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Early Forms of Tourism


Discuss About The Fundamentals Of Hospitality And Tourism?

Tourism comprises of activities of individuals who travel and stay in places that are outside their common environment for no longer than one successive year in respect of leisure, business as well as other reasons. It is having the involvement of dislocation outside the general environment. The purpose of this assignment is identifying the nature of tourists in the world as well as in New Zealand. The push and pull factors are playing a pivotal role in respect of tourism. The push factors are considered being the internal factors that assist in forming the desirability to travel within potential tourists whereas the pull factors that are considered as the attractiveness of the place as recognized by the traveller, and they are prone to assist the traveller in making a real choice for a destination.

Early Forms of Tourism

Early tourism is having two forms that include travel regarding business like trading as well as religious level. There occurred the facilitation of travel as well as exchange of products through the invention of money, writing as well as wheel by the Sumerians in 400 BC. Regarding this time, travel was also taking place due to certain private reasons, like the Olympic Games that were held in 776 B.C. by the Greeks (Barreda, 2016). The Roman travellers travelled for feeling enjoyed as well as for visiting the friends and relatives. The Roman travellers were majorly supported by enhancement in communications, first class roads as well as inns (Eggar, 2016). Religious travelling occurred as pilgrimages to the places of worship. Pilgrimages occurred for the fulfilment of a vow regarding the aversion of the dangers from a certain kind of illness or as penance in respect of sins.

With the Renaissance, there occurred the development of a few well-known universities because of which, there occurred the introduction of travel in respect of education mostly by the British. In the 16th century, travel for education gained popularity (Lee, 2016). With the passage of time, it was recognized that a gentleman’s education need to be completed by a “Grand Tour” regarding the continent’s cultural centres that lasted for three years. In the early 16th century, Grand Tour was used. Although, it appeared in the beginning to be educational but with the passage of time, it turned out to be social. Pleasure-seeking young men travelled in a leisurely manner majorly through Italy and France for enjoying the cultural aspects as well as social life of Europe, and the major attractions included Venice, Paris as well as Florence (Hudson, 2017). By the end of the 18th century, there has occurred the institutionalization of this practice in respect of the society’s upper class.

Tourism in the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution brought about significant changes regarding the type as well as scale of growth regarding tourism. It helped in bringing not just improvements regarding the technological aspects but regarding necessary social changes as well, which made travel to be a desirable activity for recreation. The changes that occurred resulted in the rise in productivity as well as regular employment. Also, rising urbanization provided more individuals with the motivation as well as scope for going on a holiday. The changes helped in the emergence of the middle class that did the combination of the higher incomes as well as rising education into annual holidays (Eto, 2015). For escaping from their responsibilities as well as the crowded environment in the cities, people started travelling to the countryside or seashore on holidays.

The introduction of trains as well as the progress of steam power has both boosted the travelling. Along with the creation of additional business through the offering of trustworthy as well as low priced transportation, the railroads also helped in creating increasing amount of competition as different private organizations did a heavy investment in hotels, resorts as well as regarding the facilities for entertainment (Nair, 2015).

The use of steam power offered the growing mobility required by the tourism business. The steamers on the major rivers offered authentic as well as low priced transportation that led to the famous day-trip cruises as well as the development of coastal resorts near large industrial towns. There occurred the emergence of the travel establishments and Thomas Cook is considered as the first travel organization (Breakey, 2014).

With the 19th century, drawing to a close, photography as well as guidebooks started gaining popularity. A large number of guidebooks that were dealing with the domestic as well as overseas travel were getting sold to the tourists. The most famous amongst these was Baedeker, whose first publication came out in 1839 and gained popularity in becoming the foremost guide in respect of the countries of Europe. In the current scenario, Lonely Planet as well as Berlitz is considered being the modern kinds of guide books (Kim, 2017).

At the beginning of the 20th century, there occurred new types of mass communication, which did the stimulation of inquisitiveness regarding different countries. There occurred the decline of the railways as a way of travel with the motor car getting introduced. The seaside tours gained popularity because of the motorized public road transport as well as better conditions of the roads. The Second World War also gave rise to the growing interest regarding travel. The war resulted in introducing combatants not just to the new countries but also to the new continents that resulted in the generation of new friendships as well as interest in various cultural aspects (Rosa, 2016). The hotels also did the devising of their individual programs of short-stay holidays in respect of the private motorists. There also occurred a substantial increase in the demand regarding hired cars for overseas holidays.

Development of Guidebooks and Mass Communication

Tourists are attracted towards New Zealand due to the lush natural brilliance of the country. There are huge ranges of beaches, mountains, volcanoes, forests as well as subterranean caves (Joppe, 2016). New Zealand comprises of various famous landmarks within the country, which are mentioned as follows:

This is situated in Auckland and is standing at a height of 1,076 feet and considered to be the tallest building in New Zealand. Many activities can be done here such as taking a walk around the SkyWalk at 629 feet or taking a glass elevator to one of the three viewing platforms, booking a table at Orbit, which is a revolving restaurant. Bungee jumping can also be tried out from their 629 foot pergola (Ivanov, 2017).

This is considered being one of the tallest volcanic peaks in the Auckland city. It is also regarded as a sacred memorial ground in respect of the Maori settlers. It used to have only one individual totara tree at the top but during the late 1800’s, it got replaced by a pine tree. During the end of the 20th century, the tree got destroyed twice and at present, a tree does exist (Yeh, 2013).

The location of this building is in Wellington and the parliament building of New Zealand. It is regarded as the country’s national symbol. A Scottish architect did the designing of a 10-storey building in the shape of a real beehive. Here, we can find the offices of the Prime Minister as well as offices of the other members of the cabinet (Xiang, 2015).

This can be found in South Island’s Otago coast. The perfectly spherical formations of these rocks cannot be considered as boulders in the technical sense but concretions whose exposure is done through erosion. As per the legend of the Maoris, this is a considered being the debris from a massive canoe. Tourists that are coming to see this historical landmark are given the permission for touching as well as climbing on the rocks (Page, 2014).

This terminology is regarded as ‘King of Forest’ in Maori and is considered as the biggest kauri tree in New Zealand. It is estimated to be approx. 2300 years old and can be found by hiking through the Waipoua kauir Forest Sanctuary on the North Island.  

To discuss regarding the general nature of the tourists around the world certain aspects need to be taken into consideration such as motivation of tourists, types of tourists, reason for travelling as well as the Push and Pull Factors.

Famous Landmarks in New Zealand

The Theories of Motivation in respect of travelling does the classification of two forces of motivation such as ‘Wanderlust’ as well as ‘Sunlust’. Also, the basic travel motivation can be divided as Physical motivators, Cultural motivators, Interpersonal motivators, as well as status and prestige motivators.

These are associated with rest, participation in sports, the requirement for recreation at the beach, as well as those motivators that are having direct connection with an individual’s bodily healthcare like spas, baths and so on. With the help of the physical factors, there occurs the reduction in tension (Lee, 2016).

These motivators are having the relation with the desirability of the traveller in learning about different countries as well as their art, music, dances, traditions, religions and so on.

These motivators are associated with the desirability for meeting new individuals such as friends & relatives and escaping the tremendous work pressure in everyday life (Murphy, 2017).

These motivators are related with the requirements in respect of esteem as well as individual growth. Such motivations are considered as the desirability in respect of getting recognition, attention, power as well as appreciation.

Tourists are considered having different personality traits such as being psychocentrics, mid-centric as well as allocentrics.

The psychocentrics or people concentrating upon their individual self are inhibited as well as not adventuresome. These kinds of tourists are not having the propensity for experimenting with accommodations, food as well as entertainment (Keller, 2016). The psychocentrics are having the expectation regarding the kind of food as well as activities they would like to have and for these type of tourists, safety as well as security plays a pivotal role (Ivanova, 2016).

The mid-centrics are considered to exist within the psychocentrics as well as the allocentrics. The tourists that are having the mid-centric personality are not considered being adventurous in particular, however, they are not afraid of trying new experiences as long as these are considered being neither very much odd nor very much challenging. These kinds of tourists are constituting the mass market or the mass of the population.

The allocentrics or individuals that have the interest as well as attention on other individuals are regarded as having high curiosity as well as thriving on getting stimulated as well as the changing aspects. These kinds of tourists are having the tendency for accepting the challenging aspects, meeting with the residents, trying out local food as well as drinks and staying in lodgings in the native places.

These are considered being the internal factors that assist in forming the desirability to travel within potential tourists. To be specific, these are considered being the socio-psychological factors that are motivating or creating desirability for satisfying the requirement for travelling. As a result, under the impact of push factors, tourists who travel are not necessarily having choices that are considered being specific as well as having clarity (Ryan, 2016).

The pull-type tourists get motivated for travelling in regard to their insight, anticipation as well as information regarding the place. Due to this, tourists who travel under the effect of pull factors are always having a clear choice of destination (Dopson, 2016).

In the region of Northland, the top tourist attraction places are Bay of Islands, Waipoura forest, Tane Mahuta, Waitangi Treaty Grounds as well as Haruru Falls. In Auckland, the major attractions are Waiheke Island, Auckland War Memorial Museum, Rangitoto Island as well as Auckland Harbour Bridge. In the region of Waikato, the major attractions are the Waitomo Caves, Hamilton Gardens, Waikato Museum, Bridal Veil Falls and Cathedral Cove. In the region of Bay of Plenty, the major attractions are Waitapu, Lake Rotorua, Kaimai Mamaku Forest Park and Mount Maunganui. In the area of Wellington, the major places of attraction are Wellington Botanical Garden, Wellington Museum, National War Memorial.

In the regions of South Island, Marlborough is having the major places of attraction such as Marlborough Sounds, Cloudy Bay, Wither Hills Farm Park, Waihopai Valley and Queen Charlotte Sounds. In the region of West Coast, the major places of attraction are the Fox Glacier, Franz Joseph Glacier, Paparoa National Park as well as Lake Matheson. In the region of Canterbury, the major areas of attraction are Lake Tekapo, Aoaraki Mount Cook National Park, Canterbury Museum, Christchurch Botanical Gardens, Christchurch Cathedral, and Southern Alps. In the region of Otago, the major places of attraction are Lake Wanaka, Lake Wakatipu and Queenstown (Fong, 2016).

The countries where there are top visitor arrivals are Australia, USA, UK, China as well as Germany.

In respect of Australia, it can be stated that Australia did the welcoming of 8.5 million international tourists in the year ending June 2017. The international visitors who visited Australia did a spending of a record $39.8 billion in the year ending March 2017.

In the UK, the purposes of journey for the tourists were mainly in respect of holidays, businesses, studies and VFR. According to a survey that was conducted in 2016, there was 13.90 m visit for the purpose of holiday, 9.19 m visit for the purpose of business, 11.57 m visit for the purpose of VFR.

In the US, there has been an increase in the outbound travel by 3% and the long haul travel grew by 6%. According to a survey that was conducted by a renowned tour operator, 83% of the respondents of the survey are planning to take at least one vacation with the members of the family. Also, 37% are planning to take a multi-generational family trip.

In China, 40% of the travellers are considered as group travellers, who travel once every 2 or 3 years. 35% of the travellers are considered as semi-independent travellers, who travel frequently in a year and plan certain organized programs (Mohammed, 2015). Majority of time they are considered to be between 25 and 35 years of age. 25% of the travellers are independent travellers, who are travel by themselves and are aged between 20 and 25 years.

In respect of Germany, the travel trends that are expected prior to 2020 are to gain attention from the millennial travel market, a rise in longer stays, increased attention to the lesser-known places in Germany, a growth in user-generated content for marketing the country.

In the past few decades, the hospitality and tourism industry has witnessed significant changes. The changes can be aligned with many factors; however, globalisation in specific has largely influenced the trend. The allowance of free trade by the North America and the European countries has enhanced the accessibility level to people from different parts of world with their different purposes of visit. This has in particular eased out all the transactions related to financial terms. It has boosted and encouraged the foreign investments for different purposes such as for the construction of hotels, malls and multinational companies. It has helped in restructuring the hospitality industry (Mowforth & Munt, 2015).

It has brought many changes in the hospitality and the tourism industry. The first and foremost change is the purpose of visit. The purpose of visit has largely changed the picture of tourism industry nowadays. In the past days, people use to go to different places just to have some chill out days; however, they have now many different reasons. They are moving to other countries for pursuing higher studies. They are also moving for business such as for opening up a new subsidiary office. A large group of people are moving to the different parts of world for heath treatment purpose (Horner & Swarbrooke, 2016).

The second change is the cultural integration. Different countries have now their focus on integrating different other cultures at just one place. One of such example is opening up an Asian food restaurant in North America and the European Countries. They are highly inclined to this as they see this as a potential option to attract and retain the foreign visitors (Zaei & Zaei, 2013).

The third change is the perception of the local government for the foreign visitors. The local government in different countries have now realised the potentiality of the tourism and hospitality sector. This has perhaps emerged as one of the potential options for improving the GDP growth of the concerned country. Governments now understand the importance of tourism sector, which is why they put their high focus on developing the tourism sector. They have high focus on the tourism infrastructure, which also means that they are highly open to foreign visitors. Such trend is expanding in its growth with the passage of time (Nunkoo, 2015).

There has been a dramatic change in the distances that people travel today. In the past, people use to cover only few miles. However, this has gradually transformed into big coverage of distances. The advent of trains has further progressed the travelling distances. People started preferring to go to a larger distances as they can now travel at a relatively faster speed to reach to a distant locations. The advent of aeroplanes has revolutionised the purpose of visit. People have now options to travel to a location, which is at high distance. With the advent of various new technologies in aeroplane, people can now visit to anywhere in the world. They just need to have the required budget and the purpose for visit (Scheiner & Holz-Rau, 2013).

Few global destinations are emerging centres for tourism. Poland in Europe is gaining in popularity because of its status as meeting hub. The strengthening economy has also contributed in the fact. Portugal is another name, which is also one of few locations that are widely popular as meeting place. Azerbaijan is the other name, which is strongly preferred for its development as a meeting place and the tourism industry. The country has large number of historical places, which is attractive and appealing as well. The local government is widely keen also in the development of tourism industry. On a same note, Oman in the Middle East is the emerging market for tourism. The high-end development of the country in terms of infrastructure and tourism sector has helped the country emerged as one of the potential destinations for tourism. The development of the Oman Convention & Exhibition Centre is noteworthy in this context. In Asia, China is one of the highly emerging locations as far as tourism is concerned. This is a place where numerous organisations are headquartered. It has become a widely appealing financial sector. Apart from these locations, some other places are in the list of emerging destinations for tourism. Such locations are Colombia & Panama from South America and Melbourne & Brisbane from Oceania (Cohen & Cohen, 2015).


 The assignment is on the Hospitality and Tourism industry. It has in brief covered the picture of the tourism industry in the past. It has also presented the tourism industry of current. The term tourism has started gaining in popularity in the early 19th century. In the Renaissance Era, there started the construction of universities in Britain, which also marked the travelling for education purpose. The 19th century marked a revolutionary start for the trains. This has resulted in booming success of the tourism and the hospitality industry. New Zealand is famous for lush green natural scenes. The natural scenic beauties along with the other landmarks have stood this place in the list of those few locations, which are small but powerful. Various motivational factors encourage people for global visit. One of such motivations is the purpose of visit. Some has to pursue the higher education whereas some has to do business meetings. Fulfilment of different personal reasons is the one reason that has motivated the people for foreign visits. Australia, UK, USA and Germany are the most developed tourist destinations whereas China is a high emerging destination for tourism. There have been few significant changes in the tourism industry. Such changes are purpose of visit, integration of foreign culture at local community and the local government perspectives for the foreign visitors. The pattern of travel has also witnessed a drastic change. Initially, people use to travel a very minimum distance but now with the advent of aeroplane, they are even moving to such places that are thousands of miles away from them. The highly growing global destinations for tourism are Poland, Portugal and Azerbaijan in Europe, Oman in Middle East, South Korea and China in Asia, Colombia and Panama in South America and Melbourne & Brisbane in Oceania.


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