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Define Social policy in New Zealand ?


Do a critical literature review New Zealand social policy ?


How it has changed over the last 20 - 30 years?

Why has social policy changed?


Here you should include discussion about immigration and demographic trends with statistical records over last 20 - 30 years.


Next you should write about Diversity ?


Define Diversity and multi-culturalism and how can it be connected with my professional practice as a counselor ?

Discuss the changes in population in relation to immigration and demographic trends ?


Here you should write about Diversity and Inclusivity ?


Define Inclusivity (Tutor said it's Including everyone) and Diversity ? Explain the importance of this and how can it be connected to my professional practice (as a counselor)


This leads to the discussion about Bi-culturalism and Diversity ?


Even-though we have a multi-cultural society in New Zealand, we have to acknowledge Indigenous people (Pasifika) with the treaty of Waitangi (Maori people).


Define Bi-culturalism and Diversity ?


Discuss the importance of bi-culturalism and the treaty of Waitangi ?


How can it be connected to my professional practice as a counselor ?


Identify three (3) themes from the above three sections (section 5,6 & 7) ?

Social policy in New Zealand

Like any other countries like the Pacific and the Asia, the Aotearoa New Zealand is confronting the challenges of increasing the cultural diversity (Jones, Pringle & Shepherd, 2000). At the same time, it is also benefitting from a growing range of religions languages, customary practices and cultural festivals among its people. However, unlike other countries, where the concept of multiculturalism is primarily used for articulating the goal of a rich cultural diversity, in New Zealand, much attention has been laid to the biculturalism as well as the relationship among the Maoris, the other aboriginal people of Aotearoa New Zealand, the state and the long established and newer settlers.  For this paper, I am presenting a critical review of the literature on the Aotearoa New Zealand social policy around diversity, inclusivity, multiculturalism and biculturalism from the perspective of my own professional practice. It is to state that I am a counsellor, working in the field of Alcohol and Drug Service. This paper shall briefly examine the Social policy in New Zealand and how it has changed in the last 20 to 30 years by presenting an analysis on the reasons behind its change. It shall also shed light on the importance of multiculturalism, inclusivity, biculturalism and diversity and how they can be connected with my professional practise as a counsellor and shall discuss about the changes in the population in regard to immigration and demographic trends. Furthermore, it is also to note that though New Zealand is a multi-cultural nation, still this paper has taken into consideration the indigenous people called Pasifika with the treaty of Waitangi, the Maori people. Lastly, it has elaborated on selecting three themes and their relevancy with my professional practice, their impact on my professional practice as a counsellor and the way the make counselling more effective for me as a counsellor.

Social policy in New Zealand 

Social policy refers to be the idea and the mechanism by means of which the government of the country entreat to impact the development and growth of the society, taking in consideration the health, welfare and the education system (Smith, 2016). However, this definition of Social Policy is more or less narrower as compared to the definition that is been used by the Ministry of Social Development in ‘The Social Development Approach’. It has defined the Social Policy as “all policy that has an influence on desirable social outcomes” (Geiringer & Palmer, 2007). The Social Policy in New Zealand is a conceptual material that is designed for comprising an interpretive “toolkit”. It is to state that social welfare has always been one of the important part of the New Zealand society and is also a very notable issue. It is concerned with the provision by the states of services and benefits. Both the occupational and the fiscal welfare makes up the New Zealand’s Social Policy. The Social Policy in Aotearoa New Zealand identifies and examines the theoretical perspectives and the principles which affect the modern development in the policy making and the process of their implementation in the New Zealand.

How Social policy in New Zealand has changed over the last 20 - 30 years

Over the past 20 to 30 years, there has been a significant rise in the interest from both the internal and the external government in the influence of human rights on the process of making policy in New Zealand (Kelsey, 2015). The Social Policy of New Zealand is linked with the provision by the states of services and that of the benefits. Both the occupational and the fiscal welfare makes up the New Zealand’s Social Policy. However, there is a considerable confusion regarding what a “rights-based” approach to social policy actually need. This confusion obtain in particular from the problems which attend any attempt for establishing with accuracy the impact and the scope of obligations of New Zealand in regard to the ESC rights. Broadly speaking, the rights of ESC have not been concerned with the same immense level of setting standard which has addressed the global regulation of the CP rights and with the same, the language in which they are cast is frequently vague. Along with this, the obligation that is placed on the States under the Article 2(1) of the International Covenant on the ICESCR (Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) in cast in relation instead of complete terms (Koh, Getgen & Sital, 2017). It needs the state for taking steps to discern the rights “to the maximum of its available resources” and “progressively”. As an outcome, the detailed extent to the obligations of the state in respect to the ESC rights is both controversial and contestable. It is an issue that is compounded by the lack of developed tradition of the quasi-judicial and judicial elaboration of the ESC rights, in the international or the domestic setting. In the year 2003, the Human Rights Commission had commissioned the authors by means of the New Zealand Centre for the Public Law for producing issue papers on the inferences of applying an analysis that is based on the rights to the development of the social policy in the New Zealand (Cunningham, Peterson & Collings, 2017).

New Zealand has a history of “gendered migration” and it has influenced the overall balance of gender in the total New Zealand population. Other than the period of World War I, the World War II and the 1918’s influenza pandemic, the period of European colonisation to the year 1968, the official records signifies that there were more men as compared to women in New Zealand (Pahl, 2016). Notwithstanding this fact, since the very year, at each census, there have been more number of females than males, living in the country. It relates to the ageing population as of more number of women as because of gender differences in the rates of morality among the older age groups. With the same, the data of census also depicts that in the primary working age groups, there has been a notable imbalance among the men and the women. For instance, in the Census of 2006, it is indicated that there were more than 57,000 women as compared to men belonging from the age range of 25 to 49 years and the primary driver of this is the gendered migration (Badkar et al., 2007). Although, there has long been some women component to the flows of migration, over the past 20 to 30 years, the gender balance of the global or international flow of migration has been changed to a great extent in response to a wide number of factors, comprising of gender-selective demand for the economic development, the foreign labour and notable changes in the gender relations in the nations of origin as well as that of the destinations.

Reason behind the change of Social policy in New Zealand

Diversity refers to several demographic aspects. As per Meissner (2015). There are some that are visible like race, gender, age and colour etc. and some invisible (things that cannot be identifies by looking at an individual) such as religion, sexual orientation, skills, nationality and education etc. Diversity means the understanding that every individual is unique in his or her way and is accepting the individual differences (Holck, Muhr, & Villeséche, 2016). With the same, multiculturalism refers to the point of view that races, cultures and ethnicities, especially those of the minority groups, deserve equal or even special acknowledgement and acceptance of their individual differences within any ruling political culture (Bhabha, 2015). It is a response to the fact of cultural pluralism in the current democracies and is also a way of repaying the cultural groups for the past oppression, exclusion and discrimination. It is widely known the immigration and demographic trends are the key forces of change in population of any region. It is to note that women makes up about 46.8% of the total labour force of New Zealand as per the report of 2015. Although it is a much larger share, it has been projected that this share of females in the labour force would peak at just 47.1% in the year 2025 right before tapering off (Tsani et al., 2015). Also, the immigrations to New Zealand are driving the overall growth of the labour force in New Zealand. It has been assumed that the rise in the working age population in New Zealand would be driven by the immigrants as well as the New Zealand-born children of these immigrants, at least through the year 2035. In absence of these immigrants, there would be an estimation of 18 million fewer working-age adults in the nation in the year 2035 due to the dearth of the New Zealand-born children with the new-Zealand-born parents.

It is to note that both social and cultural norms have a significant impact on we attempt to solve problems as well as how we seek and use professional help. The differences that prevails in between the cultures and the societies needs to be taken into consideration in any attempt to approach any relation in a multicultural context. Multicultural counselling is very much important to the success of contemporary counsellors. If I want to become a successful and well-rounded counsellor in this increasingly diverse world, I need to become familiar with this concept of multiculturalism in the field of counselling. It is to note that multicultural counselling characterises the practice of counselling which offers effective interventions to the clients who are culturally diverse. Elements such as culture, ethnicity and race influence the identity of every individual and their life circumstances (Rivas-Drake et al., 2014). Also, the other factors such as gender identity, socioeconomic status, age, ability, sexual orientation and religion, too plays a very important role in regard to the mental health of the clients as well as their personal and relational issues.  Hence, it is very important that well-trained counsellors should handle the clients who live lives that are different than their own.  

Diversity and multiculturalism

As it is already stated that diversity is a full range of different ways by means of which an individual is identified. It has several facets, including race, gender, ethnicity, age, gender identity, sexual orientation and religious affiliation. With the same, the concept of inclusivity refers to a policy of including people who might otherwise be marginalised or excluded from the society or any group in order to treat them equally and fairly (Calder et al., 2017). As per him, “to be a counsellor is to be inclusive”. For any counsellor, it is very important to be inclusive. Race, gender, ethnicity, age, gender identity, sexual orientation and religious affiliation should never become a barrier or wall in between counsellor and his client (Biegel, 2018). In present day’s clientele, which look much different than it used to be in the earlier decades, there is an increasing number of clients from about all social groups, all populations and varied ethnicity who are seeking for their health services as because of the increasing globalisation and increasing stigmatization. With the same, the advancement in the field of technologies have also provided the opportunities for the new diverse client base through different channels such as- email, text, phone calls, video conferencing etc. In such a changing landscape of professional practice, I, as a counsellor should be trained enough to work with these clients irrespective of their differences. In this way, I could be an effective counsellor.

It is to state that Biculturalism refers to the presence of two different cultures in the same region or nation (Schwartz et al., 2017). Emergence of this concept of biculturalism has been one of the very important political and social development in New Zealand in the past 50 years. The idea of partnership in between Pasifika (the indigenous people of Pacific Island) and the Maori people (the indigenous people of New Zealand) was enshrined in the Treaty of Waitangi, which was signed in the year 1840 (Gershon, 2008).  Biculturalism has been emerged as a feasible ideology that is organising the national identity among the people of New Zealand (Ramsden, 2002). Treaty of Waitangi is considered to be the most prominent and the central in the institutions that is ranging from the national museum to the educational curriculum in the public schools of New Zealand (Berryman, Egan & Ford, 2017) Furthermore, it is also to mention that the Treaty of Waitangi is regarded to be the legal foundation for the sovereignty of New Zealand and hence, it should be taken into consideration in all the fields and aspects of the New Zealand social policy (Koptie, 2009). New Zealand is a bicultural nation and hence, it is very important for me to take this into consideration in my professional practice of counselling. In this landscape, I could be confronting with any of the two cultures in my professional career. I should treat them equal so as to leave a mark on the heart and mind of both the population so as to flourish in my career of counselling.

Identify three (3) themes from the above three sections (section 4, 5 & 6) 

Inclusivity

Theme 1: Multicultural promotes relationship among the community

It is a known fact that multicultural community helps in promoting relationship and connections in between the very community and at the same time, it also encourages inclusion of different perspective. In my professional career of counselling, it is relevant as because of the fact that New Zealand is a multicultural nation and there are many cultures in this nation. It would help me in building knowledge about ethnic groups and would be aiding to my cross cultural skills and at the same time, would encourage a positive attitude regarding the living and the function of mine in a multicultural global community.

It is to note that a successful inclusion helps in developing the strengths of an individual. It is relevant to my field as I believe that it would be helping me in developing my strength as a counsellor. It would be helping me in working on my individual goals while being with my clients or the counsellors of my own age. Furthermore, it would create a sense in me to vale diversity of New Zealand which would be a unique contribution of mine in my professional career.

It is already stated that “Biculturalism has been emerged as a feasible ideology that is organising the national identity among the people of New Zealand”. Also, the Treaty of Waitangi has enshrined about partnership among the two indigenous groups present in New Zealand. Within a year or two, this is going to be executed. Hence, I too, must start practising with these bicultural clients so as to become a well-rounded and effective counsellor. Bicultural counselling is very much important to the success of contemporary counsellors. This is because bicultural counsellor possess a very new advantage while working with the matching ethnic clientele. They could advocate for the families and the clients of their own cultural group in the manners that other people cannot.

These three themes bring effective counselling to my professional practice as a counsellor as by considering these I can use the self as an instrument by modelling the health, endorsing the usage of the services of counselling and by developing other multicultural and bicultural counsellors. In this way I could be able to reach the often unreachable populations.

Conclusion

Hence, from the above discussion it is to state that New Zealand, has laid much attention to biculturalism as well as the relationship among the Maoris, the other aboriginal people of Aotearoa New Zealand, the state and the long established and newer settlers. Also it is to state that gender has always been a crucial factor in both the migration into the New Zealand as well as international migration. It is the Social Policy in Aotearoa New Zealand which identifies and examines the theoretical perspectives and the principles which have an impact on the modern development in the policy making and the process of their implementation in the New Zealand. It is concerned with the provision by the states of services and benefits. Both the occupational and the fiscal welfare makes up the New Zealand’s Social Policy. However, much change has been encountered and the major of these is the rise in the interest from both the internal and the external governmental influence of human rights on the process of policy making in the nation. The main reason behind is “gendered migration”. It has influenced the overall gender balance in the total New Zealand’s population. Notwithstanding this, this paper has examined in-depth the Aotearoa New Zealand social policy around diversity, inclusivity, multiculturalism and biculturalism from the perspective of my own professional practice. It has taken into account the indigenous people called Pasifika with the treaty of Waitangi, the Maori people.

References:

Badkar, J., Callister, P., Krishnan, V., Didham, R., & Bedford, R. (2007). Gender, mobility and migration into New Zealand: A case study of Asian migration. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 32, 126.

Berryman, M., Egan, M., & Ford, T. (2017). Examining the potential of critical and Kaupapa M?ori approaches to leading education reform in New Zealand’s English-medium secondary schools. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 20(5), 525-538.

Bhabha, H. (2015). Debating cultural hybridity: Multicultural identities and the politics of anti-racism. Zed Books Ltd.

Biegel, S. (2018). The right to be out: Sexual orientation and gender identity in America's public schools. U of Minnesota Press.

Calder, M. D., MacDonald, R., Mikhael, D., Murphy, E. C., & Phoenix, J. (2017). Marginalization, Young People in the South and East Mediterranean, and Policy An Analysis of Young People’s Experiences of Marginalization (No. 35). POWER2YOUTH Working Paper.

Cunningham, R., Peterson, D., & Collings, S. (2017). Like Minds, Like Mine: Seventeen Years of Countering Stigma and Discrimination Against People with Experience of Mental Distress in New Zealand. In The Stigma of Mental Illness-End of the Story? (pp. 263-287). Springer, Cham.

Geiringer, C., & Palmer, M. (2007). Human rights and social policy in New Zealand - Ministry of Social Development. Msd.govt.nz.

Gershon, I. (2008). Being Explicit about Culture: Maori, Neoliberalism, and the New Zealand Parliament. American Antropolist, 110(4), 422-431. 

Holck, L., Muhr, S., & Villeséche, F. (2016). Identity, Diversity and Diversity Management: On Theoretical Connections, Assumptions and Implications for Practice. Equality, Diversity And Inclusion: An International Journal,, 35(1), 48-64. 

Jones, D., Pringle, J., & Shepherd, D. (2000). “Managing diversity” meets aotearoa/new zealand. Personnel Review, 29(3), 364-380.

Kelsey, J. (2015). Reclaiming the future: New Zealand and the global economy. Bridget Williams Books.

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