedings. Springer.
Lopez, D., & Saleem, D.M.A. (2017). HCI Challenges and Privacy Preservation in Big Data Security. IGI Global.
Mather, T., Kumaraswamy, S., & Latif, S. (2009). Cloud Security and Privacy: An Enterprise Perspective on Risks and Compliance. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.".
Pearson, S., & Yee, G. (2012). Privacy and Security for Cloud Computing. Springer Science & Business Media.
Sharvari, T., Solanki, Kumar, & Nilanjan, D. (2017). Privacy and Security Policies in Big Data. IGI Global.
Wheeler, A., & Winburn, M. (2015). Cloud Storage Security: A Practical Guide. Elsevier.
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