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Context and Organizational Business Problem Background

Discuss About The Fisheries Science Center And Regional Office.

According to Van Aken and Berends (2018) in the article “Problem solving in organizations” is that business problem can be managed by the entrepreneurs or organization managers who are prodigious problem solvers. From the article provided the business problem linked to the company is the focusing on the price rather than being attentive on community, occasions and in-store show business or theatre. Whereas the business problem associated dependent variable is the price of the commodities at the firm (Van Aken & Berends, 2018)

Context of the company business problem was stipulated on the analysis of the retail analyst who conduct a research linked to suppliers. Some of the key they focused on include the in-store execution, sales promotion strategy and morale, and customers’ satisfaction by contrasting two organization performance indicators in the future. The study carried out involved forty five suppliers indicated that the company performance was deteriorating when compared with its past performance over the years. Organizational background of company business problem was associated or connected to its highly level on concentration on products price rather than on its relationship to the community (Hamid et al., 2017). However, due to its poor in cooperation of the community, the organization workers ability and morale depreciated as well as the consumers’ metrics including on-shelf convenience, promotions and marketing plans has lack its effectiveness. Investigation by the team of retail analyst identified that the organization in question relies more on the price-grounded promotions instead of putting effort on values measures such as quality, community and family which is a factor based on change. Thus, to overcome the business problem the researchers suggested that the company have to shift its stratagem that need a lot of incremental asset (Donnarumma et al., 2017). The incremental assets required include operating expense and capital expense of the company. Furthermore, the study showed that company score went down by 0.6 points indicating worst deterioration in employees’ morale and calibre of high-ranking management, group management and planning, promotional and effectiveness.

Reader have to clearly understand that the organization in question is a retail industry business specifically a supermarket (Donnarumma et al., 2017. The organization is trying to raise its investment ability and even to shift its plans or strategy in order to cub the business problem it is facing. Also, reader should know that the company tripled its venture in prices, stores and service, as well as setting up various refurbished stores from thirty to fifty in order to keep pace with its key competitors. In addition, the organization has re-launch the Sport for Schools program this year as well as signing a three year partnership with Little Athletics to supply free bananas last September (Rack, 2017). The effort are being made in endeavoring to rectify some of the over-sighted business problem in the organization.

What Reader should know from the Organization?

The retailing industry definitely supermarket has been facing stiff competition from well-organized and more established grocery online stores (Sigler et al., 2017). Current market has been the key influencer of the increasing stiff competition which force most of the organization to reactionary be forced in prices instead of the quality, promotion and customers’ service satisfaction. Context impact the company in a way that with stiff industry competition from numerous firms the organization is a being forced to shift by either increasing its investment ability or changed it marketing strategy. Hence, leading to business problem inside the organization.

  1. Brief Literature Review Requiring Eight Articles

As described by Sigler et al. (2017) is that a literature review is summarize of literature work used by a researcher to a study or to identify an existing gap in his/her of the study.



Title Article and  Author(s) Name

Articles Explanation


“Measures of dependent variable” [Retrieved Online on 18th May, 2018] at https// measure-of-variable/13-14

This article describes dependent variable has the aspects reliance on the other aspects. For instance, in analysis price of the organization products is be dependent variable because it subjected to change due to various aspects which may influence the company, hence it is depending on the factors affecting the commodities prices in the market. Aspects like how revenue the company what to make annually, and how many workers to be employed in various departmental are linked to dependent variable.


“Top variables and other”

(Hamid et al., 2017).

Dependent variable look at main factors that making sure that researcher understand the reason why variable do change. The of the article explained that dependent variable do dependence on various measures which can be measured  and it has two common outcomes


“Advantages of other variables”

[Retrieved Online on 18th May, 2018] at https// measure-of-variable/14-14

The article has termed the dependent variable has the account of various features affecting the organizational framework. Feature such as the number of employees to be employ, and amount of wages and salaries to be paid to each worker.


“Measures of evaluating validity in dependent variable”

(Sekaran & Bougie, 2018). b

The dependent variable may have more than two common results because individuals tends to be in dilemma. For example, individual may be faced with dilemma of either to be a doctor, nurse or a journalist.


“Validity and properties”

(Lee, 2018)

The reliability and validity are two terms that are being used in scientific research to describe features of dependent variable and its definite operational characterization. In examination a study after dependent variables and functioning have been identified their reliability and validity should be recognized measures.


“Validity and properties of dependent variable”

(Rack, 2017)

In addition, when examiners design a research they normally put consideration whether there is a survey or research that can support the reliability and validity of the particular measure. Hence, reliability can be defined has the repeatedly taking of measurement to ensure that the data required is more accurate.


“ Measure of dependent”

https//: variable/chrom/dependent [ Retrieved Online 18th May, 2018]

The two outcomes of variable dependent can be used as measures of success or failure of the capricious. For instance, when a political contestant want to determine the voters’ behaviour based on characteristics of who will vote or who will not


“Effect of variable of dependent”

(Van Aken & Berends, 2017). b

Van Aken & Berends (2017, b) states that reliability linked to dependent variable can be grouped into three, including intra-rater consistency, inter-rater consistency and parallel forms reliability. On the other hand, reliability is a characteristic of dependent variable which can only be measured by a measuring instrument to find the legitimacy of the variables. Nevertheless, validity can be categorized into two, judgmental cogency and pragmatic validity.

Table 1. Eight articles of dependent variable measures (Author, 2018)

Variables can be defined has the anything that is not consistent or that lacks flexibility of change (Van Aken & Berends, 2018). It can also be described has the component or factor which is liable to change. The three types of variable will be clarified in this sub-section. The three variable include the independent variable, quantitative variable and incessant variable.

Also, Greenwood and Freeman (2018) has added that independent variable is being described has variable that is not being affected by any factors in the organization. Independent variable can only be plotted in x-axis. As mentioned by Greenwood and Freeman (2018) is that moderating variable is being denoted M, it is a third variable that influences the strengths between dependent and independent variable relationship. It affects the correlation between two or more variables. Whereas, O’mara et al. (2017) defined mediating variable has the variable that mediate inside the dependent and independent variable. The mediating variable tends to explain the relationship between dependent and independent variable and the procedure of complete mediation is being referred has the completed intervention by the mediator variable.  List of other variable based on the business problem include hierarchical variable, ordinal variable and insignificant variable (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). The other variable are valid because intended to measure how other organizations satisfy their customers’ choices, values and preferences in contrast to the organization in facing the problem. The other variable are reliable because same outcome can be measured from the same object (Schönbrodt et al., 2017).

  1. Dependent variable and the Business Problem

Business problem is related to the dependent variable in such a way that without the capricious the business problem cannot be identified (Van Aken & Berends, 2018). To know that the dependent variable is valid and reliable the measured data from the business problem must represent the variable itself. Other variable related to dependent variable are continuous variable and qualitative variable. To know that the other variables are valid and reliable they must represent the variable measurement (Cash, 2015).

  1. Hypotheses relating Dependent Variable to other Variables

Context of the Organization, impact of the Context and its leading to Business Problem

According to the study carried out by Sekaran and Bougie (2016) is that hypothesis is termed has the proposed explanation for an occurrence or phenomenon. Hypotheses defines the presumed relationship between two variables that can be tested in an empirical data. List of specific hypotheses include;

  1. If the company replaced its focus on prices and investment incremental will then lead to customer’s satisfaction within the organization.
  2. If the company embraced the values of marketing strategy, then consumer’s choices, testes and preferences will be promoted.
  • If the organization reduced it priced-based policy, then it will compete favourably with its competitors.

Figure 1. conceptual model (Lee, 2018).

Theory that Underpin the Hypothesis and Conceptual Model

Theory of motivation that underpins the conceptual model and hypothesis is the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Brace, 2018). The philosophy was selected because of needs of the consumers both internally and externally. Thus, in order for the organization to satisfy its clients it have to motivate them accordingly (Cash, 2015). Conversely, states that human basic need but be meet before any other thing, and when the basic need is met, individuals will be motivated. Hence, the organization have to motivate its workers and consumers for its successfulness in any sector or industry. Maslow’s theory constitute of five level of hierarchy. Including belonging, self-actualization, safety and biological chain of command (Brace, 2018).

According to Jonathan et al. (2017) is that the research plan problem is guided by the business problem. The question guiding this research plan grounded on business problem is: What is the relationship between appropriate customers services and customers’ satisfaction?

The population of interest can be defined has the particular group of interest in which researchers attempt to generalized using the features of the group (Jonathan et al., 2017).  From the statement of the research plan the interest population is the customers’ satisfaction. Whereas, sampling frame to be used include group of potential customers’ and regular consumers, and other firms of the organization commodities (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). The population constituted of the customers and other supermarket because they are part of the affected population apart from the company facing the challenge. Hence, population of interest suits the study.

  1. How Sampling will be done and Finding the Sample

According to Hamid et al. (Sampling method to be used will be stratified selection that comprises of the four phase (Keith & Krosnick, 2018). To conduct the sampling successful the phases will be followed. The stages include determining strata in which selected population will be divided, determining the number of participants required in every strum, dividing the units of examination into specific strata and lastly, randomly sampling the participants inside the group either by hat and draw method or arbitrary table (Krosnick, 2019). To find the researcher will determine the size of the initial population. Researcher may comportment a census id the original population is smaller and use of table to find out the sample population size that is being required for the study. Sample may also be found via comprehensive grit of the previous study sample size that is familiar with the study at hand (Keith & Krosnick, 2018).

  1. Target Sample Size

Appropriate Measure of the Dependent Variables of Interest from the Eight Articles

It can be described has the size of the chosen population for experiment. Thus the target sample target in 370 from the population of 11,000 individuals and sample of 50 from the population of 5000 supermarket. The sample size selected is more appropriate because only small number of correspondents are required in order for the research project to be credible and reliable (Vdorhees, 2017).

The data to be collected will be the secondary data which can be found from the organization. Hence, no specific method of data gathering that will be deployed. The data will be acquired within the organization by the researcher (Baskett & Schemske, 2018). The internal secondary data sources include sales report, consumers’ information like gender, contact and age, and business information. While, outside secondary sources include data from governmental departments, libraries and business journal on certain industry. In addition, techniques like mail survey and online research can be used (Baskett & Schemske, 2018). The sources of data collect selected are the most appropriate and more accurate when used.  

As observed by Coffee, Sale and Henderson (2015) is that data analysis is a process of reviewing, transmuting as well as demonstrating of information or data with an aim of determining the useful suggestion and conclusion from the information collected. In examination of data the researcher have to understand the organizational business problem (Cash, 2015). The examiner have to select an appropriate measurement capabilities which include what to be measured and how to measure it. From, the questions an investigators has to understand the data gathered before scrutinizing information, examined the data and finally, deduce the outcomes of the research (Coffee, Sale & Henderson, 2015).

According to Hobday et al (2016) is that ethical implication can be divided into two elements; implication and ethical. Implication is defined has the penalties of an action or proposed accomplishment while ethical are what guidelines to an individual researcher. The ethical implications which will be considered in the research include not voluntary participation and information agreement, concealment and inconspicuousness of the partakers and protection of the information has deduced by (Ary et al., 2018). The principle of voluntary and data agreement addresses that subjects can be selected to participated in the research project at their own-free will. It also make sure that subjects have been well-informed about the procedures of the inquiry and, the prospective risks linked to the research (Hobday et al., 2016). Concealment and inconspicuousness of the subjects either organization or individual will also be protected during the research period by maintain the privacy principle of the research term. Conversely, the information gathered will only but used in the study. The action to addressed information protection will be to put the data away from unauthorized persons who may intended to use the information to demoralize the participants (Ary et al., 2018).

Identify other Variables which Hypothesized to Influence


Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Irvine, C. K. S., & Walker, D. (2018). Introduction to research in education. Cengage Learning.

Baskett, C. A., & Schemske, D. W. (2018). Latitudinal patterns of herbivore pressure in a temperate herb support the biotic interactions hypothesis. Ecology letters, 21(4), 578-587.

Brace, I. (2018). Questionnaire design: How to plan, structure and write survey material for effective market research. Kogan Page Publishers.

Cash, T. F. (2015). Multidimensional Body–Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). In Encyclopedia of Feeding and Eating Disorders (pp. 1-4). Springer Singapore.

Coffee Jr, J. C., Sale, H., & Henderson, M. T. (2015). Securities regulation: Cases and materials.

Donnarumma, F., Costantini, M., Ambrosini, E., Friston, K., & Pezzulo, G. (2017). Action perception as hypothesis testing. Cortex, 89, 45-60.

Greenwood, M., & Freeman, R. E. (2018). Deepening Ethical Analysis in Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-4.

Hamid, K., Suleman, M. T., Ali Shah, S. Z., Akash, I., & Shahid, R. (2017). Testing the weak form of efficient market hypothesis: Empirical evidence from Asia-Pacific markets.

Hobday, A., Ling, S., Holbrook, N., Caputi, N., McDonald Madden, E., McDonald, J., & Munday, P. (2016). National Climate Change Adaptation Research Plan: Marine Biodiversity-Consultation Draft for review.

Jonathan, A., Seth, D., Terry, R., Michael, E., & del Rio, M. (2017). Isotopic niches support the resource breadth hypothesis. Journal of animal ecology.

Keith. S., & Krosnick, J. A. (2018). Questionnaire design. In The Palgrave Handbook of Survey Research (pp. 43-55). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Krosnick, J. A. (2019). Questionnaire design. In The Palgrave Handbook of Survey Research (pp. 439-455). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Lee, W. W. (2018). Ethical Computing Continues From Problem to Solution. In Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition (pp. 4884-4897). IGI Global.

O’mara, A., Rowland, J. H., Greenwell, T. N., Wiggs, C. L., Fleg, J., Joseph, L., ... & Bray, R. (2017). National Institutes of Health Research Plan on RehabilitationNIH Medical Rehabilitation Coordinating Committee. Physical therapy, 97(4), 404-407.

Rack, J. P. (2017). Dyslexia: The phonological deficit hypothesis. In Dyslexia in children (pp. 5-37). Routledge.

Sahin, M., Henske, E. P., Manning, B. D., Ess, K. C., Bissler, J. J., & Klann, E. (2016). Tuberous sclerosis complex working group to update the research plan. Advances and future directions for tuberous sclerosis complex research: recommendations from the 2015 strategic planning conference. Pediatr Neurol, 60, 1-12.

Schönbrodt, F. D., Wagenmakers, E. J., Zehetleitner, M., & Perugini, M. (2017). Sequential hypothesis testing with Bayes factors: Efficiently testing mean differences. Psychological Methods, 22(2), 322.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Sigler, M. F., Eagleton, M., Helser, T. E., Olson, J. V., Pirtle, J. L., Rooper, C. N., ... & Stone, R. P. (2017). Alaska Essential Fish Habitat Research Plan: a research plan for the National Marine Fisheries Service's Alaska Fisheries Science Center and Alaska Regional Office.

Van Aken, J. E., & Berends, H. (2018). Problem solving in organizations. Cambridge University Press.

Vdorhees, E. M. (2017). The cluster hypothesis revisited. In ACM SIGIR Forum (Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 35-43). ACM.

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