## Overview of the Plagiarism Quiz

Undertake and complete the online quiz covering questions related to plagiarism and referencing. Students may attempt the Plagiarism Quiz multiple times in order to achieve the passing score of 18 from 20. The quiz will remain open until the end of week 9. We strongly encourage all students to complete and pass this quiz prior to submitting other assessments. Rationale To ensure students are aware of plagiarism and referencing standards. Marking criteria Students must obtain a mark of at least 18 from 20 in order to pass this quiz.

Failure in this quiz will automatically lead to a fail grade for the subject irrespective of the marks obtained in all other assessments. Assessment item 2 Assessment Item 2: PeerWise Value: 10% Due date: 23-Mar-2018 Return date: 11-Apr-2018 Submission method options Alternative submission method Task Page 3 of 25 ITC544 Assessment item 1: PeerWise (Value: 10%) Submission Method: Using the PeerWise website Submission Due: 23/03/2018 11:59 pm AEDT Task For this assessment item, you need to register in the PeerWise system. We will be using PeerWise as a place for you to create, share, answer, and evaluate multiple-choice questions with your classmates. You may start by visiting the PeerWise website at :

If you have not used PeerWise before, just click the "Registration" link and follow the prompts. All you need to do is choose a user name (students are advised to use their CSU usernames, if possible) and a password for your PeerWise account. If you have used PeerWise before, simply log in and then select "Join course" from the Home menu. To access the Assessment Item 1, "ITC544 201830", you will need to enter two pieces of information: 1) Course ID = Will be provided by your RESPECTIVE LECTURER in Interact2 Annoucement 2) Identifier = Please enter your CSU Student ID for this course Using PeerWise, please engage yourself in the peer learning and teaching activities with your fellow classmates by posting maximum 10 multiple-choice questions on

(i) the Reading material uploaded in the Page 4 of 25 questions on (i) the Reading material uploaded in the Resource Section of Interact Site (Introduction to computers), (ii) Textbook Chapter 1: Introduction (sections 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 and 1.8), and (iii) Textbook Chapter 2: Data representation (sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6). Furthermore, you need to answer questions and post comments on questions/answers posted by the other students. You discuss the topics with other students using the comments. You can also rate other questions and answers posted by other students or the lecturer. This will assist you and your lecturer assess your readiness for study in this subject. The lecturer may contact you, if you do not engage with this assessment item. Please note

## Assessment Item 2: PeerWise

, you are allowed to post MAXIMUM 10 questions on the three topics. However, there is no restriction on the number of answers and comments you post. Please post quality questions. Please read the following carefully to understand how PeerWise works. About PeerWise PeerWise is a web-based repository of multiple-choice questions with alternatives and explanations written by students as part of their required coursework. Activities in PeerWise include developing new questions, answering existing questions, and rating and providing feedback on questions. After logging in the PeerWise system, the main menu is divided into three sections entitled: : “Your questions”, “Answered Questions” and “Unanswered questions”.

The role of each of these sections is described next. Your questions: This section allows a student to review all of the questions they have contributed to the system. The questions are displayed in a table with columns listing the date the question was developed, the number of responses, and the rating. The table can be sorted on any of these keys. A specific item can be selected from the table, to display details such as how often each alternative was selected and any feedback provided by students who have answered it. There is also a column in the table which displays the perceived difficulty of the question, as rated by students who have answered it.

Another column displays whether or not the question is “suitable”, which occurs when it has a rating greater than 2, and the most popular alternative selected is the correct alternative. If either of these conditions is not met, it may indicate that the question is overly tricky, or contains errors. When creating a new question, the contributor needs to provide a question stem, at least two and up to five alternatives, an indication of which alternative is correct, and an explanation of why that is the correct alternative.

The explanation is shown to all students who answer the question, and serves to assist students who select an incorrect alternative to identify their misunderstanding. Each new question can be tagged with the name of any relevant course topics, which allows students using the system for revision to easily find questions of interest. As soon as a question is contributed, it will appear in the “Unanswered questions” section for other students in the course.Page 6 of 25 section for other students in the course. Unanswered questions: Each question in the system is available to every student in the course.

## Using PeerWise for Assessment Item 1

The unanswered questions are organised into a table that can be sorted by the order they were developed, or by the number of responses they have received, or by the rating they have been given. Once a student selects a specific item to answer, the question stem and the alternatives for that question are displayed. The student then selects the alternative they believe to be correct, at which point they will be shown the correct alternative, as suggested by the author of the question, as well as a histogram of all students’ responses to the question. The explanation provided by the author is also displayed, along with any comments previously written by other students. In addition, a simple metric is used to approximate whether the selected answer is actually correct.

The selected alternative is deemed to be correct if it agrees with the answer suggested by the author, and if this alternative is also the most popular amongst all previous responses. After receiving this feedback, the student who answered the question has an opportunity to rate it and provide open-ended feedback. The rating scale is an integer between 0 and 5, and is expected to take into account the quality of the question, the distractors and the explanation. The student is also able to rate the difficulty of the question as either “easy”, “medium” or “hard”. Once a question has been answered and rated, it will always be available for review by the student in the “Answered questions” section. Answered questions:

All previously answered questions are available and can Page 7 of 25 All previously answered questions are available and can be reviewed at any time. As other students provide responses, the accuracy of the correctness metric improves. The table that displays the answered questions can be sorted by the order in which the questions were answered, by the total number of responses to the question, or by the question rating. A basic leader board is also available, which ranks students contributions.

It was included to provide some motivation for participation well beyond the minimum requirements for assessment. Tables on the leader board display the top rated questions, and rank students on the number of questions they have answered, the popularity of the questions they have contributed, and the popularity of any open-ended comments they have written during the rating process.

Rationale This assessment item has been designed to increase the peer to peer interaction among students as a way to learn and teach each other and to incorporate collaborative learning and teaching. Involving students in the development of questions on topics puts the educational process in focus and empowers students by providing a greater degree of control in reflection, peer assessment, and deep learning. Discussing the construction of questions helps to demystify the assessment of learning outcomes and provides insight into how course objectives are being measured. In addition, providing good feedback is a critical aspect to effective learning. Moreover, commenting and evaluating other students’ questions engages students in a deeper and richer learning experience.

## About PeerWise

This is also an opportunity to self-assess your readirect 8 of 25 an opportunity to self-assess your readiness to engage with this subject. In this assessment task you will be working towards the following learning outcomes: Be able to demonstrate and appropriately use computer organisation and architecture terminologies; Be able to apply an understanding of data representations and calculations to practical situations; Be able to investigate, evaluate and communicate general trends in computing technologies including examples of leading edge developments. Marking criteria Marks will be awarded based on PeerWise system generated reports.

PeerWise generates reports on participation summary, student scores, and student badges. Participation summary: This shows how many questions, answers and comments are posted by all students within a time period. Student scores: As students participate with and contribute to PeerWise, they accumulate two independent scores: a Reputation score an Answer score The Reputation score is composed of three components. The first component is for question authoring, the second component is for answering questions, and the third component is for rating questions they have answered.

A given student's component scores increase whenever the actions of mponent scores increase whenever the actions of other students generally agree with that student’s earlier decisions. In this sense, to accumulate high component scores, a student is encouraged to make thoughtful contributions as early as possible (which are therefore more likely to agree with the decisions that other students make later on). The total Reputation score is calculated using a formula that combines the component scores such that to achieve a high total score it is much better to have good scores for each component rather than a very high score in just one (or two) components.

The lowest possible Reputation score is 1 (every student starts with a score of 1). The Answer score increases every time the student submits an answer that is "correct" (in the sense that it agrees with the author's suggested answer or is the most popular answer) and it decreases each time an incorrect answer is submitted. In general, the Answering score should be very approximately 10 times the number of correct answers that are submitted by the student. Student badges:

As students participate and contribute to PeerWise, they can earn certain badges (Basic badges: A-H, Standard badges: I-P, and Elite badges: Q-Y). The report summarises the number of badges that each students has earned, as well as listing the individual badges. As you write and explain, answer, rate and provide feedback on questions about the the Reading material and the Textbook chapters you will be demonstrating the depth of your learning and engagement related to computer systems terminologies, organisation.

## Marking Criteria for Assessment Item 2

Page 10 of 25 Criteria HD (85%-100%) DI (75%-84%) CR (65%-74%) PS (50%-64%) FL (0%-49%) Participation summary (20%) Students posted ten questions, answered ten questions, and also commented on ten questions or answers. Students posted eight questions, answered eight questions, and commented on eight questions or answers. Students posted six questions, answered six questions, and commented on six questions or answers. Students posted at least four questions, and answered four question, and commented on four questions/answers. Student failed to post at least two questions, or an answer, or a comment on any question/answer. Student scores (40%) Total reputation and score and total answer score are in the top 10% of the score lists.

Total reputation and score and total answer score are in the top 25% of the score lists. Total reputation and score and total answer score are in the top 50% of the score lists. Total reputation and score and total answer score are between 25%-49% of the score lists. Total reputation and score and total answer score are between 0%-25% of the score lists. Student badges (40%) Students earned 5 or more badges in each badge category (basic, standard, and elite). Students earned 3 to 4 badges in each badge category (basic, standard, and elite. Students earned at least 2 badges in each badge category (basic, standard, and elite. Students earned total 3 badges from any badge categories (basic, standard, and elite).

Students earned less than 3 badges from any badge categories (basic, standard, and elite). computer systems terminologies, organisation and architecture, data representation, and general trends in computing technologies. This will be reflected in the scores you receive for each component. The following rubric will be used to award marks for assessment item 1: Assessment item 3 Assignment 1: Data Representation & Digital Logic Value: 15% Due date: 08-Apr-2018 Return date: 01-May-2018 subjectView=true&siteId=ITC544_201830_SM_I 11/3/18, 10L52 pm Page 11 of 25 Return date: 01-May-2018 Submission method options Alternative submission method Task Total marks: 30 Answer the following Questions Question 1 a).

Determine the value of base x if (152)x= (6A)16 Please show all steps. [5 marks] b) Convert the followings: (Please show all steps) [1.5x4=6 marks] i) 0xBED into 3-base representation ii) 3217 into 2-base (binary) representation iii) 1235 into octal representation iv) 21.218 into decimal representation c) Given a (very) tiny computer that has a word size of 3 bits, what are the lowest value (negative number) and the highest value (positive number) that this computer can represent in each of the following representations? [2X3= 6 marks] i) One's complement ii) Two's complement iii) Signed Magnitude

Question 2. Page 12 of 25 Question 2. a) Are these two combinational circuits equivalent? Provide proof of your claim. [4 marks] b) Consider the following logic diagram of a combinational circuit where A and B are inputs and X is the output. Two 2-input AND gates, one 2-input OR gate, and two inverters are used in the circuit. It is possible to reduce some of the logic gates without changing the functionality of the circuit. Such component reduction results in higher operating speed (less delay time from input signal transition to output signal transition), less power consumption, less cost, and greater reliability. Construct a logic diagram of a circuit which does have the same function output. Please show the steps. [4 marks] c) Using basic Boolean algebra identities for Boolean variables x, y, and z, prove.

(50%-64%) FL (0%-49%) Comprehension of data representation and application of computer math calculations All calculations were correct. Appropriate mathematical symbols were used, and all steps/workings were shown. Almost all Calculations were correct except a minor error. Most of the calculations are correct. However, few steps were omitted. The methods used to solve the problem were correct, but there were one or two miscalculations. At least half of the calculations were correct. Some incorrect answers were the result of errors at some stage of the calculation, which propagated with the next steps. Some of the steps showed the basic understanding the numbering system. No attempt or most of the calculations were incorrect. Failed to show the steps of calculation. Either the answers were incorrect or the steps were wrong.

Application of Boolean algebra and digital logic and interpretation of complex circuits The Boolean expressions are correct and minimised. All steps are explained. Correctly Boolean expressions and algebraic calculations were correct, however few steps were not Few minor error in applying the Boolean identities. Could reduce the number of logic gates, but not as much required by More than half of the Boolean expressions were correct. Applied Boolean identities but could not reach The Boolean equation, logic diagram and the truth tables were incorrect and they do not conform to the Please show all steps and mention the identities used. [5 marks] Rationale This assessment task covers topic 2 and 3, and has been designed to ensure that you are engaging with the subject content on a regular basis.

More specifically it seeks to assess your ability to: be able to apply an understanding of data representations and calculations to practical situations; be able to apply Boolean algebra and digital logic to design and interpret complex digital circuits; Marking criteria 14 of 25 Correctly mentioned the Boolean identities. All identities were mentioned accurately. steps were not shown or only minor error. much required by the question. could not reach to the final step. conform to the question. Presentation File naming convention: When you upload files to the TURNITIN for this subject, please use your student ID and Assignment number to name your files. For example, 123456_Assignment1.doc or 123456_Assignment1.docx etc (where 123456 is your Student ID) Please also adhere to the following formatting rules: 1. Please compose the answers in a document file (doc or docx format).

Please do not submit in pdf formats. Please upload the document in the TURNITN within deadline. 2. The first page (cover page) of the document file should have the following information clearly mentioned: a. Your full name b. Your Student ID c. Subject Code (ITC544) d. Assessment item number and name Page 15 of 25 d. Assessment item number and name (Assignment 1: Data Representation and Digital Logic) 3. Each page should have page numbers in “page x of y” format (including the cover page). 4. You DO NOT need to provide any references for any of the questions. Assessment item 4

Assignment 2: MARIE and ISA Value: 15% Due date: 13-May-2018 Return date: 05-Jun-2018 Submission method options Alternative submission method Task 1.(a) The Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and are characterised by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 114, … etc. By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are 0 and 1, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two. We define Fib(0)=0, Fib(1)=1, Fib(2)=1, Fib(3)=2, Fib(4)=3, etc. The first 22 Fibonacci numbers given below

subjectView=true&siteId=ITC544_201830_SM_I 11/3/18, 10L52 pm Page 16 of 25 Fib(11) Fib(12) Fib(13) Fib(14) Fib(15) Fib(16) Fib(17) Fib(18) Fib(19) Fib(20) Fib(21) 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946 Fib(0) Fib(1) Fib(2) Fib(3) Fib(4) Fib(5) Fib(6) Fib(7) Fib(8) Fib(9) Fib(10) 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 Write a MARIE program to calculate Fib(n), where the user inputs n. For example, if the user inputs 7, the program outputs the value 13; if the user inputs 15, the program outputs the value 610; if the user inputs 20, the program outputs the value 6765 etc.

You need to write and run the program using MARIE simulator. Please include appropriate comments to make your code readable.[10 marks] (b) For some values of n, your program will not produce correct results. You can check this by gradually increasing the values of n and checking for the correct outputs. What is the maximum value of n for which your program produces a correct result? Why? Please comment on this [5 marks]. 2.You are designing an instruction set for your computer. All the instructions are of same size (11 bits long).

The size of an address field is 4 bits. You have already designed six 2-address instructions and 30 1- address instructions. How many 0-address instructions still you can fit? Justify your answer. [7 marks] 3. Write codes to implement the expression: A= (B + C) * (D – E) on 3-, 2-, 1- and 0-address machines. In accordance with programming language practice, computing the expression should not change the values of its operands. [8 marks] pm Page 17 of 25 of its operands. [8 marks] Rationale This assessment task covers topics on CPU operation and Instruction Set Architecture, and has been designed to ensure that you are engaging with the subject content on a regular basis. More specifically it seeks to assess your ability to: be able to investigate the internal operation.

the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and describe how it is used to execute instructions; be able to investigate and describe in detail the essential elements of computer organisation including internal bus, memory, Input/Output ( I/O) organisations and interfacing standards and discuss how these elements function; Marking criteria Criteria HD (85%-100%) DI (75%-84%) CR (65%-74%) PS (50%-64%) FL (0%-49%) Simulating and investigating of internal operations of CPU and it's instruction execution The code meets the specification. Code is well documented with comments.

The program produces correct outputs in every input situations. Code meets specification and is well documented with comments. Minor errors in explanationse. Code meets specification. Most of the time produces correct results, however does not produce correct results for special inputs. Little documentation and comments. Code meets specification but has errors in operation. Little commenting. Basic idea is expressed by the codes and explanations.

Code does not meet the specification. Comprehension of internal elements of computer organisation Answers are corrects. All steps are correctly shown. All codes are accurately written. All answers are correct with a minor error. All codes are correct except a minor error. Few minor errors in calculating the address spaces. The steps show the clear understanding of the address space calculation. All codes written correctly however the order were not maintained correctly. The final result is not correct, however the calculations show the basic understanding of the instruction set architecture. More than half of the codes are correct. No attempt or incorrect calculations showing no or minimum understanding of the topic. Codes do not meet the specification.

Presentation File naming convention: When you upload files to the TURNITIN for this subject, please use your student ID and Assignment number to name your files. For example, 123456_Assignment2.doc or 123456_Assignment2.mas (where 123456 is your Student ID) Please also adhere to the following formatting rules: 1. For Q1(a) you need to submit a *.mas file. 2. Please compose the answers of 1(b), 2 and 3 in a document file (doc or docx format). Please do not submit in pdf formats. Please upload the document in the TURNITIN within deadline. 3. You may put the mas file and document file in a folder, compress the folder and upload the compressed file to the TURNITIN. You may also upload the two files separately.

4. The first page (cover page) of the document file should have the following information clearly mentioned: a. Your full name b. Your Student ID c. Subject Code (ITC544) d. Assessment item number and name (Assignment 2:subject. Each page should have page numbers in “page x of y” format (including the cover page). 5. You DO NOT need to provide any references for any of the questions. Assessment item 5 Online Quiz Value: 10% Due date: 03-Jun-2018 Return date: - Length: 20 minutes Submission method options Interact2 Test Task The Online Quiz covers all topics of the subject. The online quiz will be activated on 25 May 2018 and will be closed on 4 June 2018.

You may attempt the online quiz as many times you wish, and the highest score will be taken. Each time you will have 20 multiple choice questions (randomly selected by the system from a large question pool), and you will receive 20 minutes to finish it. Attempting online quiz many times will help you to prepare for the final exam too, as you will have similar type of multiple choice questions in the exam. Rationale This assessment task covers all topics, and has been designed to ensure that you are engaging with the subject content on a regular basis. More specifically it 20 of 25 subject content on a regular basis.

More specifically it seeks to assess your ability to: be able to understand and appropriately use computer organisation and architecture terminologies; be able to apply an understanding of data representations and calculations to practical situations; be able to apply Boolean algebra and digital logic to design and interpret complex digital circuits; be able to investigate the internal operation of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and describe how it is used to execute instructions;

be able to investigate and describe in detail the essential elements of computer organisation including internal bus, memory, Input/Output ( I/O) organisations and interfacing standards and discuss how these elements function; be able to discuss various programming tools available and their relationship to the architecture; be able to investigate, evaluate and communicate general trends in computing technologies including examples of leading edge developments.

Marking criteria The Online Quiz will be marked by the Interact2 test centre system and you will receive feedback after the due date. Marks will be awarded based on your ability to select the best option from the available choices to demonstrate your ability to use computer system terminologies, and identify the essential elements of terminologies, and identify the essential elements of computer organisation and how they function, various input/output systems of a computer,

the various programming tools available and their relationship to the computer architecture, and the application of Boolean algebra and digital logic to the understanding of computer operation. Student will get marks according to the following scales: HD - At least 85% answers were correct DI - At least 75% answers were correct CR - At least 65% answers were correct PS - At least 50% answers were correct FL- Less than 50% answers were correct Assessment item 6 Final Exam Value: 50% Date: To be advised Duration: 2 hours Submission method options N/A - submission not required/applicable Rationale .

The final exam will assess students’ understanding of the fundamental concepts of the subject material; their ability to integrate and apply information from various topics; and to apply their understanding and knowledge to simple scenario problems. Specifically the exam will assess students' progress towards meeting the learning outcomes: be able to demonstrate and appropriately use Page 22 of 25 be able to demonstrate and appropriately use computer organisation and architecture terminologies; be able to apply an understanding of data representations and calculations to practical situations; be able to apply Boolean algebra and digital logic to design and interpret complex digital circuits;

be able to investigate the internal operation of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and describe how it is used to execute instructions; be able to investigate and describe in detail the essential elements of computer organisation including internal bus, memory, Input/Output ( I/O) organisations and interfacing standards and discuss how these elements function; be able to discuss various programming tools available and their relationship to the architecture; be able to investigate, evaluate and communicate general trends in computing technologies including examples of leading edge development.

Requirements This is a closed book exam. NO calculators are allowed in this exam. The final exam will cover all the subject material. The Final examination consists of two parts, Part A: multiple choice questions (MCQs), and Part B: short answer questions. Part A consists of 25 MCQs. Students are required to answer all of them. Part B consists of four (4) questions. Students are required to answer maximum three (3) of them. Each question of part B will be a combination of a number of short questions selected from different 10L52 pm Page 23 of 25 Criteria HD DI CR PS FL The exam assesses the student’s ability to:

Demonstrate and appropriately use of computer organisation and architecture terminologies, apply an understanding of data representation and calculations, apply Boolean algebra and digital logic to design and interpret digital circuits, investigate internal operations of CPU and other components of a computer and its programming tools, and evaluate and investigate the general trends in computing technologies. Demonstrated comprehensive knowledge to consistently recall accurate facts and apply the relevant ones correctly in context. Analysed and accurately interpreted communication data and information in detail.

Succinctly explained and justified all statements, providing a clear and accurate logical solution. Demonstrated knowledge to recall mostly accurate facts and apply the majority of the relevant ones correctly in context. Analysed and accurately interpreted the communication data and information in detail.

Explained and justified all statements. Providing (for the most part) a clear and logical solution. Demonstrated knowledge to recall some accurate facts and apply some of the relevant ones correctly in context. Analysed and accurately (for some parts) interpreted the communication data and information. Explained and justified most of the statements by relating to aspects of the given context. Demonstrated partiallydeveloped knowledge to recall a few accurate facts and apply some of them correctly in contexts. Analysed and (for a few part) interpreted the communication data and information. Explained and justified at least half of the statements but in many cased used irrelevant or incorrect facts. Listed some facts and little reasons.

Stated some identifications and implications by giving simple observation and or reason that may or may not relate to the given context. Possible Marks 85-100 75-84 65-74 50-64 Less than 50 number of short questions selected from different topics. Please see the sample exam question posted in the Interact site. Total marks: 100 marks, Time: 2 hours writing time, 10 minutes reading time. (writing is permitted during the reading time.) Marking criteria Material provided by the University 1 x 12 page answer booklet 1 x General purpose answer sheet (GPAS) Material required by the student Material required by the student 2B Pencil, Eraser, ruler Writing implements.

Question 1:

a) Given (152)_{ x}= (6A)_{ 16}

- X
^{2}+ (5 * X^{1}) + (2 * X^{0}) = (6 * 16^{1}) + (10 * 16^{0}) - X
^{2 }+ 5X + 2 = 106 - X
^{2 }+ 5X - 104 = 0 - X
^{2 }+ 13X - 8X – 104 = 0 - X(X + 13) – 8(X + 13) = 0
- (X - 8) (X + 13) = 0
- X = 8 and X = -13

Therefore, X is 8.

**(152) _{8}= (6A)_{ 16} **

- b) i)
**BED**= (B * 16^{2}) + (E * 16^{1}) + (D * 16^{0})

= 2816 + 224 + 13

= (3053)_{10}

(3053)_{10} =

**BED _{16 }= (11012002)_{3}**

- ii)
**(321)**= (3 * 7_{7}^{2}) + (2 * 7^{1}) + (1 * 7^{0})

= (162)_{10}

Again, (162)_{10 }=

**(162) _{10} = (10100010)_{2}**

iii) Conversion

**Therefore, (1235) _{10} = (2323)_{8}**

- iv)
**As per given question****21**= (2 * 8_{8}^{1}) + (1 * 8^{0}). (2 * 8^{-1}) + (1 * 7=8^{-2})

= 17 + 0.25 + 0.015625

= 17.265625

**(21.21) _{8} = 17.265625**

- c) i) Negative smallest number for one’s compliment = 100

Positive largest number for one’s compliment = 100

- ii) Negative smallest number for two’s compliment = 101

Positive largest number for two’s compliment = 011

iii) Negative smallest number for signed magnitude = 111

Positive largest number for signed magnitude = 011

Question 2:

- a) After generating the output from L.H.S.

After generating the output from R.H.S.

So, L.H.S. is same as R.H.S.

) The two not gate and the and can be minimized as

Can be represented by

Therefore, finalized circuit is

- c) X’ + Y’ + XYZ’

= X’ + Y’ + (X’ + Y’ + Z)’ [From De-Morgan’s Law]

= (XY (X’ + Y’ + Z))’ [From De-Morgan’s Law]

= (XX’Y + XYY’ + XYZ)

= (0 + 0 + XYZ)

= (XYZ)’

= X’ + Y’ + Z’ [From De-Morgan’s Law]

= X’ + Y’ + XYZ’ = X’ + Y’ + Z’ [HENCE, PROVED]

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