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This assignment has to be done in international construction.

These days the evolution of the project team is one of the biggest challenges in successful implementation of the project, as the people come from different background and experience, sometimes their mind-set and ideas maybe different , so putting all of these people on a project can challenge the success of the project.

This report clearly explains about how human factors are important in international project management and what are the tools and techniques that should be used by the project manager to understand and respond to the behaviour of team members.

Investigate how management abilities and organisation skills of the manager plays a key role in deciding the destiny of the project and also how the aspects of the human factors affect the interpersonal skills of the workers involved.

Success factors of a project

Human factors has been an important element in every field of work. The project management include various factors for its failures and success.  The human factor has been playing a critical role in affecting the project management. The evolution of the project team has been a major challenge in proper implementation of the project in the market. The use of the human factors have helped in different ways in the success of the project.

This report deals with the various aspects of the human factors in the project management to process. The use of the human factors in managing a project has been discussed in the report. Different told ad techniques have been discussed in the report that helps in responding to the team members by the project manager.

This report outlines the abilities of a manager to manage a project team in various situation. Various skills and abilities of a project manager has been discussed in the report. The report focuses on the role played by human factors in the success or failures of a project in the market.

The main variables that contribute to the success of a project can be considered as the success factors of the project. These success factors are regulated by the project manager for increasing the chances of success of project. Various combination of factors can led to success or failure of a project in market (Courtney 2013). Various critical factors are responsible for the success of the project in the market. One of them is the human factors. The team members ibn the project team plays an important role in the success of the project. The abilities of a project manager to guide and control them is an important part of it. The team members helps in maintaining a proper procedure for the success of the project. Different international project in the global market have changed the scenario of business in the market. The project management studies have been increasing in the research studies that have helped in understanding various factors for the success of the project. As suggested by Sanz et al. (2016), project management consist of abilities of a project manager to monitor and control the tem, stakeholder’s perspective and acceptance of project by the customer. These factors includes proper communication skills, time management, budget and acceptance. The human factors has been a critical factor in the project management. A proper team member helps in maintaining a proper approach towards the completion of the project in the market. The team members in the project might change perspective of project manager towards the success of the project (Alias et al. 2014). The basic human psychology play an important role in affecting the performance of the team members in the team.

Case studies on the influence of human factors in project management

One of the example of influence of human factors in project management is about Verizon Company. The company has a vision to provide best online service to the customers. Therefore, the company chose HFI training for its e-commerce team. The company connected wireless and telecom websites. Therefore, it creates problem as these have different interface for the customers in the market. This integration created an opportunity for the company to re-launch the online service for the customers (Riol and Thuillier 2015). However, the team was able to perform and integrate these services together. The HFI training helped in training their team members of this project by enhancing their skills in different fields. The team members were provided with special training on their skills and knowledge regarding success of the project. After that, Verizon won the Organisation of Support Professionals 12th Annual “Ten Best Web Support Sites”. This have resulted in huge success of the project. Therefore, in this project human factors have helped in the success of the project after facing challenges in the mid-way (Schwalbe 2015). The use of training provided by the HFI have helped in maintaining the objectives of project. The company was benefitted both by financially and enhanced brand image in the market. The success of the project was a big lead for the company in the market, the project manager have helped in maintaining the team members. The role of the project manager have been much critical. The time management and budget control have been performed by the project manager.

The second case study belongs to the Port of Felixstowe, which is one of the largest container ports in Europe. An accident occurred in 2014 by the freight operators on the Port. The commissioned RSSB found external human factors to be the cause of the accidents. The commission found that human factors have been responsible for the failure in the project. Human factors specialists have used human reliability assessment to understand, and support decision making in relation to, human performance and system safety (Popaitoon and Siengthai 2014).

The analysis of the social and cultural factors in the success of the project has been critically influenced. The development of the project in the organization can be managed by the social factors in the environment. The social aspects of the human factors has been continuously influencing the success of the project in the market. Human is a special animal and requires live in a social environment. Therefore, there has been a great effect of the human factors in project management (Carayon 2016). The use of the skills and knowledge of team members have helped in maintaining the success rate of the project in the market. The abilities of the team members and managerial skills of the project manager helps in the success of the project. Individuals who have worked under various culture, political and organizational boundaries have experience of maintaining a team spirit along with the team members. Communication skills have played an important role in maintaining a transparency in working within the team members (Khan and Rasheed 2015). A proper communication among the team members and project manager helps in providing a transparent channel for initiating proper project management in the team.

Cultural and social aspects of human factors

The cultural diversity of the team members creates challenges for the team to perform in a project. There are various types of individual from different places, religion and culture in a team. The difference in the mind-set and background of the people in the team creates issues in the team. This creates a critical situation in the team regarding the personal disturbances in the team. The ideas and thoughts provided by different team member causes clash among the team members therefore, disturbing the process of project towards success. The conflict among the team members have been a critical issue in managing the team (Sanz et al. 2016). The recognition of the senior member in the team helps in learning new things related to the project. Therefore, the social aspects of the human factors helps in educating different team members in the project team. The analysis of the factors that are affecting the success of the project has been properly maintained by the project manager of the organization. In both case studies, the project manager have played an important role in maintaining the challenges faced by the companies in the market (Pasian, Feldbrugge and Sankaran 2017). In the first case, the project has been a big success in the market with the help of efforts made by the project manager in the team. The human factors have successfully implemented in the project for the success of the project in the market. The contribution of the human factors in the project have helped in maintaining the success rate of the company in the market.

The business development of the companies are depended on the successful completion of the projects by the company in the market. The successful implementation of the projects in the market helps in increasing the brand image of the company (Helmreich, Klinect and Wilhelm 2017). The use of the new tool and techniques by the company for the completion of the projects helps in providing quality project to the client. The use of the technology in various projects have helped in completing various projects within deadline or small amount of time. Therefore, the use of the technical aspects have been positively influencing the success of the project in the market.

The human resource management is an important part of an organization. In this process, the project manager selects team members and assign formal projects to them according to their skills and experiences. The promotion of the team members according to their talent and experience is decided by the project manager (Keegan, Ringhofer and Huemann 2017). The promotion of the employee helps in increasing the confidence and enthusiasm among the team members. The recruitment process in the company is also managed by the HRM department. The management of the human resource in the companies is required for enabling success of the project (Green 2017). The goal of the human resource management is to manage the team members in the project team. The use of the tools and methods to manage the project team helps in maintaining the success of project in the company.

The team management in a company is an important part for success of the project. The team leader is responsible for management of the project team. The goal of the team management is to ensure possible efficiency of the complete project team measuring against staff commitment, customer satisfaction and improvement in the process. The efficiency of the team is measured by initializing knowledge of the personality in the project (Nicholas and Steyn 2017). The motivation of the team managers plays an important role in maximizing the production of the companies in the market. The motivation of team members helps in maintaining the efficiency of the team members in the project. The involvement of the team members in the project are increased with increase in confidence. This might help in enhancing the employment engagement in the company along with the project. The personal experiences have been an important factor in the terms of the motivation (Stanton et al. 2017). The usage of the motivational aspects in the human factors have initialized in maintaining the goal of the company. The business advancement of the organizations are relied upon the effective fruition of the activities by the organization in the market. The effective execution of the activities in the market helps in expanding the brand picture of the organization (Nelson and Staggers 2016). The utilization of the new apparatus and procedures by the organization for the finishing of the organizations helps in giving quality project to the customer. The utilization of the innovation in different activities have helped in finishing different projects inside due date or little measure of time. Subsequently, the utilization of the specialized perspectives have been emphatically affecting the achievement of the project in the market.

Personality Development is the initial one of two similarly vital introvertical forms, focusing on the individual commitment towards achieving the organization targets. SM is committed to the improvement of an identity, individual attitude, capacity and destinations, work and life balance. It is an individual procedure of organization directors, and might be a procedure of each colleague, as well. In the event that we can deal with our own assets well: time, wellbeing, scholarly ability, we can be required to deal with the multifaceted nature of an organization (Browne et al. 2016). The passionate steadiness is an adjust between the social and individual perspectives on one side and situating between the observation and conduct on the other one, is definitive for trust of other colleagues. A positive mentality individual can adjust and convey effectively the inspirations, to the advantage of the organization.

The personality development of the team members have helped in maintaining the efficiency and skills. The personality development includes overall development of an employee including the body language and communication skills (Cicmil et al. 2017). A good personality depicts everything of an employee in an organization.

Conflicts are common thing in a team. The conflict arises in a team due to the mismatch of the ideas and views of different team members in the project. These conflicts might get worse sometime. Therefore, it the duty the project manager to maintain conflict management in the team. The social and cultural factors are responsible for major conflicts in the team. The team members are selected from different religion culture and political areas (Chartier et al. 2017). Therefore, the mind-set of different team members might clash with each other. Therefore, the project manager have to control these conflicts in the team. The conflicts among the team members creates chaos among team that causes delay in the completion of the project. The project manager organizes various meetings and sessions that helps in maintaining the conflict management in the team.

Leadership of the project manager is necessary for managing the team in a correct manner. The conflicts among team members can cause major damage to the completion of the project. A leader helps in providing correct path to team members in the project for its completion (Martens and Carvalho 2017). The use of the leadership skills in the project manager provides better alert towards the situation in the society. The decision-making skill of the project manager is required for providing instant solution to the challenges.

Developing managerial skills is important for managing a team during a project. Development of strong interpersonal skills is required for maintaining the team members. Some of the skills are discussed below:

Technical skills

The manager insured based on the technical skills. The skills and experience of the individual is monitored by the recruitment panel for the selection of manager. Therefore, technical skills plays an important role in being hired as a manager in an organization. Technical skills are prioritized during selection criteria above all other subordinate skills. Technical skills are developed during the job training and experience that is acquired during the technical education of the person (Bourrier 2017). Obtaining of administrative abilities is not simple task. However, to apply the technical skills in the work, experience is required for minimizing the errors in the work. The use of the technical skill of manger help in mitigating the technical problems in the project. The use of the knowledge of manger secure the data and information of the project, mitigate threats, and risk in the project.

Interpersonal Skills

The project manager have to achieve goals and objectives of the organization. The interpersonal skills include motivating others for completion of the project. The ability to motivate other people is required for a manger in the project. This helps in maintaining the efficiency of the employee related to the project (Maurino et al. 2017). The manager plays an important role in monitoring the activities of other employees in the team. The relationship between the team members and project manager is enhanced by interpersonal skills of the project manager.

Conceptual Skills

The top managers are responsible for managing the first-line managers in the organization. The use of the conceptual skills helps in maintaining these managers in the project. The top project manager can handle the low managers to perform well in the project. They used to create new innovative ideas that helps in managing the project team properly. The top project manager have strong analytical skills and strong creative talents for managing team members.

Communication Skills

Effective communication skills played a pivotal role in success of the project in market. A proper communication skill is required at different levels of the management. A clear and concise communication in both oral and written is required by the project manager. The oral communication is important for the project manager, as they have attend many meetings and seminars regarding the project (Kerzner 2017). The communication needs to be simple and not loud. A proper communication between the team members and project managers helps in maintaining a good relationship between them.

Decision-making skills

The decision-making skills of a manager helps in making instant decisions in the project. The use of the instant decision-making skill helps in solving the problem that suddenly arises in the project. The practices that are maintained by the team members in the project is monitored by the project manager. Therefore, a quick decision is required for maintaining flexibility in the project (Stanton et al. 2017). A manager assigns a few errands to other staff individuals, underpins, and mentors them to accomplish wanted outcomes. Managers utilize group and workforce gatherings that is more, different types of correspondence to impart the suitable messages to staff about what is to be accomplished and how. Administrative leadership might vanish with delayering, decentralization, the dispersal of expert and engaged groups; heads are getting to be pioneers utilizing relational aptitudes and building a mental contract with their devotees or, on the other hand they are imparting Management to others with the casual expert which originates from appeal, thoughts and information (Gillard 2017). 'Heads' who just depend on their position control are a vanishing breed. Contemplations of this kind have conveyed various authors to draw clear refinements amongst 'Management' and 'authority'.

A major management assignment is surveying the vital data and information concerning Management conveyance and utilizing this information to settle on choices about how Managements can be modified and made strides. Managers are in charge of the finances accessible to the Management, guaranteeing that these are utilized to create the extreme conceivable benefits for patients and staff. Keeping a firm concentrate on the general objective of the Management and reminding staff, accomplices and customers of this objective is a noteworthy undertaking for managers (Harris 2017). Management includes creating staff/ aptitudes coaching people with high potential, and settling conflicts while keeping up morals and train. Manager of the endeavor ought to be generalist and increase fundamental aptitudes and learning in administrative capacities, for example, arranging, sorting out, driving and controlling. Manager ought to have an outline of fund, advertising and market improvement rivalries (Portny 2017). These regions move toward becoming with development of large business more unpredictable.

The use of the knowledge of project manager helps in proof reading the task done by the team members in the project. The errors in the project can be identified and removed by project manager. The enhancement of little small companies prompts new circumstance, which require administrative abilities. These are the essential arrangements of abilities of a chief, which may be difficult to convert into some learning structure for little organizations (Boyle 2017). At first it is important to call attention to that any endeavor to distinguish all inclusive key abilities required for little organizations cannot be finished and direct because of following reasons:

  • The number of inhabitants in SMEs is tremendous and different
  • The size rises the level of "improvement organize", the more seasoned organization gets, more perplexing and complex it progresses toward becoming and there is requirement for a "superior" aptitudes set

Three regions must be worked out for an abilities Management activity to be discussed:

Workers need to embrace the program as their own, as opposed to as a Management manage, including the workers expecting control of their own proficient improvement. Managers need to surrender some control over worker improvement. Manager must guarantee that workers utilize measurements as an apparatus for proficient advancement, not as a weapon in ferocious rivalry. The use of the managerial skills have helped in maintaining a proper procedure in the project management, which led to the success of the project in the market.  

There can be no debate that manager jump at the chance to consider themselves pioneers since that legitimates their position as individuals appropriate to order. A critic may watch that without the stopping board of that expert supervisors may be not able accomplish their goals. In these conditions, are we watching authority conduct or simply the exercise of Management (Ceptureanu et al. 2017). In the event that directors depend on their formal position and the expert it gives, they are honing leadership; 'initiative' requires the specialist openly given by devotees who enable them to work out their impact. 'Leadership' may take care of business yet it just secures consistence, not the eagerness and distinguishing proof of individuals with a system, which brings the most elevated levels of execution. Management is about sanity, building request from confusion, transforming multifaceted nature and unusualness into schedule, taking care of value-based connections, settling fruitful examples of conduct and keeping up viable working methods.

Management is concerned largely with doing; it is generally here and now; it is assignment centered; it is outer to groups and expert; it gives structure and a system of help for inventive work of organization, which is finished by others. On the opposite side of the coin is 'Management' (Little, B.R., Salmela-Aro and Phillips 2017). This includes considering, visioning, moving, taking a more extended term see, empowering, building connections, organizing and giving a cow during vulnerability and change. It is to a lesser degree a restricted procedure than Management, progressively an adjusted mental contract in which the requirements of the pioneers and devotees are commonly fulfilled. It cannot depend exclusively on formal expert, on control presented from above, just on the individual aptitudes of the pioneers and the power, which supporters will give on them from beneath (Placencia, Franklin and Moore II 2017).

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the human factors have played an important role in both success and failures of a project. The human factors has been discussed properly in the report. The various behavior of the human has been focused. The team members are from different cultures and religions. The challenges faced by the project manager due to the diversity in the team members has been focused. The use of tools and techniques has been prepared in the report. Various skills and abilities of the project manager has been described. The interpersonal a communication skill of the project manager has been provided in the report. The effect of the human factor on the success of the project has been analyzed in the report.

References

Alias, Z., Zawawi, E.M.A., Yusof, K. and Aris, N.M., 2014. Determining critical success factors of project management practice: A conceptual framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, pp.61-69.

Bourrier, M., 2017. Trapping Safety into Rules: How Desirable or Avoidable is Proceduralization?. CRC Press.

Boyle, G., 2017. Design project management. Routledge.

Browne, W., Dreitlein, S., Manzoni, J. and Mere, A., 2016. Two Key Success Factors for Global Project Team Leadership: Communications and Human Resource Management. Journal of Information Technology and Economic Development, 7(2), p.40.

Carayon, P. ed., 2016. Handbook of human factors and ergonomics in health care and patient safety. CRC Press.

Ceptureanu, E.G., Ceptureanu, S.I., Luchian, C.E. and Luchian, I., 2017. Quality Management in Project Management Consulting. A Case Study in an International Consulting Company. Amfiteatru Economic, 19(44), p.215.

Chartier, L.B., Stang, A.S., Vaillancourt, S. and Cheng, A.H., 2017. Quality improvement primer part 2: executing a quality improvement project in the emergency department. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, pp.1-7.

Cicmil, S., Cooke-Davies, T., Crawford, L. and Richardson, K., 2017, April. Exploring the complexity of projects: Implications of complexity theory for project management practice. Project Management Institute.

Courtney, K.L., 2013. Integrating Human Factors in an international research project: lessons learned from the PSIP project. Enabling Health and Healthcare Through ICT: Available, Tailored and Closer, 183, p.162.

Gillard, S., 2017. The Human Element Of Project Management. Contemporary Issues in Education Research (Online), 10(3), p.185.

Green, B.D., 2017, July. When is a Human Factors Review Appropriate? Development of a Human Factors Screening Tool for Nuclear Regulatory Commission Project Managers. In International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (pp. 1-10). Springer, Cham.

Harris, D. ed., 2017. Human factors for civil flight deck design. Routledge.

Helmreich, R.L., Klinect, J.R. and Wilhelm, J.A., 2017, May. System safety and threat and error management: The line operational safety audit (losa). In Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.

Keegan, A., Ringhofer, C. and Huemann, M., 2017. Human resource management and project based organizing: Fertile ground, missed opportunities and prospects for closer connections. International Journal of Project Management.

Kerzner, H., 2017. Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards: a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. John Wiley & Sons.

Khan, A.S. and Rasheed, F., 2015. Human resource management practices and project success, a moderating role of Islamic Work Ethics in Pakistani project-based organizations. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), pp.435-445.

Little, B.R., Salmela-Aro, K. and Phillips, S.D. eds., 2017. Personal project pursuit: Goals, action, and human flourishing. Psychology Press.

Martens, M.L. and Carvalho, M.M., 2017. Key factors of sustainability in project management context: A survey exploring the project managers' perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 35(6), pp.1084-1102.

Maurino, D.E., Reason, J., Johnston, N. and Lee, R.B., 2017. Beyond aviation human factors: Safety in high technology systems. Routledge.

Nelson, R. and Staggers, N., 2016. Health Informatics-E-Book: An Interprofessional Approach. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Nicholas, J.M. and Steyn, H., 2017. Project management for engineering, business and technology. Taylor & Francis.

Pasian, B., Feldbrugge, K. and Sankaran, S., 2017, February. Coverage of ‘human factors’ in project management literature: a systematic journal review. In Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the ISSS-2015 Berlin, Germany (Vol. 1, No. 1).

Placencia, G., Franklin, J. and Moore II, J.E., 2017. Technical and Safety Evaluation of the Southern California Regional Rail Authority Positive Train Control Deployment Project: Challenges and Lessons Learned (No. FTA Report No. 0112).

Popaitoon, S. and Siengthai, S., 2014. The moderating effect of human resource management practices on the relationship between knowledge absorptive capacity and project performance in project-oriented companies. International Journal of Project Management, 32(6), pp.908-920.

Portny, S.E., 2017. Project management for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

Riol, H. and Thuillier, D., 2015. Project management for academic research projects: balancing structure and flexibility. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 7(3), pp.251-269.

Sanz, S., Ciriello, A., Krause, W. and Eisinger, A., 2016. Coordination of I&C Design With the Obligatory Consideration of Human Factors: A Project Management Approach. Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 2(4), p.044503.

Sanz, S., Ciriello, A., Krause, W. and Eisinger, A., 2016. Coordination of I&C Design With the Obligatory Consideration of Human Factors: A Project Management Approach. Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 2(4), p.044503.

Schwalbe, K., 2015. Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

Stanton, N.A., Jenkins, D.P., Salmon, P.M., Walker, G.H., Revell, K.M. and Rafferty, L.A., 2017. Digitising command and control: a human factors and ergonomics analysis of mission planning and battlespace management. CRC Press.

Stanton, N.A., Jenkins, D.P., Salmon, P.M., Walker, G.H., Revell, K.M. and Rafferty, L.A., 2017. Digitising command and control: a human factors and ergonomics analysis of mission planning and battlespace management. CRC Press.

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