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Working of The ATM Device and Its Requirements

Discuss About The International Conference On Human Computer.

Automated Teller Machine (in short, ATM) is an electronic device that is used for withdrawal or deposit of cash between a user and the bank. Since this process involves transaction of huge sum of money, it is mainly done through a secure verification process. The user is generally provided with an ATM card with a number and a PIN. Whenever the user wants to marketing transactions through the machine, he will need to insert the card in the slot and enter his PIN for verification purpose and only then; he will be allowed to proceed. ATMs are fast ways of withdrawal or deposition of cash as the user does not need to visit the banks to make the transactions.

In this report, the mechanism of the working of ATMs has been discussed along with the functional and nonfunctional requirements of the same. Furthermore, a use case diagram and an UML model class diagram have been provided for the representation of the working of an ATM.

Any system has two different types of requirements: functional and nonfunctional. Functional requirements are the active requirements that must be implemented whereas the nonfunctional requirements are to be used for supporting the functional requirements. Similarly, the ATM for Collin’s ATM bank also has a set of functional and nonfunctional requirements that are explained as follows.

  1. When the customer inserts card in the slot, the machine needs to use the card number to get the bank account number of the user.
  2. The ATM must only be in active state when a card is inserted in the slot.
  3. The machine must verify the user by asking for the PIN before any transaction is initiated.
  4. In case the entered PIN is wrong, the system will again ask for the PIN. If the PIN is entered wrong for three consecutive times, the account will be automatically frozen for certain period of time.
  5. The ATM screen should display options for withdrawal, disposal, check account balance and money transfer once the user is verified.
  6. When the user chooses one of the options, the machine should show another window with options for saving accounting or current account.
  7. After selection of option, the machine should ask the user to enter amount to be withdrawn / deposited.
  8. If there is no money inside the machine, the display will show “Transaction Failed” and eject the card back to the user.
  9. In case of deduction of amount from account but no money is dispensed by the machine, the machine will automatically report to the bank so that the user is refunded immediately.
  10. When the transaction is done, an invoice will be provided to the user in the form of digital invoice (account balance display on screen) or paper receipt.
  11. After completion of the transaction, the card should be ejected out.
  12. After ejection of the card, the machine should switch back to idle state immediately.
  13. The screen of the machine can be touch screen but a keypad is to be used to enter PIN and provide other commands like Cancel Transaction by the user.
  1. The ATM machine will consist of a touch screen display, cash box, ATM card reader, keypad, internal printer and a cash dispenser.
  2. The maximum permissible time for recognizing a card is 3 seconds beyond which, the card will be ejected and the user will be asked to re-enter the card.
  3. The user will have three attempts to enter the PIN. Failing this condition will result in freezing of his bank account temporarily.
  4. The machine should have a counting device for counting cash before dispensing to the user or collecting cash from the user.
  5. The ATM cubicle must have CCTV cameras installed for the security of the users.
  6. The system should have enough paper inside for generation of paper invoice after each transaction.

In the use case diagram, there are a number of use cases shown that are related to the transaction of money by the user through the ATM machine. These use cases are briefly explained as follows.

Insert Card in Slot – The user inserts the card in the card reader.

Enter Card PIN – The user enters the PIN after being asked.

Verification of PIN – The machine verifies the PIN with the bank.

Select Account Type – The user selects his account type (Savings / Current).

Withdrawal / Deposit – The user chooses withdrawal or deposit.

Balance Enquiry – The user chooses to enquire about account balance.

Money Transfer – The user chooses money transfer option.

Print Invoice – After transaction is complete, the system prints and generates an invoice for the user.

Of all these use cases, one main use case is determined as the verification of the PIN. This use case is discussed in detail as follows.

Actors: The main actor for this particular use case is the ATM machine and the secondary actor is the bank in which the account of the user is kept.

Use Cases Related to The Working of The ATM

Trigger: The user chooses to make a transaction (withdrawal / deposit) using the ATM device.

Pre Condition: The pre conditions include fully operational ATM device, sufficient cash inside the ATM device and working input and display systems.

Post Condition: The post conditions include disposal or withdrawal of case, printing of invoice and recoding the transaction in the bank account.

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a popular development framework that utilized in various development requirements. This framework is generally followed when the development process is to be carried in several phases that are again arranged in a specific order according to their requirements and interconnected work packages (Bin et al., 2015). It is popular in those development projects that require wide detailing, clear specifications and systematic method of execution. An SDLC process generally includes a number of different phases of the project that are explained as follows.

Initiation – This is the initial phase of the project in which discussions are made regarding the current shortfalls and possible steps to be taken to address such shortfalls.

Planning and Implementation – In this phase of the SDLC, suitable plans are developed regarding the deployment of the new system.

Testing – After the deployment and implementation of the system, testing is conducted to identify problems and errors.

Deployment – After testing is completed successfully, the system is ready for deployment.

Maintenance – In order to run the system for a long time, periodic maintenance activities are necessary.

Now, some of the tasks that are required for each of the design activities of the SDLC are explained as follows.

Environment: The planning and design of the entire operation system of the ATM machine requires suitable development environment that provides the platform for the implementation of the programming (Ebere, Udoka & Gloria, 2015). One of the most popular development environments used with SDLC is Integrated Development Environment (IDE). This environment not only provides development platform for ATM programming but also allows execution of a number of cost effective steps necessary for the system.

  1. Door Lock – ATM cubicles have special types of doors that require entry of the card in the lock slot to unlock the door and allow the user to enter. Once the user enters the cubicle, the door locks itself and will not open until opened from the inside.
  2. Card Reader – This is the slot that reads and verifies the inserted cards and also links them to the bank accounts of the users. Once the reader identifies the card, it will not eject the card from the slot until the entire transaction is completed by the user.
  • Display – The ATM should have a display screen (preferably touch screen) that will show messages, options and instructions to the users.
  1. Keypad – A keypad should be available for the user to type his PIN before performing his actions on the ATM machine.
  2. Internal Printer – The printer will print an invoice once a transaction is completed by the user.
  3. Money Box – This box is present inside the ATM machine and stores cash deposits. Once a user requests for a certain sum of money, the chosen amount is taken and dispensed out of the machine for the user.

User Interface: The user interface of the display should not be too complex and should follow a very basic approach (Kale & Nanda, 2014). The display should show only the required options and the selection of one option will redirect the user to another page.

Database: Managing a database for the ATM is required in order to view the previous transaction records of the user. Based on the last few transaction records from the bank, the system deducts certain chargers (if there is such restriction of chargeable withdrawal if a certain limit is exceeded as per the rules of the Bank.

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Software Methods: The software used in the development of the ATM device includes simple online fund transfer and dispenser software that provides various options to the user based on these requirements (Ahmad, Rifen & Wahab, 2016). The software allows the user to choose between various options like withdrawal or deposition of money, check the overall account balance, and transfer money from one account to another. The software also automatically generates invoice for the transaction made by the user using the system.


In this report, a fair idea has been provided regarding the working of the ATM device and the main requirements for setting up such a device. The entire picture is provided in a use case and an UML model class diagram that depicts the detailed operations associated with the use case. However, it is to be noted that one of the main aspects of the ATM device is its security. Since it is relatively easy to draw money from the ATM devices, they are often prone to attacks from unauthorized personnel. Hence, the verification system for the ATMs need to be further strengthened to prevent access by unauthorized users. Current measures include surveillance inside the ATM cubicle, freezing of bank account after three failed attempts of entering PIN, instant blocking of card in case of forced attempts and others. For the development of a new ATM system, SDLC can be used as the supporting framework that will allow the implementation of all necessary components and softwares along with the connection with respective banks for verification processes during cash transactions to be made by the users.


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