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Written response that explores the learning and development theories in the following case study and connects them to pedagogy and classroom practice:

Robert, a 9 year old boy, recently moved with his family to a new academically rigorous school. The school he now attends is an International School, which has a new curriculum following the International Baccalaureate program. Robert’s mother and father are both school teachers there. He also has a younger sister who attends the school who is age 6. During the first few weeks of the school year, Robert’s classroom teacher said he was quiet and was not making an effort to seek friendships. At lunchtime he spent his time sitting watching the other Grade 4 boys play foursquare but never joined in. He rarely contributed to classroom conversations and only spoke when asked to respond to questions. An early term classroom report from his teacher noted that he was struggling with his writing and reading. His teacher was asking for more support from the learning resources unit to help him along with his writing. Robert was also having difficulty with mathematics - he was able to classify objects in to coherent categories using physical objects, but when it came to abstract reasoning, his confidence and skills were diminished. During PE, it was noted that he had very good hand-eye co-ordination and significant running pace on the field. He has participated to a high standard, particularly in non-competitive sports. He has started co-curricular activities this term, including squash and drama. Next term, he has been encouraged to start a musical instrument and join in a team sport.

Key Development Issues

A nine year old boy Robert has moved to a new international school in 4th grade. Both of his parents are teachers of this school as well as his six years old sister is the student of the same school.In first few weeks of schooling, Robert’s class teacher have noticed that he was quiet and was not even interested in mingling with other students of the class. Also in recess time, Robert spent most of the time watching his classmates playing various games but didn’t even try joining them. He barely participated in any classroom conversations and only answered when he was questioned.

Robert was also having difficulties with reading and writing skills. He also had major difficulty with mathematics. He could categorize items in to coherent groups through physical substances, but in case of abstract reasoning, heshowed zero skills and confidence. Whereas in PE, it was noticed that he had exceptionalhand-eye co-ordination and great running speed. He has started curricular activities like squash and drama. In the next term, he has been cheeredfor starting a musical device and joining in a sportsteam.

Robert is a 9 year old school goer who is probably having some difficulties on the following areas:

As per Piaget's theory of cognitive development, a youngsterbuild world’s mental model. He differed with the impression that acumen was a stablequality, and considered cognitive development as a methodthatensuesbecause of biological growth and contact with the situation.

Piaget defined the progress of human acumenall throughone’s lifespan. These four stages mean that as a normal humangetsmaturity, there is an obviousgrowth in perception and difficulty in thinking process and justifyingeverything.

The sensorimotor phase is the stage that extents from the time of one’s birth till the interval when an infantpicks upthe language. At this stage, the youngster is highlydependenton what he/she sees and hears. The infant also reacts according to suchsensualcapabilities. Moreover, this particular phasecomprises the responses of the babythat include sucking (suckling), holding and trying to walk. At the end of this phase, the child learns object durability, i.e. is the understanding that an object remains to be present even when he/she cannot see, hear or even touch it.

In this particular phase, the youngster is more involvedin playing, and utilizeselementary thought, that is the procedurethrough which the kidsignifies objects by the means of words, scribbles, and illustrations. The psychologicalperceptive of the youngster is develops at this stint, but he/she still is not able to accomplishacts. Ego-centrism (self-centeredness) and animism (conviction that inanimate objects are able to move or talk) are apparent.

Conservation becomes the key task at this phase. When two similar glasses, Glass A and Glass B are kept in front of a child, and equal quantities of water is poured, he/shewillstate that they certainly have the same quantity of water. Nevertheless, when poured the contents of one specific glass to another one i.e. Glass C, which is fairly thinner and taller that the other two glasses (Glass A and Glass B), the youngsterwillmention that Glass A and Glass C are containingdifferent volumes of water level. This failureof understanding shows that the kid is in preoperational phase.

Development of Cognitive Skills

This phaseinitiatesonce the kid starts usingreasoningin a proper way. Now thekidcancategorizeitems, sort thoseas per to their traits and split a difficulty into a number ofpartsfor solving it.

This phase is the assurance of mental thinking and use of theoreticalreasoning. At this phase, the child canmethodicallyexaminehitches and try a number ofresolutions.

Intensities and Phases of Moral Development

The initialphase of morality is called pre-conventional morality. It can further be separated in two phases: obedience and punishment, and individualism and exchange.

Associated to Skinner’s Operational Conditioning, this particular phasecomprises the utilization of penaltyto the person desists from executing the act and remains to follow the instructions. For instance, we neverbreak the law as we do not wish to go to prison.

In this phase, the individualcanevaluate the ethics of an actupon how it is satisfyinghim/hernecessities of the performer. For example, onerobs money from another as he/shewantsthat cashfor buying food for his/herstarvingkids. As per Kohlberg’s theory, the kidshave a habit of saying that suchdeed is ethicallycorrectdue to the grimrequirement of the robber.

The very second phase of morality comprises the 3rdand 4th stages of moral development. Orthodox morality comprises the culture and shared roles in determining the ethics of anyact.

In this phase, one starts judging an actfounded on the socialresponsibility and social prospects before him/her. This is also called as the “interpersonal relationships” stage. For instance, a youngsterdonateshis/her food to a beggarashe/she considers doing such means being good.

This phasecomprisesregarding the establishments and following the instructions, along withperformingall necessary duties. Here, society is the keyconcern of one at this phase. For example, a coprejects the bribe offered to him and he detains the lawbreakeras he considersthat it is his responsibility as an officer of oversee whether harmony and order is maintained.

The post-conventional morality comprisesphase 5 and phase 6. This is mostlyassociated with the commonideologies that relates to the act done.

In this stage, the person is look at various opinions and values of different people before coming up with the decision on the morality of the action.

The lastphase of moral thought, this coordination occurs once someone cogitates commonly acknowledged moral values. The decision may developinborn and may even disrupt the regulations and procedures as the individualgetsdevoted to his own justice values.

According to Freud, character developed by the means of a sequence of juvenilephases in which the profligacydrives of the id turn out to beattentive on specific erogenous zones. Such psychosexual vigor, or libido, was called as the motivatingstrengthat the back of behavior.

Psychoanalytic theory has recommended that personality gets established usually by five years. Early involvementstakescrucialpart in characterprogress and influencesconduct in future life.

The Oral Stage

Throughout the oral phase, the baby'smain source of communicationhappensover the mouth, ergo the rooting and sucking reaction is especiallyessential at this point.Mouth is usedto have food, and the babygetsjoy from oral motivationbysatisfyingdeedslike tasting and sucking.

In the course of the anal phase, Freud assumed that the mainemphasis of the libido was governing bladder and movements of bowel. The mainstruggle at this particular phase is training the kid on toilet -the kid learns controlling his/her bodily requirements. Development of this mechanismhelps for sensingachievement and individuality.

All through the phallic period, the mainattention of the libido goes to the genitals. At this particular age bracket, kids discovers the alterationsamongmen and women.?

The latent phase is a stretch of searchwhere the sexual drive is present, but is entirely focused into areas likeintelligentchases and social communications. This phase is significant in the progression of social as well as communication abilities and self-assurance.

Throughout the lastphase of psychosexual development, an individual progresses a robust sexual curiosity in the opposite sex. This particular periodstartsin puberty and lastsall the way through the rest of a one’slifespan.


In Robert’s case, the school teachers needs to help the kid so that he can develop all three essential skills – cognitive, Morality and Psychology. If he is getting hindered in any of the stages of these developments, he will not be able to succeed to the next level causing occurrence of fixation taking place. Teachers need to guide this kid so that he can grow up in a healthy way and highlight all the development stages.

With the proper guidance from his teachers, Robert will be able to win all his present difficulties and probably will grow up as a healthy (psychologically) individual. His progressions needs to be evaluated in every term for getting a better understanding that how he is developing himself from every mentioned aspect. This way, Robert’s level of confidence will enhance which eventually will provide him the motivation of undertaking each and every activity that a kid of his age does.

Alessandro, C., Beckers, N., Goebel, P., Resquin, F., González, J., &Osu, R. (2016). Motor control and learning theories. In Emerging Therapies in Neurorehabilitation II (pp. 225-250). Springer International Publishing.

Anderson, T. (2016). Theories for learning with emerging technologies. Emerging technologies in distance education.

Chen, J. C. (2014). Teaching nontraditional adult students: Adult learning theories in practice. Teaching in Higher Education, 19(4), 406-418.

Gewurtz, R. E., Coman, L., Dhillon, S., Jung, B., & Solomon, P. (2016). Problem-based Learning and Theories of Teaching and Learning in Health Professional Education. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 4(1).

Meyer, K. A., & Murrell, V. S. (2014). A National Study of Theories and Their Importance for Faculty Development for Online Teaching. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 17(2), n2.

Mitchell, R., Myles, F., & Marsden, E. (2013). Second language learning theories. Routledge.

Pedersen, J. E., &Digby, A. D. (2014). Secondary schools and cooperative learning: Theories, models, and strategies. Routledge.

Pritchard, A. (2013). Ways of learning: Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom. Routledge.

Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (2013). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Routledge.

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