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Characteristics of Antennas

Question:

Discuss about the Dynamic Interrogation of Wireless Antenna Sensor.

Antennas are devices which are used to convert the electronic signals coming from a source into electronic waves to be sent to the destination. The most basic components of a circuit are the presence of antennas in the system as they are responsible for the interconnection among the sender and the receiver. In addition, the sender and the receiver have the free space to serve as the guided media for the communication management.

The antennas have major characteristics that define the properties of working of them. These are the antenna gain, aperture, bandwidth, directivity and polarization, and effective length.

The linear or curved antennas are termed as the wire antennas. The main use of these antennas is due to the fact of low cost and simple designs [1]. They are mainly divided in to the dipole antennas, short dipole antennas, monopole antennas and the loop antennas.

The travelling wave antennas are those types which uses the travelling wave on a guided media for radiating mechanisms. Their main operations include the travelling of the radio waves in a single direction. They are mainly divided into the helical antennas and the Yagi-Uda antennas.

The major antenna characteristics are used to define the operations management of the antenna. These include the antenna gain, aperture, bandwidth and directivity, polarization, and effective length [1].

The gain of the antenna is used to define the degree of radial pattern of the antenna. An antenna with a much high gain has a more effective radiation pattern than an antenna with a low gain [2]. The manufacturing of the antennas are done to facilitate the increase of directed power in the wanted directions and vice-versa.

The aperture, also termed as the effective aperture is used to associate with the transmission and the reception of electromagnetic signals. The collective area of the antenna is associated with the main power received [1]. This area is termed as the effective aperture.

The directivity of an antenna is used to determine the ability of an antenna to direct the radiation power in a certain direction. It can also be used to measure the radiation intensity in a given direction compared to the intensity in other directions. Bandwidth is another specification that is used to determine the frequency range of operation for the antenna.

The property to change the orientation of the sent signal from antenna is termed as polarization [2]. The polarization techniques can range from horizontal to vertical. In case the signal is polarized vertically, a vertical antenna is used for the reception and in case the polarization is done horizontally, a horizontal antenna is to be used for the reception of signals.

Types of Antennas

The effective length is another characteristics used to define the efficiency of the antenna. Both the transmitting and receiving electromagnetic signals can define the effective length of the antenna [3]. In general, the effective length is defined as the ratio of non-uniform current area distribution to the uniform current area distribution.

This type of antenna has a straight alignment consisting of thin metal rods with sinusoidal voltages. They are made in such a way so as to facilitate working frequencies at a quarter wavelengths. The main working of the antenna includes the passage of voltages and currents through these rods which in turn leads to the generation of the electromagnetic wave spectrum [4]. The main applications of these antennas are the RF antennas.

This type of antenna is used to address the presence of passive elements for working. The major advantage for this type of antenna is the presence of low cost and efficient workings. It consists of one or more reflector elements. It also includes the presence of one or more driver elements [5]. The main specifications of the Yagi-Uda antenna is the presence of reflectors at the back, drivers at the forward direction and the horizontal polarization mount for communications.

The parabolic reflector antennas, as the name suggests, makes use of the ray optics for referring the communication requirements. The main features of the antenna are the use of rays and wave fronts [6]. The main application of this type of antenna is the conversion of a broad beam of signals to a narrow beam. The feeds which use such requirements are the horn feeds, dipole feeds and the Cartesian feeds management.

Dipole

Yagi-Uda

Parabolic reflectors

Gain

1.76 dBi for short dipole and 2.15 dBi for half-wave dipole

4-5 dB

30-40 dB

Aperture

0.1194 * (lambda)^2

Square aperture of 20 cm across

1.6 * (lambda)^2

Bandwidth and directivity

2.15 dB (half-wave)

10-20 dB

10-40 dB

Polarization

Vertically polarized

Vertically polarized

Low cross polarization

Effective length

Half wavelength (half-wave)

0.475 wavelength

Full-wavelength

The CST STUDIO SUITE is used for the conduction of simulations in the area of electromagnetic prospects. The various applications along the electromagnetic spectrum can be used across a single user interface. It can also be used for the possibility of combinations of these applications. This gives the personnel responsible, the efficient application for the simulative purposes [7]. In addition, the main example of this suite is the development of industrial virtual prototypes which is used to determine the various threats and compliance of the actual products to be made.

The modeling of the half-wave dipole antenna can be done by using the CST studio suite. The main adjustments in the length are done to tune the antenna to 1 GHz. The main model of construction uses the antenna cell designs. The polarization characteristics are used to determine the characteristics of the antenna. To do the requirements, the design tool such as the Antenna Magus is used to calculate the requirements. The next step includes the full array simulation that is used to specify the array behavior of the antennas. This is mainly done for the calculations of the directivity specifications. The next step is the performance analysis [8]. This is done to know the performance of the dipole antenna with respect to the parameters involved. The changes in the position of the antenna with respect to the surroundings can also be done by the use of the CST MODEL SUITE. This includes the process of simulations to achieve the desired outcomes.

Applications of Antennas

Beamforming is a technique used for spatial filtering for the receptions and the transmission of the signals. It is mainly used in the sensor arrays. The main working of the antenna is done in such a way so as to get constructive interferences from certain portions of the antenna and destructive interferences from the other portions of the antenna. The main applications of this technology are in radar, SONAR and intelligent transport systems.

An intelligent transport system is used to reference new technologies for the increase in efficiency of communications [9]. The system is based on the use of wireless communications to provide better efficiency in communications. The main objectives of this system are the use of radio communication links among the vehicles in the road and the road-side beacons which leads to the formation of ad-hoc network. The directional antennas can be used to increase the efficiency of the transportation features. In addition, the use of array with wide bandwidth and beam steering capabilities are required for the increasing efficiency in transportation services. This can also be done by the use of beamforming networks (BFN) to facilitate control over the phase and the amplitude of the elements of the array in the antenna [10]. The main examples of the network are Butler Matrix and Rotman lens.

The IEEE Standard 1597.1 is a technique to simulate and model the various electromagnetic codes. It can be applied to an extensive list of electromagnetic applications. The major use of this standard is the digital mapping and simulation of the models and codes present of the electromagnetic spectrums. The IEEE Standard 1597.1 can also be used for the electromagnetic compatibility addressing. It can also be used for the detection of the radar cross-sectional areas. Furthermore, the integrity of the signals along with the antenna integrity can also be referenced by the IEEE Standard 1597.1 [11].  The main aim for the use of the IEEE Standard 1597.1 is the comparison and validation of the data sets. These can be obtained by measurements of values, alternative methods of code retrieval, analytical methods of information gathering and canonical methods.

The main use of the IEEE Standard 1597.1 is the comparison of the analytical data and measurements. This can be done by the use of value measurements, reception of the codes for analysis from alternate sources, analytical methods for code referencing and he canonical ways of information gathering.

Simulation Tools for Antenna Design

Conclusion:

Thus, it can be concluded from the report that the use of various antennas can be used for use in intelligent transport systems. In addition, the IEEE Standard 1597.1 is also used for the application of the analysis of the gathered data. Wireless communications helps various aspects to modernize their services and increase their operational efficiencies.

References:

Aguilà, Pau, Gerard Zamora, Simone Zuffanelli, Ferran Paredes, Ferran Martín, and Jordi Bonache. "Reducing the width of planar Yagi-Uda antennas using square-shaped split ring resonators (SRRs)." In Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), 2017 11th European Conference on, pp. 2201-2204. IEEE, 2017.

Aguilà, Pau, Simone Zuffanelli, Gerard Zamora, Ferran Paredes, Ferran Martín, and Jordi Bonache. "Planar Yagi–Uda Antenna Array Based on Split-Ring Resonators (SRRs)." IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 16 (2017): 1233-1236.

Chen, L., T. Geng, G. C. Wan, L. Y. Xie, and M. S. Tong. "Design of passive wireless antenna sensors for strain measurement." In Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium (PIERS), pp. 2964-2968. IEEE, 2016.

Choudhury, Debabani, Richard D. Roberts, and UlunKaracaoglu. "Wireless antenna array system architecture and methods to achieve 3D beam coverage." U.S. Patent 9,070,977, issued June 30, 2015.

Choudhury, Debabani, Richard D. Roberts, and UlunKaracaoglu. "Wireless antenna array system architecture and methods to achieve 3D beam coverage." U.S. Patent 9,070,977, issued June 30, 2015.

Gao, Wen, Tiejun Huang, Cliff Reader, Weibei Dou, and Xilin Chen. "Ieee standards for advanced audio and video coding in emerging applications." Computer 47, no. 5 (2014): 81-83.

Jehangir, Syed S., Abdelmoniem Hassan, and Mohammad S. Sharawi. "A 4-element dual wideband circular Yagi MIMO antenna system with loop excitation." In Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), 2016 IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 69-70. IEEE, 2016.

Li, T., Zhang, F. S., Gao, F., Zhang, Q., &Guo, Y. L. (2017). Microstrip Magnetic Dipole Yagi Antenna with Enhanced Impedance Bandwidth and Reduced Size for Wideband Wireless Applications. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, 73, 105-113.

Liu, Liang, Rui Zhang, and Kee-Chaing Chua. "Multi-antenna wireless powered communication with energy beamforming." IEEE Transactions on Communications 62, no. 12 (2014): 4349-4361.

REZAEIEH, Sasan AHDI, Marco Antoniades, and Amin Abbosh. "Miniaturized Planar Yagi Antenna Utilizing Capacitively-Coupled Folded Reflector." IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (2017).

Yao, J., S. Tjuatja, H. Huang, and J. Sanders. "Dynamic interrogation of wireless antenna sensor." In SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, pp. 90611X-90611X. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014.

Yi, Xiaohua, Chunhee Cho, James Cooper, Yang Wang, Manos M. Tentzeris, and Roberto T. Leon. "Passive wireless antenna sensor for strain and crack sensing—Electromagnetic modeling, simulation, and testing." Smart Materials and Structures 22, no. 8 (2013): 085009.

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