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Engineering is a socio-technical subject, where there are many involving human factors in addition to technological innovation. Students are to discuss the implication and interdependency of social and technological innovation. The perspective piece is designed to draw attention towards the effects of technological innovation on the human culture and experience.

The structure you should aim to have are similar to a research thesis and these headings may include but not be limited to:
1. Abstract

Executive summary of your perspective based on background research on to topic.

2. Introduction

All the relevant background information for the perspective piece.
Include an opening line on your perspective; i.e. the thesis of the work.

3. Body

List and discuss the topics. Each paragraphs section should support the thesis statement.
There should be a logical flow between arguments.

4. Conclusion

Summaries the arguments provided in the body paragraphs that supports the thesis

Abstract

Interdependency Of Culture, Society And Technological Innovation.

Engineering is a socio-technical subject, where there are many involving human factors in addition to technological innovation [4]. In this report, evaluation on those technical perspectives will be done. In this assignment, it is important to discuss the implication and interdependency of social and technological innovation. This can be done along with the social interdependencies. The perspective piece is designed to draw attention towards the effects of technological innovation on the human culture and experience. This report will talk about interdependency in three main perspectives. The cultural, societal and technological innovation is gradually taking place [7]. This results in the interdependency between the three components. This report will discuss that the different technological innovations are performed due to the requirement of society and culture. This report will further evaluate it with justification. For this essay, the topic which is chosen is the “the emergence of skyscrapers due to the development of elevator systems.” In the time before the technological advancement, the tall building was seen as the mega scale consumers of energy with less regard for the sustainable architecture. However, there is change in the view od society with the development of the tall building which have been crafted with the conservation of the energy and the sustainability as the principal criteria. The cities across the globe are growing swiftly developing the unparalleled pressure on the resources of energy and material [13]. The development of taller buildings as an outcome of preservation of energy is the main reason of the technological advancement innovated due to the need of culture and society in terms of sustainable development. The sustainable architecture is the effort of meeting the needs of present without negotiating the requirements of coming generations through encouraging the prudent and wise utilization of the renewable sources, development of substitute strategies for the production of energy along with the conservation, environment friendly project and the intelligent edifice technology [15].

The skyscraper is the continuously livable multistory building which has more than or approximately 40 floors and height more than or equal to 150 meters or 492 feet. The term skyscraper is initially used in 1880s for referring the building with the 10 – 20 floors. The definition of the term has been shifted during the 20th century with the advancement in the construction technology [14]. The skyscrapers can host residential spaces, retail spaces and offices.

Body

Due to the development of the elevator system, the way of living in metropolitan cities is changed. Small houses are replaced with skyscrapers. Skyscrapers save place and accommodate many people in small area [6]. The elevators are the most important necessity. Without elevators it will be very tough for people to climb after some first flight of stairs. The discovery of elevator system was a prerequisite for the development of the skyscrapers as most of the people could not be able to climb the number of stairs that are required in such tall buildings. In the infrastructure of the skyscrapers, the elevators are not only the essential utility such as electricity and running water but also closely associated with the design of entire structure as a higher building entails more elevators for servicing the further floors, but the shafts of elevator consume valuable space of the floor [17]. If service core, that exhibit the shafts of elevator becomes immensely vast, it can lessen the viability of a building. Therefore, the architectures are required to balance the worth achieved by accumulating height against the worth lost in the expansion of the service core. There are many high buildings which use the elevators in configurations that are non-standards for the reduction of their footprint. The buildings like former tower of world trade centres and the John Hancock Centre of Chicago has utilized the sky lobbies in which the elevators were used for taking passengers to the upper floors that assist as a base for the local elevators [19]. It enables the engineers and architects to construct the shafts of elevators on the top of one another which preserve the space in the building. In the tall buildings, the express elevators and sky lobbies take substantial amount of the space and also the time which one can spent in moving from one floor to another. That is why elevators are innovated before skyscrapers [5]. 

The first skyscraper was built in 1885 in Chicago [1]. It was one of the most effective commercial buildings of Chicago. The initially designed skyscrapers were the array of high commercial buildings which were constructed from 1884 to 1945, mainly in the cities of America and Chicago. At that time the buildings in the cities were traditionally low rise but the substantial economic growth and enhancement in the utilization of the urban developed has given rise in the construction of the higher building after 1870s. the advancement in technology enable the architectures and engineers to construct structure framed of iron that are also fireproof with the deep foundation which are also equipped with the technological innovations like electric lighting and elevators [16]. Such innovations lead to the make the building viable in term of both commercial and technical for the new array of the higher buildings. The first skyscraper was built in Chicago which si 138 foot or 42 meter in height which were labelled as skyscrapers in 1888.

Conclusion

It was only ten stories high and large enough to accommodate huge amount of people, offices and parking area [8].

It got huge technical assistances as at that time technology was evolving. With the technical innovation, design and architecture of buildings also got importance at this age. The mass production of iron and steel at this age helped in sustainable construction of the building. The steel frameworks area made of steel beams and frames that are quite strong. It was an important change in urban structure with the innovation of early skyscrapers [5].  The society also started accepting the innovation on buildings. With technological innovation, change of mind is also important. At this age, there was a mass production of steel alloy and iron. This helped the architects to think about building skyscrapers. However, the innovation of elevators made it possible in every way [9]. People can use elevators to reach any floor of the skyscraper. Technologically, societal and cultural helps made it possible in many western countries of the world. Engineering has developed lot since early century. There has been innovation in the mind of people as well. People prefer to live in skyscrapers now. It saves space and money for them [3].

However, the architecture of a skyscraper is not that easy. Certain civil engineering technologies are applied in this case by engineers and architects. Engineers face many challenges during making of skyscrapers. The soil quality, availability of resources and many other factors related to architectural design is there [2].

For instance the equation of steel beams is given here. This equation can b used to make the basic of the steel frames skyscrapers. The reaction and sheer equation is given below.

The standard formula of deflection:

At y, at any given point x from one end, say from LHS, is given by:

y = ()([]xLxLEILxLwxy−+−=224) ... (1)

where: E: Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material from which the beam is fabricated (N/m2) I: Area Moment of Inertia (m4) L: Total length of the beam measured between centres of support (m) x: Some distance from one side of the beam, say from LHS (m) w: Load (N or kN) [1]

Advantages of skyscraper

There are many major advantages of having a skyscraper. The skyscrapers are the tallest structures of the area so they provide with a very cool and vibrant view of the city. The view sometimes can be so mesmerizing that it can attract tourists from different parts of the world which can bring in the required capital providing the city with a very cozy environment [5]. One another major advantage is that it takes a very little space to accommodate a large number of human. The skyscrapers also have a very large space inside the building that it can fit more than thousand of humans at a single go. By having so many people in a single time also saves the space of the city. Another major advantage of having skyscrapers in a city is symbolism. The symbolism can be of anything. It can be like a tragedy that happened in that area and to remember that the skyscraper has been made and the skyscraper has been named after that incident to create a symbolic replica. This could be a major advantage for the city as it would help to bring more capital to the place in the form of tourist attraction [4]. The economic globalization is also an advantage of the skyscraper. The enduring trend for the construction of taller building across the globe illustrates the enhancing effect of the global competition in the growth of the major cities of the world. These cities are competing on the international stage to gain title of the tallest building so that they can inform the world about their confidence along with the stature of the growing economy in the world [12]. This can lead to the economic advancement and progress of the city.

Disadvantages of skyscraper

The most haunting concern of the skyscrapers is the safety of the structure. The huge structures will generate a more devastating impact on the mankind because of its hugeness [8]. The bigger the structure means the greater the load on the soil and the greater the load the bigger and heavier the founding needs to be crafted. So, in case of any natural disaster these huge structures can create a very big problem. The other major concern is the amount of capital involved in the construction of the structure. Their hugeness is so massive that they cost too much and most of the time people think that these structures are not worth the money [7].  The heat island effect is also a disadvantage of the skyscraper. The heat island is referred as the significant warmer area in comparison to its surrounding area because of the human activities. The difference in temperature can be easily experienced in night in comparison to the day [11].

The fireproofing is also a risk in the skyscrapers as the fire easily and swiftly spread in the taller buildings. The steel infrastructure also acts as a poor fire resistance in the building. In any incident of fire in the skyscraper, the evacuation of residents is also very difficult.

There is precondition to every innovation. Just like that, the invention of elevator is the pre condition of the innovation of skyscrapers [3]. In skyscrapers, the elevators are the most important necessity. Without elevators it will be very tough for people to climb after some first flight of stairs [6]. However, the innovation of elevator faced challenges as many people have the fear of heights and getting stuck in the elevator. Lack of proper electricity made the engineers face challenges while developing elevators [5].

The architecture of skyscraper and elevator technology have the synergetic relationship which has been developed over a century along with the development in the more than one encouraging way. However, there is an enhancement in the velocity of the change in the recent years. The height of a skyscraper cannot be restricted by the ability of the engineers and architectures to heap the building materials towards the new level but it can be restricted by the capability of accessing the top floors in such a way that is efficient in term of time for the occupancy of building along with the efficiency in terms of space so the whole ground floor would not be covered with the numerous shafts of elevator that are essential for accessing the top floors of the building [20]. It is the reason which encourage the advancement in the technology of elevators which also allow the sky scrapers to construct higher while preserving the efficiency which are sufficient for being profitable. Such reasons and requirement encourage numerous improvements for supporting the increasingly high buildings like enhancing travel distance and enhancing speed which allows the cabs of multiple elevators that operates at the shaft of one elevator. As the skyscrapers are thrusting the restrictions of height, the most crucial component of the building which has become challenge is the elevators. The advancement in the technology is providing smother and faster rides to the residents of the building which accumulated a glitz in their trip [18]. For the developers, architects and engineers, the major concern in the early stage of the building design is the elevators.

From the economic point of view, the innovation of elevators faced a number of challenges. If the service ore is designed to be very big in order to accommodate large number of people, the profitability of the building becomes less. So, the architects suggest making small elevators in the buildings [1].

It is very important to increase the elevator service. Just like running water and electricity supply, the use of elevators in the skyscrapers is necessary. Though it consumes floor space in the building, it gives 24x7 services to the people in the building [4]. Generators can make elevators run as well in case of absence of electricity. To make a building with elevators, it is very important to check the site. The double deck elevators are one of the best ideas to save space and electricity. It gives enough space to carry more people at a time. It saves time as well [10].    

References

Hamel, Meghan. "" The Cornerstone and Abode of Our National Progress": New York City's Skyscrapers as an American story of Innovation and Teamwork." (2019).

Cropley, David H. "The Innovation Scoreboard." In Homo Problematis Solvendis–Problem-solving Man, pp. 153-158. Springer, Singapore, 2019.

Tollefson, Jeff. "The wooden skyscrapers that could help to cool the planet." Nature News 545, no. 7654 (2017): 280.

Cervera, Rosa, and Javier Pioz. "Bionic Science as a Tool for Innovation in Mega-Cities." In Transdisciplinary Urbanism and Culture, pp. 193-212. Springer, Cham, 2018.

Lazarevic, David, Petrus Kautto, and Riina Antikainen. "Finland's wood-frame multi-storey construction innovation system: Analysing motors of creative destruction." Forest Policy and Economics (2019).

Miller, James Rodger. Skyscrapers Hide the Heavens: A History of Native-newcomer Relations in Canada. University of Toronto Press, 2018.

Balliet, Daniel, Joshua M. Tybur, and Paul AM Van Lange. "Functional interdependence theory: An evolutionary account of social situations." Personality and Social Psychology Review 21, no. 4 (2017): 361-388.

Balasubramani, Nagasivamuni, David StJohn, Matthew Dargusch, and Gui Wang. "Ultrasonic Processing for Structure Refinement: An Overview of Mechanisms and Application of the Interdependence Theory." Materials 12, no. 19 (2019): 3187.

Cockerill, Maria, Nicole Craig, and Allen Thurston. "Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of Peer Learning in Their Classrooms: Using Social Interdependence Theory as a Model for Data Analysis and Presentation." International Journal of Education and Practice 6, no. 1 (2018): 14-27.

Shore, Daniel. "How Team-based Reward Interdependence Impacts Prosocial Behavior Through Justice Perceptions." In Academy of Management Proceedings, vol. 2018, no. 1, p. 15655. Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management, 2018.

YUE, Shi-hong, and Shu-xian CHEN. "Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Skyscrapers [J]." Journal of Chengde Petroleum College 3 (2017).

Garg, Rajeev, and Ar Anoop Kumar Sharma. "Advantages, Disadvantages and Challenges of Sustainable Vertical Cities." (2018).

Murphy, Kevin D., and Lisa Reilly. Skyscraper Gothic: Medieval Style and Modernist Buildings. University of Virginia Press, 2017.

Burwell, Timothy Thomas. "Towards the Skyscraper of the Future." PhD diss., Carleton University, 2016.

Condit, Carl W. "The two centuries of technical evolution underlying the skyscraper." In Structural Iron and Steel, 1850–1900, pp. 285-298. Routledge, 2017.

Buffi, Alessandro, and Gian Maria Angelini. "Adaptive Timber Towers. An Evolutionary Prototype for the 21st Century Skyscraper." In Digital Wood Design, pp. 971-987. Springer, Cham, 2019.

Morrison, Spencer. "Elevator Fiction: Robert Coover, Colson Whitehead, and the Sense of Infrastructure." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 73, no. 3 (2017): 101-125.

Rubin, Elihu. "Skyscrapers and Tall Buildings." In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. 2018.

Rovelli, Pietro. "Differences in global economic development and skyscrapers development.: A quantitative investigation of the relationship between skyscrapers and the economic cycle." (2017).

McNeill, Donald. "Skyscraper geography." Progress in human geography 29, no. 1 (2005): 41-55.

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[Accessed 12 June 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Interdependency Of Culture, Society And Technological Innovation: The Emergence Of Skyscrapers Due To The Development Of Elevator Systems' (My Assignment Help, 2020) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/engg300-engineering-project-practice> accessed 12 June 2024.

My Assignment Help. Interdependency Of Culture, Society And Technological Innovation: The Emergence Of Skyscrapers Due To The Development Of Elevator Systems [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 12 June 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/engg300-engineering-project-practice.

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