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I want "Paraphrased"( only) without changing any objective ,meaning or goal. Enhancements to the template and layout are welcome. Similarity must be 5% at max since this report is gonna be submitted via turn it in.

History of the E-Bike


The report on the e-bike design project shows the designing, mathematical application and the production of the bike to facilitate the movement of the students located at the campuses in Penrith Western Sydney. The incorporated design ideas include sustainable engineering, systems engineering, DFM, DFA, DFD, FMEA, X designs and numerical simulation with computer-aided design.

E-bikes, majorly known by its electronically aided pedals, existed in the Australian market in the past years but they became common with time to the present. E-bikes are one of the major share contributors to the bicycle market (Morchin & Oman, 2006). Despite the improvement of vehicles in the motor vehicle industry, bicycles remain to play a major role in the transport sector as an easy and cheap mobility system for use. Most developed economies value the use of the bicycle as a transport mode, for instance, the Chinese have made accessible bicycles to more than 200 million users who make use of them on a daily basis. The main advantage of using a bicycle is that there is zero damage to the environment in the sense of pollution and other factors. However, there is a lot of strain on the user and unfitness which disadvantages the cycling exercise. The project seeks to solve the problem and hence provide ease transportation and accessibility to the entire population.

In the Late 19th century, there emerged the first e-bikes, but unfortunately, despite patenting their designs, there was no mass production of the e-bikes hence it was unavailable for the public (Friss, 2015). A century later there came up new developments where torque sensors were incorporated into the original design and hence improved the user-friendliness of the technology. Commercial e-bikes were later commercially produced which lead to the Panasonic and Yamaha companies (Anon., 2009).

The e-bike’s popularity is major as a result of the society’s conscience on matters health. The world is growing technologically to the designing of more smart devices that are integrated to make human’s life easy and hence the need of the e-bikes. Also, the e-bike’s running cost is relatively cheaper compared to petrochemical vehicles, and hence this has contributed to its popularity. With these popularity reasons, the e-bike is necessary to facilitate transport as an alternative to other forms of transport (Kroesen, 2017).

This project is aiming at reducing the gap between the practice and theory in the engineering field which is only achieved through the actualization of the concepts learned. The Mechatronic Design concepts will be used in designing and production of the e-bike which is targeted to be used in the campuses above.  This project is also objectified to the designing and engineering of the e-bike as a different option in navigating through the three campuses. The e-bike is a project that offers the university a cheaper and eco-friendly transport alternative to be used in navigating through the three campuses by both the students and the staff.

Popularity of E-Bikes

Frequent weekly meetings were held, for about six weeks, with the agenda of coming up with design ideas and concepts. The Microsoft Word, online version, was used in writing of the report as it eased the simultaneous editing of the documents by the members. The project’s design decisions were collectively made, and the success of the ultimate design was a team effort.

Each of the three engineers had a role to play in coming up with the ultimate design. Nevertheless, other members were given other roles like the drafting and the engineering of the systems. The table below summarises the roles played by each engineer.

To come up with a suitable design of the e-bike, the customer needs ought to be considered. The products target market will be the entire university personnel from students and staff of different levels in the university. The product is meant to facilitate their easy navigation between campuses. Due to the customers varied fitness levels, it should be taken into consideration when designing the e-bike such that all the end consumers will ride comfortably without strain. Other considerations to be looked at include the physical appearance of the e-bike whether it would be appealing to the user, users with different weights of about 40 kilograms to 160 kilograms, a well-designed control interface that will ease use and not gender biased. Attaining all the customer needs means success to the design and production of the product.  

The major design goal for this project is to produce a bicycle that is electrically aided which would help persons of different levels of fitness to navigate around the campuses, also reducing CO2 production and emission by the adoption of renewable sources of energy and use of fossil fuels in recharging of batteries (Fyhri, 2015). Students should be entitled to this mode of transport to improve their health, through working out/exercising using this specific mode of transport and discourage the common unhealthy student lifestyle. For the maximum utilization of the mode of transport, the bike should be able to withstand all weather conditions that it is likely to be subjected to. For instance, for the sake of rains, the bike should be waterproof and resist corrosion since it is usually used outdoors. Legal necessities must be accomplished as the bike’s target market would be students and they should not require regular licensing and registration to increase the usability of this product across the universities. The set goals to be achieved at the end of this project would be to use all the design knowledge in coming up with an efficient, usable product that will have satisfied all the consumers’ needs. A smart campus will be built in the process around the Western Sydney region.

Project Objectives

It is desired that the e-bike should be able to perform in areas such as: when fully charged, and carrying a maximum load of 150 Kg (Edge, 2018), the e-bike should continuously be cycled from Kingswood grounds to Werrington South grounds and Werrington North Grounds. .the bike should sustain a maximum of 4km which is considered the distance between Kingswood grounds car park to Werrington North grounds at the observatory (this is major as a result of trying to avoid public roads hence cycling on the extension passing over the Great Western Highway which associates the North and South Werrington campuses). The bike assist should be designed to last for about 8 kilometers from when the charge is full to prevent the cases of running out of charge midway while navigating within the campuses. Also, the other consideration is the Australian Design Regulations used in the NSW roads since the distances covered include the compulsory distance on the public traveled by the students of about 75 meters to Werrington from Kingswood (Australian Government, 2018). The targeted high speed for the bike is 25 km/h giving out a maximum power of 200W. There are also considerations that the bike should be light, require minimal maintenance, and it should be appealing in looks to the consumer.    

Among the design objectives was one essential objective which was to evade pointless enrolment costs in the utilization of the product on the general population roads, and along these lines; as per the data given, there are exceptions of two types of power aided pedal bikes by the road and maritime services. One of them being a pedelec of 250 Watt and an electric power aided pedal bike of 200 Watt (Hicks, 2012). The contrast that exists between the two bikes is that for the pedelec to draw in and aid the locomotion of the bike, pedals must be in motion. When the rider quits accelerating, the mortar withdraws immediately (Gerike & Parkin, 2016). This design meets the European standard EN 15194:2009 or EN 15194:2009+A1:2009. The e-bikes have the pedals separated from the throttle they carry, however, it has a restricted power of 200 Watts. Their mortar speeds are constrained to run at 25 km/h.

According to the requirements recorded in accordance to the legal sector concerning the safety of roads, both the e-bikes and the non-aided pedal bikes fall under the same category, since they are required to follow the same regulations (Global Energy Assessment Writing Team, 2012). The regulations are set to prevent harm to the riders and other road users and also to minimize injury in case of an accident. The requirements state that a vehicle and a bicycle share the same road rules with an omission of bus and transit lanes usage. The NSW rules require the rider of the bikes to be well equipped with the right attire and a bike with good working conditions. This include, the brakes should be operational, a horn or a bell that will alert other road users of their presence. The correct attire should include a helmet certified by ADR and should be worn at all times when riding (McKelvey & Bagchi-Sen, 2015).

Design Concept and Implementation

During the night the e-bike rider according to the regulations will be required to have installed a front-installed working nonflashing light and likewise a red flashing light at the back of the bike. The installed lights should be efficiently shining on a radius of about 200 meters. A rear reflector is a compulsory requirement for the e-bikes so that the rider would be visible to the other road users at night for about 50 meters radius between the cyclist and another road user.

There will be a collective comprehension of the regulations and requirements, pertaining the legal sector, in designing the e-bikes to minimize the risk of accidents thereby improving the consumers’ safety. The e-bike will contain the required lights, good reflectors and correct attire for the bike. There would also be extensive education to the public on the importance of using the safety factors that have been put in place maybe by supplying pamphlets of the safety regulations as outlined in the law.

 The transport for NSW has outlined in detail the paraphrased law requirements for the bike. 

To reduce the time used by both students and all other university staff in traveling from one campus to another in a practical manner, one size e-bike was proposed by our team. The e-bike was not only time conserving but also environmental friendly in a manner that students and all university staff can use it to get access to the university services at affordable means. The bike will have solved lots of problems like steep inclines on public roads by connecting the bike to electric motors which we would have to meet the needs of the user design specified during design process (Hernández, 2018). The e-bike will be multi-used by the users enhancing great luxuries. A phone dock was proposed whereby the e-bike users especially for the university users to use an app created to enhance their travel by including a charging station, a speedometer and a user interface. All this is done to meet the needs of the customer and to make the final product be a success.

Bosch performance e-bike, the smart Brabus e-bike, the Stromer ST1 e-bike and the MG e-bike were some of the frame inspirators. All the listed forms of frames suggested had all components suited for the objectives related to the engineering that was to create a strong and reliable set up.

The motor in the Bosch performance line is a crank-based motor which has a frame that is incorporated with the battery pack used in pedal assistance (David & Lewindon, 2014). A carbon fiber frame is used since it is the lightest engineered material without sacrificing strength where the frame is used thus the bike is designed to be the lightest e-bike on the market. The model also incorporates semi-tubular frame to enhance its look for a genuine functional bicycle. The e-bike also is made in a way such that it also caters for short users by positioning the seat post lower than the gooseneck to accommodate them as well as the tall users with a quick release lever to adjust the seat and the top tube to lower for easy seating. A battery pack is housed on the frame where it is also protected under a lift lid to aid in the elimination of the harmful materials from getting into the system which is also used by the Smart Brabus e-bike (Hicks, 2012).

Design Objectives

Since there was no suspension in engineering form behind the Smart Brabus e-bike and also its sleek aesthetics to make it have a swing arm set up on the rear without truss braces towards the seat post for reinforcement, it was considered as a design concept. Due to the cost restrictions and all the materials required for reinforcement of the swing arms from creating a bend or a cantilever effect from abuse or heavier users, it became the major restriction to the project. Therefore, a design concept from the MG e-bike line was borrowed in that truss frame was considered where a triangular truss setup was optimal for strength (Morchin & Oman, 2006). The concept incorporated a triangular truss setup which supported the rear wheel and the seat from the creation of a cantilever bending effect. The crank-style electric motor seems popular and innovative since it is mostly used by the e-bike designers such as Bosch and MGM –bike lines.

To allow replacement for either charging or repair of the battery pack, according to the (Stromer Bike, 2012), the battery is housed within the frame of the e-bike which contains a lockable cover on it on the lower tube of the frame. Since the bottom tube is neither a solid nor sealed, due to the mounting of the battery pack, the frame may not be as rigid as other designed used in other bikes. Chromalloy is used in case one needs the frame to be rigid or use thicker grade steel to withstand the rigidity from the cutout.

The loopwheel and the soft wheel were the designs for the wheels for the e-bike taken as shown in the figures below. The need for complexity is reduced in the frame design since both the designs are incorporated in the suspension components in the wheel. To ensure the rider’s comfort for the e-bike when riding across nonpaved areas or un-even sections of roads, a simple wheel rim consisting of three gas strut dampers for spokes are incorporated into the front and rear wheel of the e-bike design (Hogan, 2015). That was the main inspiration where the design was taken from.

Many motor types can be used by the e-bike which can be found on the market for installation to aid for the machines’ movement. An already designed technology was to be applied differently by the team investigating the given project to run the whole e-bike as a machine. Bosch active and performance which had a range of four options on the market was the first choice we came across that was suitable for the Bosch’ e-bikes. It was the model that offered a speed of 25km/h,50 Nm acceleration assistance, had a lightweight of under 4kgs. The model also offers both chain and hub design with many options such as backpedal option (Yeager, 2010). Models are rated the modern models with the latest version which included optimal CX offering 60Nm and 75Nm of torque respectively for higher results of acceleration of the speed of up to 45km/h. The model can go on most terrains including alpine areas. 

Legal Requirements

A gearless wheel hub motor incorporated in front wheel using a double walled alloy rim and spokes supporting the system was the second option which was the cheaper Global living brushless (Xia, 2012). A load force of 45Nm of torque is offered at 10kgs and up to 45km/h help but it requires 48v/1000w to ensure the whole system is running to allow only 85kg loading capacity. This may become a restriction since the battery used will need a recharge duly than what has been outlined in the design object which can’t be able to accommodate all students and the university staff 50-150kg.

The stealthiest way and final option which was as similar to the Vivax Gruber Assist motor that incorporated a motor and battery pack was what was decided on by the research team. It was by installing the same in the seat post which is almost the impossible way to notice whether the e-bike is assisted, model. A bevel gear is used in driving the crank as the freewheel is only used when required in the 220mm tubular design which included the battery that is 1.8kg using 200w (Amin & Rehmani, 2015). It is either available in 6Ah form or 9Ah form which gives out either 60 mins or 90 mins of power. The system involves pedaling for a while since the system majorly works under pedaling, the better options given out by the team will be discussed later which was noted to be more efficient.

The chain drive system is a quality type of bicycle and a motorcycle system that works precisely, therefore there is no need to make any major changes to it. The pedal shaft has to be at work at all times for the Gruber Assist electric motor to allow the back wheel to work perfectly. The pedal shaft and the crank sprocket will always rotate continuously to keep the motor active hence it creates a hindrance for the rider since the rider has to keep off his or her feet for the motor to work, nevertheless it cannot work unless the pedal is kept in a stationary manner (Hadland & Lessing, 2014). The conclusion made by engineers when they were at work, was to give the solution to the users to provide the assistance they require to allow their feet to stay at resting position on the pedals.

A restricted bearing was to be changed and coordinated into the wrench sprocket that was to permit the wrench sprocket dependability to help the back wheels through the Gruber Motor to help the client remain resting without the need for accelerating (Streeter, 2009). The wrench centre point of the bike was to comprise of a two bearing framework with an empty shaft being associated with the Gruber Assist engine outfits that will dependably pivot the sprocket. The inward shaft is intended to be a strong crankshaft which will involve a restricted bearing like the back sprocket tape in order to enable the client to pedal in a forward motion to enable their feet to rest when the chain pivots at free twists to permit the Gruber Motor help the back wheel in keeping up a similar speed. The restricted bearing is noted in the back-sprocket tape for some bikes however, was viewed as the principal usage done in the wrench sprocket framework since it has never been finished with the Gruber style electric engine (Vivax Assist, 2018).


The concept of bringing a user interface onto the E-bike will create abundant importance for the user in that a device such as a phone dock can be included on the handlebars, together with a student card swipe. The dock will contain a modern charger being used at the same time with all the batteries which should be sufficient for the electric motor for short distance trips. A campus GPS system, an e-bike gauge, and a speedometer will be installed in phones as a phone app. It will be of great importance to the user to help them travel in case they do not know or understand the directions around the campus. The speedometer will be of great importance in indicating the traveling speed to limit the speed limits and so on. The student and staff card swipe will be of importance in eliminating bike theft by assisting it to act as a key to start the electric assist in accepting only Western University staff and students to have access to the bike services. On swiping the I.D, the phone app will recognize the user by sending data through the use of the Bluetooth module and allows the user to use the e-bike service.

The images shown below, are preliminary sketches of the e-bike design. The conceptual idea from one's mind can be easily moved to a platform through a pen and a paper so as it can be shared with others.

The end of a double truss design was agreed on as they were aesthetically appealing (Underwood & Chiuini, 2011). This is seen from the above three sketches which exhibit various combinations of cantilever and triangle truss designs. [Note: The shaded areas denote the motor and battery pack components.]

The figure above shows a preliminary double truss design incorporating a small cylindrical shaft motor and the battery made into the frame in a rectangular section which enables access to the battery through the flap available. There are a few aesthetics designs in the frame with sections that are bent.

The final concept of all ideas was incorporated into a drawing made by Ahmed El-Assaad which was a final design sketch. Another more complex design followed in a suite of the double truss style that many current bikes use. A shaft motor together with a battery is incorporated in one case to enhance the appearance of the bike frame to look sleek and functional (Croccolo & Agostinis, 2013). The frame complications are brought to a halt by the damper wheels which offers a smoother ride as shown in the sketch. The swing arm proves to be costly and causes difficulty in replacing the wheels though they are easily interchanged.


From the software that the Google maps provided, it was noticed that about 34 minutes is taken to walk at an average pace while riding takes less than 8 minutes on an average of 20 km/hr. Similarly driving a car takes about 10 minutes between the campuses while not including the time taken to look for a free parking lot to park a car and walk to class from the parking lot far from class.

200 W of power to be continuously used during riding is stored in the 24 V power pack.

200W/24V = 8.333A (current drawn from motor)

The supplied power is 10.8Ah

10.8A/8.333A = 1.296hours of continuous use (electric only)

Take the calculating speed to be 25 km/h

The farthest the bike could go when fully charged and without peddling is:

1.296 h * 25 km/h = 32.4km

Riding at an average distance between places and along footpaths from Kingswood campus to Werrington North, while the maximum possible distance on the university grounds is 2.6km with the maximum range, the e-bike can make up to six complete return trips by use of battery power only.

The frame requires high strength making it the esseential part of the e-bike to allow durability since heavy weights have to be applied time in time out. The joints and the welds experience most stresses through the frame which is considered as the chasis of the e-bike hence maintaining its structural integrity (Burt & Evans, 2018). A decision was made to look for the materials always used in other bikes to start with for appropriance. The table below shows the commonly used materials in bicycle frame construction.

The design team decided to start with the handlebars, a 4130 chromyl frame, fork, seat post and the gooseneck. Chromyl tubes were greatly preferred to aluminium and steel since the latter are not really strong as compared to chromyl which is commonly used on the BMX bikes (Lucas & Robinson, 2012). The chromyl tubes are cheaper when compared to other materials such as carbon fibre or titanium. The bike weight is catered for by the chromyl for mountain terrain students or stunt since the 4130 chromyl already meets the qualities of the required strength for the same purpose. Welding and the use of a mandrel in bending is easier as compared to aluminium since it uses little pieces of metal. Therefore, the strength and rigidity can be maintained even after they have been cold drawn to thinner tubes which cannot be easily done to the steer land type (Brandan , 2012). Due to the cost of materials and the personnel required to work with the given materials, carbon fiber and titanium were not preferred since they are not easy to work with as compared to other available materials, especially the carbon fiber that needs a Monocoque design for its usage (Burrill & Zurschmeide, 2012).





It is light in weight

It highly resists corrosion

It has a high strength to weight ratio

It shows nonmagnetic properties

It can be recycled

It is assembled through tubular welding pieces

Cannot withstand high temperatures for welding.

Chromoly 4130

It has a higher Strength to weight ratio compared to aluminum

It has a high tensile and yield strength

Has a high strength with smallest material. 

Cannot make stronger welds and hence a need or double welding.

It is costly

Low Tensile steel 1020

A less expensive option

Easiest to machine and weld


Susceptible to oxidation

Lower strength to weight ratio

Carbon Fibre

Lightest material

Incredibly strong

Resistant to elements

Very expensive to mold and acquire

Easy to break and hard to repair

The frame is made as one piece

The uneven road surfaces, different terrains, and bumps are dealt with by creation of the softer ride by connecting the hub to the rim from the integrated gas strut shocks without the need of connection of the shock absorbers integration in the frame (Goodwill, 2015). All is made possible by use of the 24-inch stock wheels. This aids in the minimization of the parts used by the engineers in the frame. Upon impact on a wheel, there will be deflection of the hub against the wheel on its14mm axle since there will be an integration of three gas strut shocks that will be integrated to form a shock system triangular in shape in each wheel thus creating a three-spoke wheel style. Composite nylon will make a rim due to its lightweight, negligible deformation memory but regain back its original shape due to its polymer property as a nylon plastic and go beyond the aluminum strength of the wheels (Ishida, 2013).

A composite nylon rim is suitable for the requirements for the e-bike since the aluminum wheels undergo deformation to the extent that it cannot be rebound to its trueness and shape. Therefore the composite is designed to lack spokes inserted from the inside rim where the tubes usually sit under pressure thus it eliminates punctures (Mark, 2007).

A special hardware will be used to mount the gas struts to help in connection to the students to the rim and will be riveted for easy maintenance and eliminate spoke intrusion onto the tube walls. Air filled rubber tube will be a compliment with the decent tires to avoid punctures from abuse and impact for reduction for the repair and maintenance rates (Hardy, 2016).

 A quality and reliable braking system is an essential part of any automobile. Brake System suppliers Shimano which was well trusted was made up to for the brakes due to the different expertise of riders (Ivanov, 2015).

The purchasing of the complete brake system will be done as a kit which will entail the Brake Calliper Adapter and Brake Level Calliper. The caliper adapter will come as a set of two. Powder coating has been done to prevent it from rusting or corrosion (Brett, 2014). The size of the rotor disc was chosen to be at 180 mm. Compensation for individuals of varying different weight has been catered for by the big diameter chosen. In the case whereby there is a need for an excessive brake on different terrains, the stainless steel has been used to dissipate heat safely.

A rim brake that works with the rubber brake pad impacting the rim cant is constituted in the design due to the flexing of the stock wheel set up due to its implementation of the shock wheel assembly.

Since Shimano is renowned for best bike gears around the world (Brian, 2017), the gear mechanism which includes the front and rear sprockets and the derailleur will be purchased there for better results. There will be three sprocket front cassette, one for medium and lower gears and others for high gears. Six different sprockets of different sizes will be used for speeds either lower or higher depending on the user of the rear cassette (Schmidt, 2014). In assistance of gear changing via gear levers, the rear and front derailleur which will be a part of the kit will be mounted onto the handlebar for easy access by the user. A one way bearing in the shift that allows free spinning when the motor assist has been switched of is the only difference with the kit present in the front sprocket which remains the same from Shimano where it is purchased from.

The battery source which operates the electric motor will provide battery power that will be utilized by the lights that have to be integrated on the bike. For nighttime riders, especially in the dimly lit streets will need an optional flash at the rear red light and at the front a white light with the incorporated high beam option as per the Australian standards of lights (Queensland Government, 2018). Innovated OLED which uses less battery power or LED will be the model for the lights. The frame will incorporate the rear and front splash guards which will be used by the riders to block dirty ground water from splashing to the e-bike riders when riding in rain seasons (Arthur, 2017).

The university commission in charge of the project will decide on the combination of the colors that should be used in the powder coating for protection and aesthetic purposes of the e-bike. The easiest way to paint the bike is through powder coating since they can be done in mass quantities by baking them in a furnace after the powder has been applied (Zurschmeide, 2015). The wheel shocks, seat post, gooseneck and the handlebars should be powder coated or anodized black for a perfect finish after being color matched in black. The rims will be in composite nylon to avoid re-finishing them repeatedly (Young, 2015). A paint coat will protect the materials from corrosion. Therefore, it is necessary to make a finish with it.

Two motor types are taken into consideration regarding the e-bike for the same design project to work. Crank type Gruber assist motors and Hub Type motors were taken into consideration. The Crank type Gruber assist motor was preferred to be ideal for the same project by our project team.



Brushed, Gearless DC Motor

Power (Output), Pout (W)

200w @3200RPM No load, Rated Load 2700RPM

Required Load (KG)


Power (Output), Pout (W)


Voltage, V (VDC)


Max Current, Imax (A)


Max Torque, Tmax (Nm)


Weight, W (kg)


Efficiency (%)


Shaft Diameter (mm)


Based on the criteria of the report, a customized motor would be built. Consideration of a maximum weight of the rider and the average weight of the bike frame was at 20kgs. Based on our motor speed calculation, a maximum power of 190 rpm will be its output alone. An electric bicycle’s speed is not legalized to exceed 25km/h (Zuev, 2018). Therefore, our designed e-bike would not exceed an average speed of 23.7km/h based on the size of our 24in rim with a 1in tire thickness which is equal to a total diameter of 26in.


24.0V, 10.8Ah

Pack Capacity (Ah)


Pack Voltage (V)


Number Of Cells


Cell  Model


Battery Minimum Size (mm)

64.8(h) x 73.2(w) x 28.1 (l)

Cell Weight (g)


Cell Type


To produce a pressure examination of the casing, the test system highlight of strong works was utilized. Around 150kg heap of 1500N power which is above expressed outline objective for rider and payload weight. The heap compel was put on the opposite side to the substance of the roundabout tube outline which houses the drive, in this way recreating a rider remaining on the pedals while riding the E-Bike (Roopinder, 2017). Raise hub and the front fork situate where joined to the interfacing focuses by utilization of the apparatuses which mimic the e-bicycle when connected to the wheels of the given bicycle.

The location of the maximum Von stress which is 81.5MPa is between the joint on the central seat column bar and the joint on the top frame bar. Reduction of the stress level can be made through the implementation of a fillet or a chamfer since it is a sharp joint (CDX Automotive, 2013). The stress reducer will be the weld beads since the frame design has to be welded together because a large area will be affected by the stress at the joint.

At the highest point of the drive train center housing, the maximum displacement of a load is when the underload is -0.6825 mm. The central drivetrain components and the cover are not included in this analysis of the frame. Therefore the max displacement should read as less {as an assembly} (Reif, 2014).

The frame is liable to be mishandled by both light and heavy using clients. The bike is likely to be subject to course conditions such as being ridden on rough terrain landscape because most of the expected clients are students who are more youthful and hence more energy. The frame should be strong and sufficiently inflexible because of the conditions it is being exposed to, but yet light for portability (Asian Development Bank, 2009). If given the chance to less expensive materials, for example, high tensile steel is utilized, it will lack the strength to withstand the greater force it might be exposed to. Poor welding, for example, overheating and absence of arc gas may lead to the cracking of the frame at the weak welded joints (Black & Kohser, 2017).

Inaccurate fixing of the nuts and bolts amidst the bike components, for example, the handlebars, the seat post even the wheel axles would bring about exhaustion of the joints which may, in turn, cause fracture or bend, a problem that could have been avoided if the correct materials were used. There would be an inclusion of the torque specifications in the bikes’ manual.

Another danger the frame may be exposed to is the scratching effect or the wear off of the paint which may provide conducive conditions for corrosion (Bertolini, et al., 2013) hence the lifespan and the beauty of the bike is affected in the long run.

The rigidity of the wheels will be put to test when used in different kinds of terraces like rough roads. Rim guttering may cause it to buckle (Lawson, 2016). The wheels are also likely to be passed through potholes or subjected to enormous forces. Frail material selection will provide room for the stated defects to occur. Tubes are normally affected easily since they are made of thin rubber that is viable to puncture when exposed to impact. The material used for making the tires are also likely to wear out, or an alternative of making it from a cheaper material may not be a suitable option since it might not be safe to use during wet times.  

The mortar in the power pack will overheat, an effect caused by the continuous drawing of current from it (Hughes & Drury , 2013). Above the critical heating capabilities, the battery damages to an extent it would neither be rechargeable nor hold power as it was designed to. In addition to the battery damage, overheating may lead to an explosion of the power pack, and hence both the power connection points and the motor will be short-circuited. In the process, acid leaking may occur which will lead to corrosion in the power supply.

The designing method of the mortar could be a possible cause for its failure. A DC motor designed as a crank motor or a hub motor could wear off or eventually break due to the constant rubbing of the brushes to the armature and hence rendering the motor useless (Bakshi & Bakshi, 2008). The coil wiring could break due to either overheating or the use of incorrect wire diameter. Gears and bearings would experience fatigue if poorly maintained which in turn causes the ineffectiveness of the motor. Unregulated power surge would cause overheating of the motor. This is mainly due to the inconsistent power supply (Bhattacharya, 2011).

Brakes play a critical role in the safety of the e-bike users. Failure of the brakes may result in the user bumping into other road users or objects. Examples of the common brake failures include un-lobed brake lines, snapping of the brake cables due to over-tightening, calipers not properly aligned and the usage of disks that are worn out (Reif, 2014).

For the bike to work, it requires the drive train as its major component. Poor selection of materials would result in the bike being rendered unusable to the consumers. The failures that are likely to occur include the failure of the sprockets as a result of buckling, usage of low-quality materials and sheared gear teeth and as a result, the chain drive will ride unevenly or fall off (Thompson & Erjaveck, 2014). Unmaintained bearings within the sprockets may wear out if not regularly checked and lubricated to minimize friction. There would be noise from the ungreased chain which may lead to the failure of the chain with time. Overtightening of the cables operating the gear changing mechanism may result in them breaking which is not required (Oman & Morchin , 2006).

The existence of a charging station is fundamental to the operation of the e-bike. They are to be located at strategic places in the university, especially the busiest places and will be receiving power from the main power supply located near the library. The charging stations can also be solar paneled, which is a more environment friendly approach and more economical source of power (Niklas, 2016). This would greatly utilize the rays of the sun in the universities. Likewise, wind through the turbine technology could also be utilized in providing the energy to be used for charging the charging box (Nelson, 2013). Taking advantage of the environmental conditions to provide energy for the bikes could be beneficial to the bike technology implementation. However, in the absence of all those sources, the e-bikes would not be able to perform as designed and hence the objectives would not have been met.

A helmet is an essential gear for safety when riding, and hence it should be worn in every instance of riding as is also recorded by the law (Schaik, 2017). As a safety measure, a proximity sensor should be installed on the bike such that it stops automatically when the helmet is 10 meters away from the bike (Lakhutia, 2016). The location of the helmets should be easily accessible especially in the set hubs to provide the safety mechanism to the riders at all times. The helmets are made in such a way that it could easily fit any head regardless of the size by self-adjusting. Only the approved Australian standard helmets will be provided.

The road safety and rules will be recorded and made available on the mobile app for which the students and university staff are required to read through on a monthly basis so that they keep up with the safety regulations. In the regulations, will include the essential bike checks that would be looked into regularly like the brake check, the suspension check, the frame check and the safety of the helmet strap. All these rules are as per the national requirements (Allianz, 2012).

Students will be granted access to the bikes via a security system fitted in the e-bike’s frame which registers a student as the sole user of the bike (Rosay, 2011). The information will after that be transferred to the school’s database such that the system would recognize all the loaners of the bikes at each moment. Once a student signs in from one charging station he/she is obliged to take care of the bike until they get to the other station where the bike will be left for use by the next person.

The e-bike consists of delicate electrical components that should at all times be shielded from direct sunlight since exposure to the sun might cause fire or leaking of the battery (Weinert, 2007). The electronic features also need to be shielded away from wet conditions such as the rain and any form of dampness as this would cause short circuiting inside the electric components. Chain and gears also in the frame are liable to be affected by adverse weather. The building of a good rack station at designated places in the school compound could be of great help to shelter the bikes from adverse weather conditions. A typical rack station is as shown below (BiKeep, 2018). The sheltering will also shield the electrical card readers and the helmet thus increasing the lifespan of the bike.

  1. Encourage the use of an active, renewable and free form of transport for everyone in the entire three campuses.
  2. Improvement of an active and healthy lifestyle.
  3. Minimize the environmental pollution due to emissions of carbon from the bus transport(Cherry, et al., 2016).
  4. To be the leader in the application of a carbon-free mode of transport.
  5. Producing a safe and effective form of transport within the campus region.
  6. Minimizing the registration costs thereby improving its accessibility.

The construction of a bike path along the existing roads will help create a separate way for the riders and hence there would be minimal accidents happening. For better visibility, the streets will be painted with a glowing bright green color. The streets will also have illuminating lights to increase the visibility of the markings. There will be the provision of raincoats at the charging hubs to protect the riders from rain, and in the process, the bike will be secured from exposure to rain. Water for rehydration will also be provided at designated drinking fountains on the school to keep the riders hydrated and healthy. Kingswood will host the main e-bike hub center which will contain all functions of the e-bike such as charging, maintenance, equipment hire and some e-bikes to be hired. The North and South Werrington campuses will have small hubs built which will also cater for the e-bike services. The main source of energy intended for use will be solar energy; however, in the absence of solar, the main electric power supply would be used.

Funding of the e-bikes will be majorly from the university or partly with help from the government. At the university I expected to get the funds from the students’ fees which will not be much considering the benefits it would bring upon implementation. The government will subsidize funds for this project as it uses a clean source of fuel thereby conserving the environment (Shrubb, 2018). A joint effort between the university and the government should look into the benefits of this project and apply it as the only means of transport to be used between the campuses.

Some of the marketing strategies proposed for the promotion of the e-bike include:

  1. Using social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram to advertise the services provided by the e-bike.
  2. The charging stations and the central hubs are to be located in strategic positions in the university where most students operate near, for example, outside the library.
  3. Introduction of a mileage incentive where students are encouraged more to use the e-bike to win a competition as the user with the longest mileage covered during a semester.
  4. Educating the students on the benefits of using the e-bike over the buses about time-saving.
  5. Flyers advertising the e-bikes are to be issued to university staff and students.
  1. Parts and materials to be used are purchased and ordered in accordance to the bill of materials.
  2. Cutting of the chromyl tube, bending of the mandrel and notching it on the frame is done.
  3. The material in use for making the framework should be hand welded and hence there won’t be incurrences of extra costs for purchasing welding robots.
  4. Powder coating is done on front fork, seat post, handlebars and the frame.
  5. Press fitting of the bearing seats in the pedal crank and the hollow gear shaft.
  6. Forging of large sprockets and hollow gear shafts is done with an accurate tolerance balanced with a machined steel.
  7. Accessory holes located in the frame give room for the passage of wires that connect the accessories to the controlling area. The accessory controllers and the smartphone all join in a computer unit via a plug and harness system.
  8. The material used in building the battery casing is moulded plastic. The casing is fixed onto the motor and controller using press pins.
  9. Shock wheels are conveyed as segments and collected by hand; gas swaggers are pre-made by outside provider and centre point is machined steel and press fit orientation. Edge is infusion shaped nylon composite polymer with strengthened mounting focuses for dampers. Axles are appended to centre points and brake rotors connected by screws
  10. Tires and tubes are fitted on wheel uninflated.
  11. The front fork has metal balls and brake rotors connected, and is embedded into edge and handlebar clip is fitted at the best, after the handlebars are embedded into the gap. Set screw and cinching press screw are embedded to secure the handlebars
  12. Motor, battery pack and wiring outfit fitted to the bicycle.
  13. Motor cover has tabs which line up to openings on the edge for squeeze pins to be embedded to secure cover set up
  14. Rubber grasps for handlebars are epoxied and slid onto the handlebars after brake levers, equip selectors and throttle.
  15. The situate is connected to situate tube and embedded into the highest point of the casing with a brisk discharge jolt being utilized for modification and apparatus of the seat

There are impacts to the environment associated with this project from its design to the production and actualization of the e-bikes. Some of the impacts are enlisted below:

  1. The depletion of the natural resources
  2. The pollution of air as a result of the manufacturing of the bikes.
  3. Production wastes being generated.
  4. Emissions that come as a result of transporting the products.
  5. Packaging wastes.
  6. Pollution due to the landfill with wastes.
  7. Waste as a result of failure some of unrepairable bike parts such as a battery.
  8. Pollution of the environment by the wastes coming from cleaning and maintenance of the bike(Fishman, 2016).
  9. The bikes purely rely on electricity for charging hence there is no self-generation of power when using the bike(Wolff, 2011).

The problems above could be solved in the ways listed below:

Repairing of the many components used for the e-bike or recycling and reusing could help to minimize wastes produced as a result of the dumping of bike parts. Plastic made components of the bike can be recycled and made to another form which could be used for another purpose (American Chemistry Council, 2017).

The e-bike is designed in such a manner that whenever a part of it is worn out or malfunctions, the part can be replaceable thereby helping the user not dispose off the whole bike.  

Environmental friendly means of transport should be used in transporting the bikes to the universities. For example, electric trucks which have zero impact on the environment (Environmental Defense Fund, 2017).

The lifespan of a battery normally varies from one user to the other depending on their usage and maintenance. Battery replacement is made available by the suppliers and the e-bike’s technical team.

Maintaining the bikes to optimal conditions should be done on a regular basis. This will improve the students’ views on how they see the bike.

Encouraging the solar energy application to eliminate the rare chance of using an electrical mains power supply (Toll, 2017).   

Designing for Manufacturing takes into consideration the following:

  1. Estimation of the manufacturing cost
  2. Reduction of the components’ cost
  3. Reduction of the frame’s mass yet maintaining the structural properties
  4. Reduction of the assembling cost
  5. Minimizing the support production cost
  6. The impact consideration of the design for manufacturing decisions to other factors

The table below shows the Chromyl tubing required by the bike and the considered options for the walls thickness. The options highlighted were the selected tube sizes for a design that met all the considerations such as being lightweight and yet strong for the purpose.


Chromoly 4130



OD x Wall (mm)


Main Frame

50.8 x 1.2



50.8 x 1.4



50.8 x 1.6


handle bars + rear truss

19.05 x 1.2



19.05 x 1.4



19.05 x 1.6


Seat Post

22.2 x 1.4



25.4 x 1.2



25.4 x 1.4



25.4 x 1.6


crank hub

76.2 x 2.1


The total tubes’ length and the mass required for each tube are indicated in the table below:

frame part

length (mm)


mass (kg)

top tube




bottom tube




front down pipe




rear down pipe








top-rear truss




bottom-rear truss




seat post




handle bars




crank hub








The e-bike mainframe’s weight totals to about 6.66 kilograms which is an exclusion of other bolt components used in the final frame fixing. This would add weight to the frame.  

Below is a table showing the bill of materials of the components used for the designing of the e-bike and their retail prices.



 price ($AUD)



 price ($AUD)




rear derailleur






handle grips












light set






splash guards



Shimano disk brakes



battery pack + tube holder






Gruber motor



rear sprocket cassette



bevel gear + hollow cylinder



crank + sprocket set



one-way hub bearings






wiring + adaptors + plugs



front derailleur







Retail Total




Wholesale Total



The retailed total cost required for the production of the e-bike would be $2728AUD. Mass production would achieve a reduced price in the total cost of production to an estimated 30% discount summing up to $1909AUD. The total cost of calculating considers all the design components used to come up with the e-bike such as a lightweight design frame, components of the electric mortar among others.

The e-bikes’ final 3D render is shown in the screenshots below. Information about the sub-assemblies, individual components, and the final assembly are indicated in the appendices. Also in the appendices are the bill of materials

The decision making on the e-bike was based on some factors enlisted below:

  1. Aesthetical appearance.
  2. The suitability of the frame that will cater for the consumers with different sizes, shapes and fitness level(Rose, 2012).
  3. There was a consideration of the riders exercising with minimal efforts.
  4. Minimal movement of the frame design parts.
  5. The protection of the components in the drive train by shielding them from dirt and water.
  6. Meeting of all the legal requirements including the NSW e-bike laws to minimize reregistration costs and the possibility of licensing again.
  7. The correct selection of materials that can withstand coarse use such as riding through rough terrain.
  8. The assembly of the bike takes into consideration the reparability of the bike components in case of a default.
  9. The smartphone app that integrates the bikes system components eliminates the need for a digital display and hence reducing the bikes cost(Rirdan, 2012).
  10. Controlling of the mortar is made easy since its small size allows the installation of a potentiometer throttle at the handlebars.
  11. The e-bike becomes cheaper since its manufacturing involves cheap processes, for example, mandrel bending and welding and also the assembling could be hand operated(Slinn, 2010).

The dampened wheels introduced provides a simple frame design offering the rifer different comfort levels without using complicated components to build the frame (Bossenbroek, 2016).

The driveline and the mortar are well covered in the frame hence protecting the moving parts and the electrical system safe from water and dust effects without damaging the slim good look.

An introduced one-way bearing clutch makes it possible for the users to engage the mortar in cases of injuries or fatigue (Marghitu, 2010).

Equipping the bike with Morden technology would make it easier to integrate students’ information in the schools’ system which could be used in the evaluation of the whole school when it comes to competitions or riding incentives (Flugge, 2017). The incorporated systems include the smartphone bike app that provides real-time energy data for the user at any point.

We recommend testing of the bike in the terrain with the present motor and gear.

The conceptual design on the shock wheel should be load tested

We recommend the testing of the e-bike’s prototype

We also recommend the Shock testing of the tires on different ground terrains.

Testing of the bike assembly should be done.

More test to be done on the effect of riders with different weights impact on 18-speed gear.

Further tests should be done on the gear train assembly when the rider exerts maximum torque.


The achievement of the design project is attributed to the hard work put by each individual in our group who worked round the clock to present and challenge engineering concepts to the actualization of this project. The theory learned in class was put into practice with the development of ideas in the project. Despite varied skill levels in the individual group members we managed to meet our objectives of designing an e-bike that would aid students and university staff to navigate between the three Western Sydney Campuses.


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