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  1. Different antenna, such as yagi, horn, and cellular antennas, etc. has different merits. Research these technologies in details and pay specific attention to how they are used as well their strengths and weakness. Provide an opinion regarding which antenna types will become the dominant players in the future of medium- and long-distance wireless links [4 marks]
  2. A local engineering group asks you to present your finding of the most recent advanced wireless technologies. Research any THREEdifferent wireless network protocols in details and pay specific attention to how they are used as well their strengths and weakness. What security challenges they are facing? Provide a report of your opinion [6 marks]
  3. Read the following two research papers; please give your critical reflection on the topic of the software-defined wireless network. [ 6 marks]
Horn Antenna

This is a type of antenna that is mostly used in flaring ,this  is the improvement of the radiation efficiency  through utilization of  a wave guide  that has an  a long aperture to form  unexpected cutoff in the gradual transformation of a wave. It is mostly used in UHF and SHF frequency ranges. During the transformation process, the beam is gradually changed to radiation this reduces the losses and   increases the focusing strength of the beam. It works with increasing directivity and reducing diffraction criteria to improve communication process. There are different types of horns antenna this includes, sectoral, pyramidal and conical horns. It has the following demerits and merits in the industry. 


  • Has high and great directivity during transformation of the beams.
  • There are no standing waves during transformation.
  • The impedance and matching of the waves is good.
  • The beam formed has a narrow width.


  • Requires large flare angles.
  • Flare angle within the device is the one that decides the directivity of the   of the wave produces during transformation.
  • Yagiantenna

This the commonly used type of antenna. Mostly used since its has high performance, directivity and high gain. It is made with very many directors that increases the directivity and functioning of the antenna. The reflectors also are placed at the end of the antenna to reflect all the energy in the direction in which the wave is being transferred. The directors also direct the beams or waves to the desired angles. They are mostly used  in  TV reception and where mainly a single frequency is required. 

Yagi antenna has the following demerits and merits. 


  • There is low wastage of power during the transfer of signals.
  • Makes the beam to achieve high directivity hence clear focusing.
  • Has a broader coverage of frequencies.
  • The antenna can be easily managed and maintained without any difficulties.
  • It achieves high gain
  • The yagi antenna is mostly affected by the atmospheric factors like weather change .e.g rainfall hinder the rate in which it receives frequencies.
  • It is also prone to noise.
  • Cellular Antenna

    This are kind of antennas that can be used in conjunction with signal boosters such as amplifiers and repeaters .They can be connected directly   to the cellphone or the adapter of the device .This are low frequency radiations  and small in size .They are made up of die –electric materials which radiations are placed by a process called photoetching. The cellular antennae’s are mostly used in spacecraft applications, aircraft applications, and other devices that have low profile antennas .They a have the following demerits and merits.


  • They are very light in weight hence portable.
  • They are cheap and require low cost in the installation process.
  • They are ease to be installed hence can be used by anybody.


  • They have inefficient radiations.
  • They experience low frequency bandwidth.

The  yaqi antenna will take  over antenna technology in future since  it produces  waves that have high directivity  high gain and  performance .More so there is low energy waste during the transmission process hence  the waves are well transmitted.

Wireless technologies  this  term that encompasses all  devices and technologies that communicate or transmit data over air rather than using  wires .This technology is involved  in cellular communications  and internetworking between computers and adapters that are wireless. There are severally wireless technology they include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WiMAX , and LTE. 

Wireless fidelity is type of fidelity that is based on IEEE 802 family and it is a local area network mainly used in buildings broadband coverage. The access point and mobile stations all share the channel this makes it half duplex.

Yagi Antenna

The radio signals are the key that   make Wi-Fi networking possible. This signal  that are conveyed from Wi-Fi antennae which are then received by receivers such as  computers and cell phones or any network enabled device that is  equipped  with Wi-Fi cards.  When a computer or a phone receives a   signal within the range of the Wi-Fi network normal within 300_500 feets the antennae range. The Wi-Fi card reads the signal thus create a data connection within the network and the device without the utilization of the cord. Access points which are mainly consisting of antennas and routers that are used as both receivers and transmitters. More so the antennae are used in wide area network while routers are used in home networks. 

This network a can also be accessed using Wi-Fi hotspot by installing an access point to an internet connection. The access point transmits the signals over given are which are then received by the Wi-Fi devices such as pocket phones and PCS.The hotspots are mainly placed in area such hospitals or schools where many people are so that they can access the network with a lot of easy.

Although being a good technology its has the following weakness and strengths.


  • It is cheap technology  does involve wires for connection
  • It allows connection of multiple devices within the network.
  • It can be accessed from anywhere within its range rather than the normal working environment e.g offices.
  • Can serve an increased number of users without requiring more wiring  like the wired  networks.


  • They can be easily compromised by hackers due to their encryption weakness.
  • It has a very low speed as compared to wired network.
  • Since they depend on waves they are subjected to high rate of interferences due to change of environmental factors. 

This is short range wireless communication technology that is intended to replace cabling within a small network. The technology uses Ad hoc technology that has a small are network coverage thus can also be called Personal Area network.

The technology employee’s radio frequency for communication between the devices. It makes use frequency modulation that generate waves for communication among the devices. The technology is uniform such that devices that are Bluetooth enabled can easily communicate with each other. The low power connection of Bluetooth offers communication up to a range of ten meters. 


  • Has low power consumption rate
  • It  can pass  through walls
  • It can used for voice and data transfer.


  • Has short range coverage within 10 meters.
  • Has a very low bandwidth compared to Wi-Fi network. 

Wimax is one is one of the hottest broadband technology that is being used today. It provides

 Broadband access to both residential and enterprise customers in a way that is economical. It operates like Wi-Fi network but has high speeds over great distances and support a large number of uses. The network can also be used in area where the wires networks cannot be used since it  has a coverage speed of up 15Mbs  in 3km coverage.


  • Single WiMAX technology can cover   a number of users.
  • Has faster deployment to new users as compared to wired networks.
  • Has high speed of up to  10mbs  within 10 Km.


  • Weather conditions like rain interrupt with the signal
  • Other wireless equipment’s or devices interrupt the network communication.
  • Unauthorized Access

If anybody can connect to the wireless network .This means that he can access anything within the other devices .This make it very dangerous especially when an intruder gets access to the network he or she can get classified information from the devices that are connected to the network.

  • Denial  of service attack

Cellular Antenna

This  threat where by the owner of the network cannot have access to the network since an attacker has blocked him from accessing the network.

Sdn is technology that makes wireless network more dependable and portable by separating the data plans and control plans tasks. Its plays a role in the deploying mobile networks to  network function virtualization for elastic and flexible   positioning of the core mobile networks which can also be called the control panels .Before any deployment of a network SDN encourages the researchers to do more live experiments for high network flexibility  this makes the network to be more manageable. There three branches that make SDN to accomplish its tasks .They include infrastructure layer, control layer and application layer. Utilization of the of the three layers in any network will make it more manageable and flexible. 

Infrastructure layer- This is the layer of the SDN that is made up of the SD-switches. When a   packet arrives to this switch its checked if it is suitable then forwarded to the next switch for processing.

Control layer- This layer that interconnect with infrastructure layer through an open flow protocol .Application layer –many network applications can be developed through this layer. 

Adoption of SDN technology has really  improve the support of  virtualization of wireless network through solving of some issues.SDN employees a  wide set of control logics  that are set of physical resources .This because support of  different logics within a network raises the flexibility and the scalability issues. On the one hand, traffic from a certain instantiation of a virtual operator must be isolated from traffic belonging to a different virtual operator, for security and privacy reasons. On the other hand, changes performed in the virtual infrastructure of an operator must be isolated from the rest of virtual to create steadiness. 

 SDN create s high adaptability flexibility in mobile networks this controls the delay in signal transfer within the network .This also makes the network  to be easily  managed in the control panel task and  data plan.

This kind of networks are designed to offer high rates of data plan to users. They require high cost and of management since they are supposed to be more flexible and dependable .SDN has the following roles in them it handles a larger number of mobile device that is supported by the network. More so it handles the frequent mobility of the many wireless networks within the data plan. Most of the functions that were not easy to be performed long ago in wireless network can now easily be carried out at the control plan part this is all the benefit of SDN.

Wireless Technologies

This  term has the first SDN EPC to be created  it incorporates  high level operators and subscribers   as single flows in network devices  for efficient controlling of traffic flows with the wireless network.

This another technology   that works hand  in hand with  SDN technology where  by some complex network components are replaced with the procel  in order to  benefit the SDN switches. Within such a network all the traffics are monitored with  SDN switched and procel switches .This is a smart way of reducing the  delay  in transfer of signals within a given network. The procel has the following functionalities within network

  • It improves the signals relaying rate
  • It increases the solution for MN0s.

SDN controller is used with open Flow  that is enabled with eNBs  to design an optimal control algorithms for load balancing,  management of inference ,handover and power controlling. The following issues are mainly considered during this process.

  • Identification of  critical time  eNBs.
  • Providing a high performance  computing environment for  handling large data.
  • Handling a large size of small cells within the network. 

Sdn that is enabled with converged networks   designs a complete SDN mobile networks .This is also the proposed WiSa architecture  for SDN  that is converges with EPC and RAN. This technology is propose with various  concepts of data  and control palanes .The technology ia smade up of four components which include the following single network controller (SNC), control plane of eNodeB (cNB), user plane of eNodeB (uNB) and data plane of gateway routers (GR.This have enhance the global virtualization of the networks.

Through design of networks with SDN their new security plans that researchers have come up with .This include the following.

Data plane – there some attacks that may create through use of switches this can be prevented through use of verification and flow rules within the network.

Attacks on the application plane and misuse of the of the controller code and malicious application .This controlled through authorization and authentifaication before any user get access to the given network.

Faulty tolerance in SDN-This is another issue that hinders the flow of mobile network normal caused by controller or application failure.

SDN is more advantageous to wireless networks and mobile in a high-level architecture leveraging on the advantages of the logical centralization provided by SDN. In order to provide end-user proximity based network solutions and applications SDN technology must be implemented in any wireless technology

Bose, P., Morin, P., Stojmenovi?, I., & Urrutia, J. (2010). Routing with guaranteed delivery in ad hoc wireless networks. Wireless networks, 7(6), 609-616.

Balakrishnan, H., Seshan, S., & Katz, R. H. (2013). Improving reliable transport and handoff performance in cellular wireless networks. Wireless Networks, 1(4), 469-481.

Rajendran, V., Obraczka, K., & Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J. (2009). Energy-efficient, collision-free medium access control for wireless sensor networks. Wireless networks, 12(1), 63-78.

Wan, P. J., C?linescu, G., Li, X. Y., & Frieder, O. (2012). Minimum-energy broadcasting in static ad hoc wireless networks. Wireless Networks, 8(6), 607-617.

Zhang, Y., Lee, W., & Huang, Y. A. (2012). Intrusion detection techniques for mobile wireless networks. Wireless Networks, 9(5), 545-556

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