Discuss about the Designing training and instructional program.
In the previous assignments (Assignment 1 and Assignment 2), operational problems and the “needs assessment” for training were being analysed simultaneously. This assignment mainly covers the “Training Program Design” which is necessary to conduct the training and mitigate the identified operational issues in the first assignment. The issues that were being identified in the first assignment were quality of products and the customer service. This is really troublesome considering a fact that customer service and quality of product plays a very critical role in retaining the customers in the hospitality industry (Kandampully, Zhang & Bilgihan, 2015).
The chosen business area in the first assignment is a hotel. Additionally, the chosen issues were the quality of customer service and the products. The reason behind selecting the issues was the degree of importance of these factors in the hotel industry. These factors do really impact the business of the hotel company by affecting the customer loyalty level which is built upon the quality of customer service and the products. Such issues do also impact the sales which are one of the core requirements of the business. It looks obvious that these are the fundamental issues which must be countered with strategic plans. Effective training programs are one of those plans which can bring the difference in the resultant outcome (Sutton, Williams & Allinson, 2015).
Training is an essential element of organisational practices. It actually provides opportunities to management and employees to know each other through the exchange of knowledge and feedback system. Based on the general organisational policies ‘Training Need’ can be divided into three stages such as the follows (Khan, Mufti & Nazir, 2015):
- ‘Training Need’ after recruiting the fresh professionals
- ‘Training Need’ at the time of implementing a new technology or a system
- ‘Training Need’ to mitigate the identified issues
The identified issues for the chosen workplace are quality customer service and the products. ‘Training Need’ as identified in the Assignment 2 is required at the ‘Organisational Level’. Training is important not because that this would bring the radical changes to the operational performances but rather for its capability to construct the learning environment at the organisational level. A continuous learning environment is a resource to creativity & innovation and hence, such workplace will continuously look to improve its standard of service (Manuti et al., 2015).
The participating members of the planned training program will be the trainers and also the required professionals. In this case, the required professionals are those who used to have a direct interaction with customers. Hence, the participants would be the skilled trainers as they will coach the trainees on the identified gaps. The list of professionals will include like housekeepers, front office executives, security personnel and bartenders (Gyarmati et al. 2014).
Participants of training are generally those who are assigned to train a team and the ones who actually needed to be trained on skills because of the fact they are new to the company or also that there is a need for implementing a new strategy. Trainers must be experienced, so that, they are equipped with skills to coach the assigned team on the set operational objectives. Trainees will be all those who are identified as professionals for fulfilling the set operational objectives. In context of the hotel, housekeepers, security personnel, bartenders and front office executives have been identified as the professionals needed to be trained on the identified gaps (Ford, 2014). They have been selected because all those professionals interact to customers in different ways. It matters a most that these professionals are well versed in their responsibilities, so that, their participation is justified and hence, the standard of customer service. 
The program is always beneficial for the list of selected professionals if they are interested for the same and have the needs to groom their professional skills. However, it is meaningless to those who are being selected for the program but, do not have any desire for the same. It is beneficial as well for the concerned company provided that, the management team is able to organise the program in a way which is potentially identified for the success. It must have all the essential elements of a training program, if one of the elements or more of such gets hampered or are not being utilised properly the anticipated results may also get hampered (Cascio, 2018).
There are fundamentally three learning theories which can be used in the training programs; however, focus must be on the feasible learning mode. The three learning theories are Behaviourism, Cognitivism and Constructivism. Behaviourism is related with an understanding that governs learning to be the consequence of stimuli and responses. The learning is influenced from external words and observation of sound & picture clips. It is the individual response to the external happenings. Cognitivism is related with the internally processing of information derived from the variety of external resources. Constructivism is very much similar to cognitivism; however, it differs in regards to the individual’s contribution involved in the processing of data (Manuti et al., 2015).
The training program must have the following elements without which the program would collapse or would not produce the desired results (Nederveld & Berge, 2015):
Performing a ‘Training Needs Assessment’: This has already been done in the second assignment and the study has helped to justify the areas of improvement as well. 
Select the appropriate learning principles: In the context of the chosen hotel workplace, the most appropriate learning principle will be the ‘behaviourism. There are ample of reasons for selecting it. Constructivism gives space to learners to make their own interpretation of what they have observed. They may or may not be able to construct the right meaning of what they have observed. Cognitivism also relies on internal behavior for what is being observed. Behaviourism, on the other hand, does not only supply the information but, also influences the observer to make the rightful action. For example, visual training can be both supplying the information and also encourage the relevant responses (Robertson et al., 2015).
Construct the learning objectives: Training without a set of suitable learning objectives can be misguiding to both the trainers and the learners. The progress of such programs must be through a guided or a measured way.
Training materials: The training materials will include every required element such as the selection of trainers specific to the required skill sets, training modules, training venue, mode of training such as visual or audio, budget allocation, training timeframe and the infrastructural developments of the chosen venue.
Developing the identified training materials: The training modules must be developed identifying the best feasible mode of documenting such as word, excels, and power point presentations. Flip-charts, computer-generated graphics and posters can also be used. E-learning tools such as Articulate Studio or Adobe Captivate can also be used. All attempts must be given to designing the best communicable delivery mode for training, so that, trainees are not just introduced to the materials but, also have reasons to get engaged with the program. Coordination between the human resource management and the management team is necessary to identify the required timeframe for the training. The management team, the human resource department and the finance team will design the required budget for the training.
Implement the training: This need to be done as being planned so.
Formative and summative feedback: Such feedback system will let the trainers know their trainees and their level of understanding. Hence, a much better and a feasible mode of learning can then be designed.
Evaluation: This is essentially required after the completion of the training program. This can be done by setting some key performance indicators separately for financial performance, customer service standard and the market shares. This is also necessary to identify whether there is any need for more training.
In the context of the current study, the list of training objectives will be as the follows:
- To introduce a change in the mode of service delivery of the chosen hotel workplace
- To enhance the competency of professionals in delivering their best services to customers
- To enhance the skills of the selected professionals
- To improve the work behavior of professionals
As stated earlier, the best and most suitable learning theory in context to the chosen hotel workplace is behaviorism.
Schedule and planning activities have already been discussed in section 4. This will include like designing the training modules, identifying the training venue, selecting the best mode of learning, making the infrastructural changes and more (Manuti et al., 2015). 
Method of delivery will be both audio and visual training formats. This is necessary also for the chosen behaviorism learning theory. The audio and visuals will ease the jobs of the trainers and exchange of information will be good as well. Additionally, mixed methods for training can also be used. Mixed methods in training will help to evaluate the outcome of training both qualitatively and quantitatively (Kopp, 2017).
Trainers must follow a few important instructions which are necessary as well for the productivity of the training program. Trainers must be aware of the training objectives, so that, the progress is effectively aligned to it. Trainers must also know a proper utilization of the delivery methods such as the use of presentation sides, visual graphics, audios and videos in order to effectively communicate the planned message. They must also be aware of the training materials, so that, trainees feel like involved in it (Czaja & Sharit, 2016).
This is quite an essential to a training program. In the context of the identified needs for training in the chosen hotel workplace, both formative and summative feedback is of essential benefits. Formative feedback will keep a check on the progress. On the other hand, the summative feedback tells the individual's score and understanding. Evaluation of the training can be done by measuring the post-training performance against the set performance-based indicators (Nikolova et al., 2014). The findings of evaluation will tell whether there is any need for more such training programs.
Outlining as follows the required resources for the design, implementation and evaluation of the program (Saks & Burke?Smalley, 2014):
Design: The first and foremost work will be to schedule the training time. This will also include setting up the maximum timeframe for the program. Some process will go simultaneously as different personnel are responsible for the different set of works. For example, trainers will be responsible for setting up the training module while technicians and others will be dealing with the arrangement needed in the training venue. Arrangements may include like making all the required equipment arranged to the training venue, the budget calculation and others.
Implementation: The implementation of what are all being delivered through the training is very necessary. This will only ensure a proper utilization of training. It needs some other assistance as well. The first and foremost assistance will be monitoring the progress of the implementation process. This needs to be done within a set time period. The data collected over the specified time period must then be evaluated to analyze the level of implementation of the training modules. This will communicate the level of change in the service and hence, will create the need for more such training in future.
Evaluation: The Evaluation of the training program can be done with the help of the evaluation tools that include Questionnaires, Observations, Interviews and Focus Groups. Questionnaires can be used to gather a large data which are both qualitative and quantitative in nature. Questionnaires can be a good way of reaching to the number of participants; however, it may also have a low response rate or vague responses. Focus groups can be really helpful in evaluating the training program as with this process separate groups can be formed based on their expertise. Moreover, areas of improvement specific to departments can then be analysed. Observation is one of the traditional methods of evaluating the program. In this process, evaluator analyses the individual performance by observing their work-related behavior. This may include the work-related changes if there is any. Interviews can prove to be the effective ways of evaluating the training program. It gives the evaluator the chances of communicating in details with the target individual. It is a kind of open discussion that does not only inform on the progress but, also provides the valuable factors to understand the issue with individuals if there is any. (See Appendix 3 for specific Mode of Evaluation)
It entirely depends on the training needs and the nature of materials which will be delivered to the trainees. The trainees must be supplied with the Hand Outs, Notes and Powerpoints as there is a need for extensive learning for the chosen workplace. An extensive learning process must have all the requisite resource to capture the information and process a learning environment (Polo, Cervai & Kantola, 2018).
The training will need a monitor screen where audio or visual graphics can be played. Additionally, this will also need a projector screen where presentation of the selected modules can be made (Reynolds, 2017).
Formative and Summative Feedback
The venue for training can be the internal training room which is normally allotted for the trainings. In case, there are no such arrangements then a suitable location serving the basic needs can be booked for a certain period of time while also trying to keep the budgets low to an extent it is possible (Jackson, 2016).
Staffs required for the training will be the trainers and the trainees. The trainees will be the professionals from the various identified departments like housekeeping, front office and security (Mishra & Smyth, 2015).
Management support can be the barriers at times like when they do not support with the needful activities. Possible barriers can be in terms of budget and time frame for training. It is the responsibility of the human resource management that they have a thorough understanding of the expenses required and are also able to communicate the same with the management. Everything must be explained to managers, so that, they could realise the associated expenses (Reynolds, 2017). It is also the possibilities that managers do not understand the required timeframe for training. Such situations can arise due to the work pressure. Management may be in regular hunt to get the task or any program wrapped up in quick span of time.
Perception can be the barriers. Trainees with negative perception may not certainly gain the element being delivered to them. On the other hand, trainees with positive perception may certainly open up doors for them to understand a many of thing. Trainers with perception like all trainees are equally capable to understand the training modules may certainly hamper the productivity. Managers may miss out on a point that few trainees must be given the additional learning support (Kopp, 2017).
Financial barrier can be a real issue. This can be due to a fact that the firm is incapable to support the extensive training package. It can also be because the management has not approved the entire calculated amount for the training. They might not have understood the importance of entire training elements (Cascio, 2018).
Conflicting priorities can arise at the time of designing the training plan. There can have different thoughts regarding the most suitable learning theory. Conflicts can also be regarding the modes of training. This is because the every single inclusion of material in the training program attracts the significant expenses. It must be a good selection, so that, no wastage of money is done (Ford, 2014).
Therefore, the chosen workplace in “Assignment 1” needs to be careful in terms of designing the training plan. Each and every single element included in the program like planning the training venue, budget allocating and others must be carefully conducted. There are challenges such as conflicting thoughts in different regards must be taken care efficiently to reduce any possible barrier to training. This way the chosen workplace can actually help the identified training program and promote the required learning environment at the workplace.
Bhutto, A., & Tunio, R. A. (2017). Factor Affecting the Transfer of Training at the Workplace: Case study of SSGC Ltd, Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(2), 357-370.
Cascio, W. (2018). Managing human resources. McGraw-Hill Education.
Czaja, S. J., & Sharit, J. (2016). Designing training and instructional programs for older adults. CRC Press.
Ford, J. K. (2014). Improving training effectiveness in work organizations. Psychology Press.
Gyarmati, D., Leckie, N., Dowie, M., Palameta, B., Hui, T. S. W., Dunn, E., & Hébert, S. (2014). UPSKILL: A credible test of workplace literacy and essential skills training. Social Research and Demonstration Corporation.
Jackson, D. (2016). Modelling graduate skill transfer from university to the workplace. Journal of Education and Work, 29(2), 199-231.
Kandampully, J., Zhang, T., & Bilgihan, A. (2015). Customer loyalty: a review and future directions with a special focus on the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(3), 379-414.
Khan, I., Mufti, S., & Nazir, N. A. (2015). Transfer of Training: A Reorganized Review on Work Environment and Motivation to Transfer. International Journal of Management, Knowledge and Learning, 4(2), 197-219.
Kopp, D. M. (2017). Famous and (Infamous) Workplace and Community Training: A Social History of Training and Development. Springer.
Manuti, A., Pastore, S., Scardigno, A. F., Giancaspro, M. L., & Morciano, D. (2015). Formal and informal learning in the workplace: a research review. International journal of training and development, 19(1), 1-17.
Mishra, V., & Smyth, R. (2015). Workplace policies and training in China: evidence from matched employee-employer data. International Journal of Manpower, 36(7), 986-1011.
Nederveld, A., & Berge, Z. L. (2015). Flipped learning in the workplace. Journal of Workplace Learning, 27(2), 162-172.
Nikolova, I., Van Ruysseveldt, J., De Witte, H., & Syroit, J. (2014). Work-based learning: Development and validation of a scale measuring the learning potential of the workplace (LPW). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84(1), 1-10.
Polo, F., Cervai, S., & Kantola, J. (2018). Training culture: A new conceptualization to capture values and meanings of training in organizations. Journal of Workplace Learning, 30(3), 162-173.
Reynolds, M. (2017). Organizing reflection. Routledge.
Robertson, I. T., Cooper, C. L., Sarkar, M., & Curran, T. (2015). Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88(3), 533-562.
Saks, A. M., & Burke?Smalley, L. A. (2014). Is transfer of training related to firm performance?. International Journal of Training and Development, 18(2), 104-115.
Sutton, A., Williams, H. M., & Allinson, C. W. (2015). A longitudinal, mixed method evaluation of self-awareness training in the workplace. European Journal of Training and Development, 39(7), 610-627.
 Hand Notes: The page describes an introduction to this paper. The paper also gives a background of the organisation.
 Hand Notes: The page describes the participants which include the identification of participants and also the cohort for who need to participate in the program.
 Hand Notes: The page describes the benefits to both participants and organisations. It also has a program plan.
 Hand Notes: The page describes a continuation of the detailed training plan based on the choice of learning theories.
 Hand Notes: The page specifically covers the program objectives, schedule & planned activities and the method of delivery.
 Hand Notes: It covers instructions for trainer, feedback/evaluation and resources required.
 Hand Notes: The page is a continuation of the required resources.
 Hand Notes: The page describes few key points like technologies required, location, staff, cost of the training, and the possible barriers of training.
 Hand Notes: The page discusses perception & participation, finance, conflicting priorities and the conclusion.
 Hand Notes: The conclusion continues.
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